Propriety Ascertained in Her Picture, Vol. 2

Author(s): Elphinston, Mr James



MARTIALIS EPIGRAMMATA, facem (ut uni, ſic
omnibus Poëtis) praeferente I. E. had juſt followed
(in pubblicacion) dhe Ingliſh Verſion and Comment;
hwen a Calledonian Member ov dhe Brittiſh
Parlement, diſtinguiſhed by dhe erly cultivacion ov propiſcious
Muzes, and peculiar taſte for pattriottic Lerning;
inſtruſted and delighted hiz Contry, widh Obſervations
on the Scottſh Dialect. Not contented widh dooing
much, he wood doo more. Dhe yong Philanthropiſt,
To' hoom dhe wit ov Grece and Room waz known;
And evv'ry Authors merrit, but hiz own;
threw dhe juvenile maſterpiece into' hands, alreddy
long dipt in litterary lore; umbly hoping to' render it
dhare, in hwatevver tranſmutacion, ſtil more extenſively
uſefool; hwile himſelf proceded, widh equal induſtry
and onnor, in dhe pubblic ſervice ov dhe ſtate. Dhe
patriot wiſhed indeed, not onely by diſcrimminating dhe
dialects to' reunite dhe kingdoms; but to' render
INGLISH PROPRIETY, firſt acceſſibel in evvery part of
dhe iland, and dhen in evvery quarter ov dhe globe. He
wel knew dhat ſhe cood not becom acceſſibel, widhout
being ſeen; nor cood he but regret dhat miſrepprezentacion,
hwich had hiddherto' kept her unaſcertained at
home, and totally unknown abraud. Not unnatturally
dhen did dhe acute Linguiſt conceiv dhe idea, dhat dhe
ſole Digeſter ov The Principles of the Engliſh
Language*, waz at length dhe moaſt likely to' aſcertain
hwich cood alone preclude amalgamacion.
Dhe gennerous prompter dherfore ov won vollume, and
conſequent promoter ov boath, may by unexampled
moddeſty diſclaim anny ſhare in dhe plan or conſtruccion,
hweddher ov dhe Scottiſh or Ingliſh Syſtem; or ov
* Dhis refers particcularly to' pages 196 and 197, Vol. I. ov dhe work printed
in 1765.
dhe complete Syſtem, dhat at wonce divides and combines
dhem; but he cannot forbid Martialis dhus to'
addres CIRINIUS. II. 103. ord. vulg. VIII. 18.
Si tua, CIRTNI, promas epigrammata vulgo,
Vel mecum poſſis, vel prior ipſe legi.
Sed tibi tantus ineſt veteris reſpectus amici,
Carior ut mea ſit, quàm tua fama, tibi.
Sic Maro nec Calabri tentavit carmina Flacci,
Pindaricos nôſſet cùm ſuperare modos;
Et Vario ceſſit Romani laude cothurni,
Cùm poſſet tragico fortiùs ore loqui.
Aurum, et opes, et rura frequens donabit amicus:
Qui velit ingenio cedere, rarus erit.
Dhy pointed ſhafts, my CIRRIN, woodſt dhou play;
Dhou wel might'ſt rival, or eclipſe my ray.
Hwy to' an aincient frend ſuch revv'rence ſhown?
To' dhee my fame iz dearer, dhan dhy own.
A Maro dhus forbore a Flaccus'
Hwen he cood open more dhan Pindars vein;
And to' hiz Varius left dhe buſkins praiz,
Dho higher he dhe tradgic note cood raiz.
A frend wil oft beſtow goold, goods, or ground:
But hoo hiz wit wil yield, iz rarely found.

Anallyſis ov dhe Scottiſh Dialect.
Varied Vocallity.
Dhe interchainge ov open vowels.
Dhe interchainge ov ſhut ſounds. 3
Dhe interchainge ov open and ſhut ſounds, 5
1 .Dhe ſhut vowels open. 6
2. Dhe open vowels ſhut. 7
3. Ov interchainged licquefaccion. 9
4. Dhe conſequent confuzion. 11
By redundance and defiſcience.
By interchainge 19
Dhe various ſemblance ov licquefaccion 28
Dhe interchainge and ſuppreſſion ov dhe labial
aſpirate 32
L melted or dropt 34
Dhe Greek dialectic interchainges 35
Ov tranſpoziſcion 37
Ov mutilacion and dilatacion 40
In diſſyllabels
In pollyſyllabels 52
In propper names 63
1. noun ſubſtantive 68
2. noun adjective 78
3. pronoun 79
4. verb 80
5. adverb 88
6. prepoziſcion 91
7. conjunccion 100
8. interjection 101
Oddher ſoarces ov SCOTTICISM. 104
Redundance and defiſcience, widh occazzional interchainge
Peculiarrity ov phraze or circumſtance 118
Violation ov Ingliſh Grammar 129
1. in dhe plurallity ov noun
2. in dhe comparrizon ov adjective 136
3. in imperſonal verb
4. in dhe pretterite ov verb 138
5. in dhe auxilliaries SHAL and WIL. 142
6. in dhe diſuſe ov dhe ſubjunctive mood 145
7. in dhe abuſe ov dhe indiccative, widh dhe
impropper interchainge ov pronouns 148
8. in dhe moddern interchainge ov real appropriacion,
and ſeeming concord 151
Terms Teutonnic and Gaulic
Terms Greek and Lattin
Terms and Iddioms French
1. ſubſtantives
2. adjectives
3. verbs
4. iddioms
5. mezzures and coins
I. Ov noun ſubſtantive.
1. diminnutive and augmentative
2. collective
3. abſtrct
4. accion
5. agent
II. Ov noun adjective
III. Or verb
1. ov noun ſubſtantive
2. ov noun adjective
3. ov verb
4. ov adverb 203
5. ov various iddioms 206
1. ſubſtantives
2. adjectives 214
3. verbs 215
4. adverbs 216
5. Terms Eccleſiaſtical 217
6. Tranſpoziſcion
A Digeſt ov Moddern Angliciſm.
Ov extraneous NEOLLOGY. 219
Ov vernaccular NEOLLOGY. 240
1. In term
2. In phraze 244
3. In dialect 248
DIALECT haz, in all tungs, varied according to'
diſtance from dhe center or ſtandard ov Propriety.
If evvery provvince ov Spain, and ov Brittain, differ dhus
from dhe Cappital; Poartugal and Scotland, for obvious
cauz, muſt (reſpectively) make far graiter deviacions
from dhe purity ov LONDON and MADRID. Dheze
deviacions howevver cood affect in ſound, but its three
branches: Vocallity, Articulacion, and Stres. In all
three dherfore haz dhe Scotch varied ſo far from dhe
Ingliſh (if not dhis from dhat), az not always ezily to'
be reccognizabel dhe moaſt aincient dialect ov dhe language.

So mutually ar dhe vowels, az wel az conſonants,
allied; ſom, doutles, more cloſely dhan oddhers; dhat,
more or les accountabel, iz almoaſt evvery interchainge:
particcularlv, dhat ov a and e, e and i, o and a: no
wonder if ov o direct and depreſſive (o and oo), ov oo and
ou; i, oi, and ei; hwich laſt, dho not Ingliſh, waz a
Gaulic and Greek dipthong. Hence hear we, in colloquial
Scotch, mare uttered mere, blaze bleze, complain
compleen, entertain enterteen: widh weigh wee,
weight, litterally wacht; figguratively wite, raddher
Gaulicly weit, in dhe load ov blame: ſo receiv reſave,
or Frenchly recéve; repriev reprive, retriev retrive; ly
lee, child, familliarly chield (or chiel) in dhe figgurative
ſenſe ov fellow; ſlow ſlaw, ſloe ſlae; more mare, home
hame; cave cove, rave rove, lake, loch, or lough; az
low and dough (truly dow) wer Scottiſhly laigh and
daigh. So board boord, o'r our, looſe louſe, and louſe
looſe; brew brow, and brow broo, like dhou dhoo, or
foul and fowl, fool: alſo fire, foir, or (Welchly) feir.
By ſuch chainges hav we ſeen dhe Ingliſh ſtraw becom
ſtrew, dhen ſtrow; chew (Scottiſhly chow widh dhe dipthong)
now chaw; ſhew and ſew, now ſhow and ſow,
widh dhe true vowel and ſervile) fearles ov coincidene.
So became dhe annimal, wonce ew, yoe, or yow widh
no dipthong. Not onely hav oo, and ew, prooved dhe
Scottiſh ou. Au or aw, iz dhe Scotch, az dhe German
dipthong: witnes thaw or author, emitted outhor and thow.
Nay hope may be herd houp, even leap loup; az, on dhe
oddher hand, dhe brow ov a hil iz a brae, and a ſpout
makes dhe Scottifh ſpate, ſwel or inundacion. Oil haz
alſo overflowed into' oul; az edher, not onely into' adher
(and idher), but even into' oudher.
IN like manner dhe ſhut vowels brauden, or vary,
in dhe ſcale ov affinnity: az ten becoms Scottiſhly tan,
ſo tan rizes into' ton or taun ſhort. Teen ſhutting dhe
ſame vowel in tin, tin varies into' ten. So glyn proovs
glen; din, and even dun, den; nit and nut, net; poot
and pit, pet; pet, pat; pat, pot; pot, poat (ſhort), and
ſo on. Evvery ſound becoms dhus anoddher (almoaſt
anny oddher) ſound: hwip hwop, lodge ludge; trudge,
trodge; joggel, juggel or ſhuggel; joſtel, juſtel; ruſtel,
riſtel; ſummer and winter, ſemmer and wonter. Nay
lacking haz becom lucken, chic chuc; cluc (or cloc) clac;
murk, mark; dank, dunk; hang, heng; channel,
chenguel, dhe gravvel from dhe bed ov a rivver. Hwile
defference retained dhe falſe face ov deference, no wonder
dhe Scots, inſted ov opening dhe apparently open
Ingliſh e, (hwich dhey knew not) called in the French
é, to' dheir déference. Nor indeed hay dhey anny objeccion
to' dhe calling ov French aid; ov hwich dhey
hav thaught ſo often to' avail dhemſelvs. Againſt dhe
Ingliſh oo (hweddher ſimpel, or licquidly articculated in
u) and a ſlender, dhe ſoddhern Scots hav garded dheir
dialect widh u and é, equally French; dhe former ov
hwich dhe nordhern found az forrain, az did dhe Ingliſh.
Hwile Eddinburrough, dherfore, uttered boath ſhoo and
ſhe, Frenchly chu; Abberdeen joined Ingland to' prezerv
dhem; dho vulgarly emitting boath, ſhee: won
pronouncing dhus, rood and rude, alike rude French;
dhe oddher, like rid or reed Ingliſh.
BUT dhe Scottiſh ſound, dhat ſwallows all dhe reſt,
open or ſhut; iz (au) dhe univerſal a braud, and firſt
ov all vowels in oddher tungs. Dhus doo main, ſaint,
brave, dare, near; ow, crow, old, fold; far, ſtep, wet,
quit, ſix, and ruſh; proov in true (dhat iz, braud) Scotch,
mawn, ſaunt, braw, daur, naur, aw, craw, auld, fauld;
faur; but ſhort az ſhnt, dhe braud, ſtap, wat, quat,
ſax, (now oftener ſex) and raſh. Own waz dherfore
awn, are ain; az wad preceded dhe Scotch (and Yorkſhere)
wod; dhe now London-wood, wonce would.
World cool not but be warld, and work wark. Worſe waz
war, hwile war waz weir. Yet, az oppozite borderers
interchainge aw and ow; dhe Scots making ſlow ſlaw,
and dhe Cumbrians law low: we ſaw dhe former make
diſtinctively low laigh, and dough (truly dow) daigh;
dhat law and daw might keep inviolate. So, hwen dhe
verb afterward ſtrew, now ſtrow, waz ſtraw; dhe noun
became Scottiſhly ſtrae; if not raddher Frenchly, ſtré.
Hwile dhe ſoddhern Scots varied blue (or dhe French
bleu) into' blae, hwence dhe Scotch blate (from dhe
particippial blaet) and dhe Ingliſh bleak; dhe nordhern
ſlendered, Auguſt into' Aguſt, and becauz into' becaze;
widh dhe like.
But iz not a braud dhe vowel, dhat moaſt natturally
opens dhe human mouth? and hav not dhe dialects ov
Grece ſet dhe Brittiſh dhe exampel ov interchainge?
Did not the Ionnic turn θαυμα (thayma or thauma) into'
θαϋμα, thoyma, dhe now French thoüma? dhe Dorric,
ϖρω̃τοϚ (prôtos) into' ϖρα̃τοϚ (prâtos), and τέμνω (temno) into'τάμνω
(tamno)? Did not dhe Eollic (hwence dhe
Abberdeeniſh) chainge ύ̒ϖαρ (hypar, Frenchly hupar) into'
.ί̔ϖαρ (hipar; in Ingliſh ſound, dho not in Ingliſh Greek,
hepar); and ύ̒λη (hyle), Dorrically ύ̒λα (hyla); ſwelling
dhe aſpiracion to' ſibbilacion, and inſerting dhe Digamma
(Ϝ), gennerate σιλϜα, dhe prototype and parent ov
dhe Lattin ſilva?
NOT more fatal, or les frequent, iz dhe interchainge
ov vowels, dhan dhat ov dheir reſpective quantity: ſo
eſſencially ar dhe Ingliſh open and ſhut ſounds
from each oddher. Az if in circa oppoziſcion to' dhe
language ov LONDON, dhe Scottiſh dialect opens dhe ſhut,
and ſhuts dhe open vowels; dhat iz, beſide altering dhe
eſſence, prolongs dhe ſhort, and ſhortens dhe long
I. Dhe ſhut vowels open.
DHUS canal, rebel, extol, fifteen, April and reſpit,
(reſſpit) open into' canawl, rebahl, extoll; and, widh
inverted ſtres, fifeteen, Aprile, reſpite. So poor next,
jeſt (and even joiſt), arreſt and ſtretch, becom neiſt, jeeſt,
arreeſt and ſtreech; and, hwile a wel braudens into' a
wal; dhe adverb wel ſhuts into' wil; az doz dhe verb
ſhel into' ſhil (peas or beans). Dhus pebbel became
pebel, lord, laird; reward, rewaird; regard, regaird;
garden gairden, az yard yaird, and dazzel
dazel. So crag, nag, and ſtag opened into' craig,
naig, and ſtaig; in oddher orthoggraphy, crague,
nague, ſtague. Alas! prooved more deplorabel in alace!
and want extended even to' wan't, waz not. Braud Scotch
iz but braud, az old Ingliſh: Lodhian and Devvonſhere
agree in maiſter, for maſter (maſſter.) But dhe Ingliſh
outbrauden dhe Scotch pezzants in licquefying myaiſter.
Lad and tic (ticking), hop and ſop, horſe and worſe,
ſum widh ſwim, plumb and thumb; ſup (eat ſupper,
widh ſweep), ſuc, pluc (pimpel), jug and ſpunge;
ſimmilarly, dho variouſly, expanded into' laud and tike
(tiking), houp, ſoup, hoarſe, woarſe; ſoom, ploom,
thoom, ſoop, ſook, plook, joog and ſpoonge. Judge varied
into' juge, widh at leaſt dhe French vowel: but. nordherly,
into' jege, widh e Ingliſh. Duc ſo became duke;
and varying ezily dhe licquefaccion into' dhe aſpiracion,
engendered a jook for a bow. Dhus had dhe Eollic
ſquezed dhe ſlender vowel into' dhe ſimpel (if not dhe
aſpirate) ſibbilacion ov διαβαλλειν (diaballein) in ζαβάλλειν
(zaballein or dſaballein). Hence it iz dhat dhoze ov dhe
North, hoo ſhut not propperly dhe former vowel ov
umbel; and cannot, like dhe ſoddherns, adopt dhe
French u; ſtrain to' open and aſpirate it in humebel, or
natturalize it in hemel. Rip and ſip open Scottiſhly
into' ripe and ſipe; but dhis ripe goes ſomtimes a ſtep
beyond ripping; at leaſt into' ſerching, if not rifelling.
To' ſipe iz to' ſoke thro', az a licquid, dhat makes its
way. To' ſynd (rince) and wynd (bend) ſeem varriacions
ov ſend and ov dhe old wend; az iz tryſte (appoint or
appointment) ov dhe prezzent truſt. Ruſt Scottiſhly
ſwels into' rooſt, hwile dhe Ingliſh rooſt (Scottiſhly)
dwindels dhe oo into' dhe French ſimpel vowel (u).
Regret, opening, alters to' an Ingliſh ear, dhe vowel
and dhe idea in regrate; hwich iz not onely grate aguen
but a cloſe compannion ov foreſtall. Laſh, on dhe
oddher hand, varies a ſhut into' e open in leaſh, hwich
iz indeed Ingliſhly, a combination ov three.
2. Dhe open vowels ſhut.
Az ſacredly doo dhe Scots ſhut dhe Ingliſh open.
vowels; uttering, raddher innering, (or ſhutting, dho
braudening) make, take, braik, crane, trade and blade;
mak, tak, brak, cran, trad; and blad, in dhe Gauliſh
ſenſe ov piece, in anny oddher, bléd, widh dhe French
vowel. Dhe ſame dialect, dhat braudens dhe ſlender,
ſlenders dhe braud. Dhus dhe Inghiſh bald and alder,
(ſtil herd, az wonce ſeen, bauld and aulder) ſhut, Scottiſhly,
dhe ſtrong vowel ov ballance or canal. Reggular
iz dhen dhe inverſion, or interchainge, ov open and ſhut
ſounds. Az crane and crag becom cran and craig; ſo
mapel and appel, mappel and apel; cradel and ſaddel,
craddel and ſadel. Hwile a lady muſt dhus proov a
laddy; lad, alreddy laud, forms dhe ezy diminnutive
laudy. Hware dhe quantity keeps equal, dhe Ingliſh
braud vowel becoms dhe Scottiſh ſlender; and, on dhe
contrary. Az brave iz braw, dawdel iz dadel. If dhe
Scots vary acquaint into' acquent, more warrantably
braudening dhe varied vowel in dhe North, dhan
ſlendering it in dhe South; certain counties ov Ingland
continnue it (at dhis day) acquoint, az dho but juſt
ſprung from accointer. Boath ſides dhe Tweed hav
been miſled, howevver differently, by dhe appearance
ov quality; dhe Ingliſh into' wrong quallity,
often ſlendering dhe braud ſhut vowel; dhe Scots,
into' falſe quantity, opening and extending dhe braud
ſound. Water (for wauter) haz drawn all Scotland
into' watter (won ov dhe Teutonnic emiſſions); but dhe
pezzants ov Lodhian, into' dhe true reading (dhence
ſpeaking) ov dhe falſe picture: for Lodhian-pezzants
can read! But ov London-ſcollars, how manny hav
been provoked onely unto' rath, by like juſt cauz;
hwen, wroth (roth) az dhey wer, dhey might ſinleſly
hav poured out dhcir wrauth (rauth)! Simmilarly doo
dhe Scots ſhut and ſhorten dhe oddher open and long
vowels: making ſeen, ſin; clean, clin; peat, pit;
peach, pitch; beach and beech, bitch; mete az wel az
met, mat; az dhe Inglifh mat runs into' mot, dhat iz,
maut ſhort; hwile dhe Scottiſh maut, long, melts onely
dhe licquid ov malt. So gleede, glad; gripe, grep; ſtripe,
(no les dhan ſtrip) ſtrep; ſmite, figguratively ſmet; dho
litterally ſmeit, widh dhe Gaulic dipthong; climb dherfore
(dhe Ingliſh coincident ov clime) clem; blind,
blend; rote, rot; coat, cot; huge, hudge. But duke
retains dhe licquid in dyuc; hwen he plays not hiz parent,
dhe French duc. Dhus ar dhe Ingliſh duke and
duc Scottiſhly interchainged.
DHE Scots, naming dhe vowel forrainly oo, nevver
prefix dhe licquefier, but hware dhey ſhood not. Hence
book iz byook, byuc, or (Frenchly) buc; and rebuke, rebook,
rebyuc, or (French-like) rebuc. No wonder dhe
ſoddhern Scots adopt dhe French vowel in cure and
curious, if ſo manny Ingliſh provincials drop dhe
licquefaccion in dhe blunt coor and coorious, or even
coorous. If dhe Inglifh hav hiddherto' expected coosſhon
or cooſſion, from cuſhion; dheir neighbors may az wel
(but, alas! no better) think to' bring dhe town ov
Coopar, from Cupar. Dhe former ſtil hugs occular
ſafety in her apparent diſtinccion from Cooper, propper
or appellative; impoſſibel az it iz for Couper or Cowper
to' paint dhis word, except in French or Scotch.
Evverihware indeed hav untutored (raddher untuned or
untoned) organs been in dainger ov interchainging dhe
due prezzence, and dhe due abſence, ov licquefaccion.
Dhe vulgar Ingliſh drop it, not onely in dhe provvinces:
in dhe cappital doo we hear Look, bloo, rool,:trooth, noo,
toon, doo, dook, ſoo; for Luke, blue, rule, truith, new,
tune, due and dew, duke, ſue; and dhe like. Wel may
in ſuch moudhs dhe dellicate invizzibel proov alſo inaudibel,
after a pallatal (c or g) articculating a ſhut,
for ur, or i open: az in card, gard; ſkirt, guird; kind
ſky: hwich muſt be duly herd (dho not ſeen) kyard, and
ſo on. From dhe ſame clas, or (if poſſibel) a lower,
may be evvery day herd dhe no les nauſeating inſercion:
in tyoo, dyoo; kyow, kyount, and gyownd (g keeping
hard), for two, doo, cow, count, gown, and dhe like.
But dheze vulgarrities nevver hav reached Scotland;
dho dhare az in Yorkſhere, gang or gyang (for go) ar
not quite expelled dhe colloquial. Nedher hav foo
and voo, for few and vew, bewrayed anny oddher
dhan perhaps an Eaſt-Anguel. Thurifferous Thule (and
for aught we know, ſhe may be thurifferous) iz happily
too poettic to' endainger common utterance, more dhan
Thucyddides, hoos firſt vowel iz in febel jeppardy. Dhe
ſame rank, or rank rankleſnes, vies in dhe two kingdoms,
hweddher Scottiſh clowns ſhal prefix dhe ſlender
licquefier to' a and e, or Ingliſh dhe braud to' o iniſcial.
From dhoze dherfore muſt ſtil be expected ya, yen, yale
or yel, yabel yebbel, yerth, yeternity; for a, an (ainciently,
az Greekly, ane; dhe indeffinite repprezentative ov
one, hwich now iz won; ale, abel, erth, eternity. In
Ingland may be ſimmilarly herd yerth and yerb, for erth
and erb; no les dhan Wo and Wokingham, for O, and
Oakingham or Okingham. So, on won ſide dhe Tweed,
bygame, on dhe oddher hwome, iz home; but myaiſter,
or dhe like, iz hoally Ingliſh. Such licquefaccions wil
not interrupt dhe proggres ov dhe plough, nor terrify
dhe innocents dhat draw it; but ſhal Ingland evver hear
(hwat Scotland cood nevver) in dhe poolpit, Wo Lord!
have mercy upon us — If dhere be any virtue, if dhere
be any praiſe (if not pre-yaſe) think on dhe-yaſe things:
for O Lord! hav mercy upon us — Finally, breddhren,
if dhare be anny vertue, if dhare be anny praiz, think on
dheze things.
INFINITE muſt be dhe confuzion from dhe Scottiſh
interchainge (or coincidence) ov different or even oppozite
vowels; dhe interchainge ov pike and pic, titel and tittel,
az ov duke and duc; dhe coincidence ov wake and walk;
walks, wakes and wax; take, and tac, almoaſt widh talk;
bade and bad, almoaſt widh bawd; ſcarc and ſcar, boath
uttered ſcaur; hope and hop, ſope and ſop, note, knot, and
not; coat and cot, rode, road, and rod, toad and tod,
cloke and cloc, or dhe like; dhe vocal gradacion ov peat,
pit, pet, pat; into' pit, pet, pat, pot: like dhe Ingliſh
jargonnic ſat out for ſet out; or interchainge ov ſet and
ſit, lay and ly. If came and cam be equally diſtinct from
calm; dhe laſt, prolonging a ſlender ſhut, cannot alſo
prolong a braud, more dhan can a ſlender open be interchainged
widh a ſlender ſhut prolonged. Calm cannot
dhen be caum, pſalm cannot chime widh ſhawm,
nor alms and aums coincide. Salvacion ſimmilarly can no
more be ſtrained into' ſalvahcion, dhan into' ſalvaucion.

By Redundance and Defiſcience.
FROM retenſion, inſercion, mutilacion, or chainge
ov confonants, muſt dhe organnic part ov Scotticiſm
arize. From eſclat (now éclat) came ſclate, now ſlivvered
into' ſlate. Expreſſively doo dhe Scots ſharpen
pin into' prin, az dheir own thiſtel into' thriſtel; and
ſubſtitute dhe agent ov tinkel widh dhe prodgeny ov dhe
scotch frequentative kittel, in tinkeller or tinkler and
kittelling or kitling, for dhe now Ingliſh tinker and
kitten. Dhis dialect, fearing no coincidence, tranſpozes
ticket alſo into' kittel; if indeed it be not, in
edher ſenſe, dhe ofspring ov chatouiller; ſtramp, ſimmilarly
renders ſtamp more ſtriking; az prin (diſdaining
pin, épine and épingle) claims relacion to' dhe German
prim, raddher dhan to' dhe French brin, or even to' dhe
Gaulic bir, hwich lends dhe Scottiſh bir, ſharpnes. Pirn,
hwirl or hworl, ſounds dhe twirling prodgeny ov dhis
piercing parent. So ſprings dhe Ingliſh ſparrowgras,
from Aſparagus; hwich, to' be Ingliſh itſelf, muſt
appear Aſparragus.
IF dhe Ingliſh keep an impracticabel k, g, or w, in
know, gnaw, and write; hware dhe onneſt Scots hav
long labored (widh hwatevver ſucces) to' render dhoze
iniſcials effective; unwilling to' debaſe ſo reſpectable
raddicals into' mere ſymbols ov deſcent, or enſigns ov
diſtinccion; dhe ſame North-Brittons, fond ov evvery
harmony, hav begged a leve dhey hav not obtained on
boath ſides dhe Tweed; ov ſinking anoddher pallatal, a
ſibbilacion, and a dental, in cream, ſneze, and thwac;
hwich in ream, neze and hwauk, dhey wood gladly diſembarras
ov won iniſcial articulacion. Not dhat dhey
diſlike anny won ov dhe three combinacions, but dhe
laſt: az dheir verry cruds (for curds) and ſnod ſnood
(u French), ſmug fillet, (from neud and eſneudê, like
dheze from nodus and énodis) evince. Dhat dhey by s
final after n, az wel az iniſcial before it, appears in dheir
law-verb ſummons, hwich dhey bring widh dhe noun
from ſemonce. Dhis parent hints to' Ingliſh Anallogy
(hoos ear ſuffices to' tell it) dhat ſummonce iz her noun,
dhho her verb ſummon be no les duly drawn from ſemondre.
Dhe ſame fredom, dhat Ingliſh Anallogy haz uzed widh
parrentage in diſmis and diſmiſſion, howevver obſervant
ov letters dimmiſſory; Scotch haz les allowedly claimed
in diſgeſt and diſgeſtion (for digeſt and digeſtion), widhout
renouncing all regard to' a digeſt. Dhat dhe aincients,
for real or ſuppozed harmony, added and elided
conſonants particcularly dentals, and eſpeſcially dhe
ſibbilacion; iz no news to' dhe converſant in anticquity.
Dhat won polliſhed pepel employed upon occazion εϊ
(ei) for εϊς (eis), and anoddher vin' for viſne; iz az wel
known, az dhat boath Ionians and Eolians were
apt to ſay μιλαξ (milax) for σμιλαξ (ſmilax), ϰεδαζω
(cedazo, dhat iz kedadzo) for σϰεδαζω (ſcedazo), and
dhat μαραγδος (marngdos) waz dhe ſmoodh preddeceſſor
az parent, boath ov σμαραγδος (ſmaragdos) and ov dhe
Lattin ſmaragdus. If dhe Scots ſmoodhed of dhe g
ov glum and glib in lum, chimney, and lib caſtrate;
az from dhe French figgurative gris, hwen ree became
diſguized in liccor: dhe Ingliſh were dooing dhe like
to' dhe Teutonnic parent ov reve, dhat remains in dhe
ſimpel ſurname, az wel az in dhe compound poartreve;
hwen dhe Scots reſtored dhe iniſcial to' dheir truſty overſeer
or baily, greve; hoo vouched hiz relacion to' dhe
burgrave, margrave, and even landgrave, ov Germany.
Dhe Scots muſt howevver be owned inclinabel to' ſuppres
dhe guttural after dhe dental, and ſo to' ſimplify away
dhe nazal ſound. Dhus hear we Launton and Monton
(Munton) for Langton and Monkton; moarnen and
murnen, for morning and moarning: hwence dhe Scottiſh
Shibboleth ov lenth and ſtrenth, for length and
ſtrength. Nor can aught proov more ſallutary to' Calledonians,
boath for ſenſe and for ſound, dhan dhe frequent
and attentive reppetiſcion ov dhe awfool cupplet:

Dhe yong diſeze, dhat muſt ſubdue at length,
Grows widh our growth, and ſtrengthens widh our
DHEY hoo (muſt) ſpeak by dhe eye, cannot be (much)
blamed for ſaying but wonce, hwat dhey ſee but wonce;
nor dhe Scots dhen, for emitting anguel, angling, Ingland,
or anguer, finguer, lintuer, longer, hungrier,
yonger; ang-ling inſted ov ang-guel, ang-gling,
and dhe reſt; or even angry language, ang-ry lang-age,
inſted ov ang-gry lang-gwage; and dhe like. Dhey cannot
by dhe appearance know (nor doo dhe Ingliſh
gennerally know, dho dhey practiſe it) dhat dhe dental
licquid (n) before edher (power ov dhe) pallatal (k or g)
acquires in itſelf dhe nazal ſound, or becoms equivvalent
to' ng; dhat dherfore ancor, anker, banker, ar
vertually angcor, angker, bangker; az hanger and Bangor,
ar hangguer and Banggor; or az bank, brink, conk,
trunk, ar bangk, and ſo on. Dhus it waz dhat dhe
French nazal n aſſumed alſo dhe g, til Anallogy found
dhe guttural might be underſtood; hwich it cannot be
in Ingliſh, unles before anoddher: and dhus did ung
bong ſouveraing, long precede un bon ſouverain. Dhe
Greeks, on dhe contrary, dropping (if evver dhey aſſumed)
dhe dental (ν, n), retained dhe guttural (γ g), before
anoddher ſimpel or aſpirate (γ, ϰ, or χ, g, k, or kh; Lattinly
c, or ch): εγγυς, αγϰυρα, αγχω; (engys, ancyra, ancho;
vertually enggys, angkyra, angkho). Dhus iz τεγγω (tengo)
tingo, je teins (wonce teings), I tincture or tinge. Obzervabel
it iz howevver, dhat no nazallity takes place
in dhe Ingliſh compounds ov un, in, or con; az uncommon,
inclement, concord, congregate. Congregacion
iz dherfore nedher cong-gregacion, nor cong-regacion;
but con-gregacion. In and con brought dhus no nazallity
from dhe Lattin; but conker continnues (vertually)
congker in Ingliſh, az it waz in conquérir. Conker and
coquer may wel be ſuppozed to' hav dhe ſame nazallity.

DHE Ingliſh neſceſſarily drop dhe reallity, and ſhood
dhe appearance, ov dhe pent aſpirate in twelfth and twelvmonth;
hware dhe eye, az wel az ear, might be ſatisfied
widh twelth and twelmonth. But dhe Scotch hav no
ſuch rezon, nor indeed anny rezon, for dropping it
from ſelf and ſelvs: az dhe Ingliſh r ov marl, melting
in Marlburrough (Maulburrow), can be no warrant for
dhe Scottiſh ſuppreſſion ov dhe r ov ginger in gingerbred;
hwich nevver cood be gingebread. Dhe Scotch
doo indeed, az littel az dhe French, lov cluſtering conſonants
in dhe cloze. Peculiarly ar dhey dherfore apt
to' drop dhe final dental, after a ſhutting conſonant:
ſaying ac, corrup, temp; acs, corrups, temps; for act,
corrupt, tempt (hwich can be but temt); for acts, corrupts,
tempts, and dhe like. Hwen dherfore dhe Ingliſh
to' dhe French tyran added a dental in tyrant, dhe
old allies ov dhe French kept dhe word tyrran. So,
after l, or n, dhe nordhern Scots drop d final; ſaying aul
commauns for old commands. Dhey dhus call dheir
boddhy, or littel boodh, ſomtimes a ſhiel for a ſhield; and
ſay Dunkel (ſtrong on dhe latter), hware dhey ſee Dunkeld.
So ſay dhey Lin, and by better rezon, Linzay,
for Lind and Lindſay; az dhe Ingliſh, by ſimmilar
cognation, ſink dhe final ov dhe dhence coincident limb
and limn; and boath nations, for won cauz, dhe febel
final in ſuch az Hammond and Drummond. Ov dhe
Ingliſh ſpank (ſmac), dhe Scotch retain ſpang (ſpring).
Az much les tollerabel, an les accountabel, iz dhe Ingliſh
(truly vulgar!) addiſcion ov dhe dental to' wonce,
ſermon, gown, drown, ſcollar, batchelor; in wonſt, ſermont,
gownd, drownd, ſcollard, batcheldor, or dhe like;
hwich, in dhe groce mouth ov Ignorance, ballances dhe
lerned Apocope by Paragoge. It iz indeed dhe ſame
lov ov eze, and interchainged offiſciouſnes ov frends,
dhat makes dhe Ingliſh hear pennant, Lunnun, Grennich,
Berric, Durram; dho dhey ſee pendant, London,
Grenwich, Berwic, Durham; and dhe Scots les warranted)
ſay, in dhe North, cenner or thunner; and
evvenhware, temmer, nummer, tummel, ſoorroc, for cinder,
thunder, timber, number, tumbel, ſourdoc, or dhe
like. In dhis manner doo dhe Scots turn dhe French
l'ambre into' lammer or laumer, for dhe Ingliſh amber;
hwence, by dhe electric power ov Proſtheſis, doo dhe
ſame verry magiſcians caſt a glaumer (or enchantment)
over dhe eyes; probbably productive ov dhe ſecond--
ſight. Simmilarly ezy, and totally French, iz dhe
Scotch rejeccion ov dhe brand licquefier in dhe lang-or ov
lang-age, for dhe languor ov language (vertually, dhe
langgwor ov langgwage).
DHAT dhe licquids ar evverihware interchaingeabel,
we hav had ampel occazion to' obzerv. If dhe Ingliſh
hav ſtrikingly improoved dhe French, Lattin, and
even Greek harmony, in dhe deſcending gradacions ov
μαρμαρος (marmaros), marmor, marbre, marbel; πορφυρα
(porphyra), purpura, pourpre, purpel; dhey, dhat hav ears
to' hear, muſt own hware mellody flows, ov croupiere,
crupper, and curpel, dho dhe laſt be Scotch; hwich, az
dhe Ingliſh chainges Willy, widh a ſtronger cauz chainges
broddher, into' Billy. Vulgar Ingliſh turns obſtrepperous
and chimney, into' obſtroppalous and chimley; Scotch
tranſmutes dhe French grenier and eſtanceon (now
étançon) into guirnel, grannary; and ſtainſhel, window--
bar, chiefly ov iron. Yet Vulgarrity's earleſnes wil
ſomtimes diſgrace dhe moaſt melliffluous dialects (inter
ſtrepit anſer olores, dhe gooſe wil cackel mid dhe ſwans):
dhe ſame degree ov polliſh, or privacion ov it (if privacion
admit ov degrees) guivs dhe luſcious allablaſter, for
allabaſter, at London; and dhe grating Arburthnot for
Arbuthnot, at Eddinburrough.
DHAT N and M ar too nearly related to' combine, or
even to' meet widhout ſtifnes; limneſt and inmoaſt aſcertain.
RL ar happy to' meet, and happy to' part; az in
purl and purling. LR can ſcarce doo edher: mark but
ſurly Ulric! R, dhus preceding ezily, can hardly ſuccede,
anoddher licquid. From ruf, dhe organs run to'
ſmoodh; not from ſmoodh to' ruf. Hence dhe Ingliſh
tendency to' dilate Henry into' Hennery; and dhe
Scotch inſercion ov dhe dental, hwich harmoniouſly dividing,
unites dhe licquids, in Hendry hwence Henderſon.
Nor did dhis inſertive ſo much pleze Ettymollogy,
by almoaſt reſtoring Hendrich (Rich-hand); az exemplify
dhe principal, dhat contracted ανερος (aneros), not
into' ανρος (anros), but ανδρος (andros). Harry prooving
dhus az nattural, az Hal and Hally ar ſweet; Harriot
or Harriet, aſſumed dhe ſtronger ſyllabel ov dhe
French diminnutive ending; hwile Henny became dhe
Scottiſh endearer ov Henrietta.
FROM dhe ſketch ov articculating interchainge prezented
in dhe former Vollume (p. 72 and foll.) we cannot
wonder at dhe Scottiſh tranſmutacion, ov ſhab and
ſhabby into' ſham and ſhan; or ov guizzard, ſpark, lemman,
and Ninnian, into' guizzern (even gooſehorn); ſpunk,
lemmer and Ringan. Charm or chirp might wel run into'
chirm; if indeed dhe chiourme or ϰελευσμα (keleuſma)
waz not dhe parent. If garter produced, in Scottiſh
mellody, gairten; might not Tartars produce dhe Highland
Tartan, az dhe Scots (or Picts) hav by ſom been
drawn from Scythians, ov hoom dhe Tartars ar a tribe?
Dhe Medditerranean Tartan, widh her triangular ſail,
cool hardly impoart it; dho taroté, hwich checkers now
notthing but a card, may hav formerly checkered oddher
things. Dhat Melvil, Colvil, and Bannantyne, ſhood
glide into' Colvin and Ballantine; we hav elſehware
perceived az nattural, az dhat Colonel ſhood becom
Curnel, or baluſtre banniſter. Dhat dhe verb muſt
ſhood hav evver been Scottiſhly man (az Ye man doo'd, u
French, for yoo muſt doo it) ſeems indeed an ſurprizing,
az dhat dhe old le mouſt (now moût) dhe noun muſt,
ſhood evver hav lngliſhly run into' lambs wool; hwich
beats far dhe chainge ov Aſparagus (herd Aſparragus)
into' Sparrow-gras; or dhe ellegant, az elliptical, gras!
Notthing can be more dialectically incident, dhan dhe
interchainge ov direct and depreſſive. If, from unmoddelled,
or unmoddulated moudhs, may be ſtill herd at London
padrole, pardner, prizes, for patrole, partner,
prices, and dhe like; it cannot ſurprize, if dhe ſame
rank in Scotland guiv blaſh, barley, cabtain, luvtennant,
ſteve, boddom, gowk, haggabag; Zion, uz, elz, caze,
baze, rize, doze, excuze, moroze, precize (if not preceze
dezign: choiz, rejoiz, Namzy, Dezember, Prezentor,
egzit; for plaſh, parley, captain, lieftennant, ſtif, bottom,
coocoo, huccabac; Sion, us, elſe, caſe, baſe, riſe,
doſe, excuſe, moroſe, preciſe, deſign; choice, rejoice,
Nancy, December, Precentor, exit, dhat iz ecſit. But
dhe direct ſinks not oftener into' dhe depreſſive, dhan dhe
depreſſive rizes into' dhe direct, particcularly in Scotland
az in Wales, in dhe Celtic or Gaulic manner.
Az Taffy Etwarts, and Tonnel Tingwal, for Davy Edwards,
and Donnald (or Donnel) Dingwal; ſo crabbet
attercap, for crabbed addercap: widh ſuch az tike and
cruif, wardrop; ſniffel and ſiſſer, for dog and groov,
wardrobe, ſnivvel and ſeizer. Dhus hav dhe Gaulic
gleicein and pig gennerated dhe Scotch clacking (ſhittelcoc)
and dhe lngliſh bake: hwence pigs and piggery
became dhe Scottiſh bak't (or erthen) ware. Az
(gar) lent dhe French car, perhaps dhe Scotch (and old
Ingliſh) verb gar; ſo grille and galant hav prooved dhe
parents, not onely ov dhe Ingliſh gril and gallant; but
ov dhe Scotch cril (pannier), callant (lad, ſpark); and
gagui, ov boath dhe Ingliſh and Scottiſh gawky: hwich
latter, like dhe parent, iz onely female, hwile dhe former
extends to' boath ſexes. So dhe French chocolat produced
dhe Ingliſh choccolate, and dhe Scotch jaucolate;
hwile from hoche-pot aroze dhe Scottiſh hotch-potch and
dhe Ingliſh hodge-podge. In like manner, dhe Scottiſh
mynt (aim) may hav been a varriarion ov mynde (now
mind); if not dhe child ov μυνομαι (mynomai) I aim, az
dhis ov μνω (myo), I wink or peer. Affinnity ov articulacion,
accounts ezily for dhe chainge ov us to' uz, az to'
as; if to' iv, ov to' of; nay ov trubbel and bungel, to'
drummel and bummel; and even ov ſuſtian to' buſtin;
no cognacion being cloſer, and ſo no tranſiſcion more
frequent in all tungs, dhan dhat ov ſimpel and aſpirate.
Hence dhe Scottiſh offiſher for officer, and ſal for ſhal;
laddher for ladder, plezer for plezzure, and dhe like.
But doo not molded Inghliſh organs utter Ba-thurſt or
Bah-thurſt for Bat-hurſt, natturally Batturſt; and
Peter-ſham for Peters-ham, dhat iz, Peterſam;
and hav not all Ingliſh, az all French, organs
loſt dhe power ov dhe guttural aſpirate; ſaying
Baccus and Buccan, for dhe old Bacchus and Bucchan
But, if non ov dhe aincient languages can widhout
dhis power be red, az dhey were ſpoken (widh it); and
if manny livving languages prezerv it inviolate; dhe
Scotch and Iriſh or dubbly intereſted to' gard dhe power
dhey yet pozes, in dhe bold guttural emiſſion ov at leaſt
dheir primmitive names: Drogheda, Auchtermuchty,
and dhe reſt.
AFFINNITY may lend a key to' dhe old Scotch phraze
Peteech us too! hwich ſeems but a varriacion ov Beſeech
we too! az Ingliſh Vulgarrity ſtil interchainges dhe leading
and led pronouns in ſhal us doo it? for ſhal we doo
it? Dhus read we in Dhe Gentel Shepherd:
Peteech us too! an weel a wat, dhat's true,
Awaw, Awaw! dhe De'il'z our gret woh yoo.
Beſeech we Hevv'n! and wel I wot 'tiz true.
Away, Away! Old Nic'z o'r grait widh yoo.
So ſanter varied into' dander, and hwiſk into' hwid
hwence dhe Scotch frequentative hwitter, and its diminnutive
agent hwitteret, dhe wezel. But untutored utterance
confines not interchainge to' articulations ov dhe
ſame clas or organ. Dhe ſame vowel iz differently articculated
in dhe Ingliſh peep, dhe Scotch and Dutch keek
and dhe infantine teet; dhe dental being ezier, dhence
erlier, dhan dhe pallatal articulation. Brittiſh, az wel
az French, pezzants on dhe contrary, often evince adheir
maturity, by uzing dhe harder for dhe ezier, no les
dhan dhe ezier for dhe harder emiſſion. Dhus hear we
from Gallic Ruſtiſcity, amiquié, for amitié; az from
Calledonian, quonty for twenty; and twolt for quilt
Braik ſeems indeed to' hav formed bruckel, are dhis refined
into' brittel; but hankel prooved an ezy corrupcion
ov hantel, hwich Scottiſhly abbreviated handfool, az did
cartel cartfool. Fecles dhus varied featles, in dhe ſenſe
ov hwat dhe Scotch name alſo dooingles. By oppozite
chainge proovs carracter carratter in (dhe ov)
Scotland, az climacterric climaterric in Ingland, and
Connecticut Connetticut in Amerrica. Ireland precludes
dhis varriacion by dhe more daingerous won, ov enfoarcing
dhe penultimate in carracter.
No wonder cognate aſpirates undergo dialectic interchainge,
az ſhop and chop; if evver dhe labial aſpirate run
into' dhe fibbilacion, az wel az dhe dental into' dhe
pallatal mute; if ſo dhe Ingliſh evvet, or eft, became
transformed into' dhe Scottith eſk. Nor waz dhis
transformacion more wonderfool dhan dhat ov an evvet
into' an ewt, hwich no les natturally drew dhe (now
uſeles) dental ov dhe artikel into' dhe articulacion ov dhe
noun, in a newt.
DHAT aſpirates, no les dhan mutes, even ov different
organ, hav been in all languages interchaingeabel; appears
equally from dhe Greek and dhe Brittiſh dialects.
Az dhe Dorians interchainged alſo T and K, uzing
τε̃ινος or τηνος (teînos or tênos) and τοϰα (toca) for εϰε̃ινος
(ekeinos) and τοτε (tote); dhe Eolians chainged ϑλβω (thlibo)
into' φλιβω (flibo), and from φυρα (thyra) lent dhe Lattins
fora. Nor can Anallogy dout dhat, χλοα or χλοη (chloa
or chloe) produced flos; or dhat dhe Lattins (az now dhe
French and Ingliſh, witnes our laf, wonce laugh) preferred
dhe ſmoodhnes ov dhe labial, to' dhe rufnes ov
dhe guttural aſpirate. Dhis ſhe haz indeed from no les
authorrity, dhan dhat ov Flora herſelf:
CHLORIS eram, quae FLORA vocor: corrupta Latino
Nominis eſt noſtri littera Graeca ſono.
Ov. Faſt. V. 195.
CHLORIS I waz, hoo FLORA now am crown'd:
My Greek name dwindels to' dhe Lattin ſound.
Az ſurelv dhus did χωρις (choris) gennerate foris; az
did dhis dhe French fors and hors; hwence our compounder
ov forguet and forgo.
NOT onely haz dhe guttural, but dhe dental, often
yielded to' dhe ezier labial aſpirate. So became dhe old
ſwidhe fwive, hwence ſwift: not to' mencion dhe tendency
ov dhe low Ingliſh to' Redriph and loph, inſted ov
Roddherhith and loth; az ov dhe low Scotch to' Foorſday
(u French), or Feerſday (in dhe North) for Thurſday.
But no dialectic tendency can be ſtronger, dhan dhat ov
interchainging ſimpel and aſpirate. Nor waz it more
nattural for dhe Lattin Mutina, Corduba and Veſontio, to'
ſhift into' dhe Itallian Modena, dhe Spanniſh Cordova,
and dhe French Beſançon; or dhe Lattin ſebum and
ſevum to' proov promiſcuous; dhan for dhe Ingliſh
gahp, flap, ſkip, ſtripping, chop, trump; chub, gabel,
caldron, Lauder, ladder, udder, conſidder; ſoon, ſcene,
ſcience, veſſel, officer, ſerce, mince, wince, ſpruce, greſe,
to' becom dhe Scotch gahph or gahf, flaf, ſkif, ſtriffin,
choft, trumph, chuf, gavel (hwich iz alſo Ingliſh in
anoddher ſenſe); caudhron, Laudher, laddher, uddher,
conſiddher; ſhoon (u French), ſhane, ſheence, vesſhel,
offiſher, ſerch, minch, wonch, ſprooſh, creaſh; or, on
dhe oddher hand, foarth, fifth, tenth; ſhal, ſhood, wiſh,
Scotch fasſhion, (or faſſion), to' be herd Scottiſhlyfourt,
feft, tant; ſal, ſood (or ſud), wos, Scots faſſon, dropping
onely dhe nazallity ov dhe French façon; az doz dhe
Ingliſh leſſon, dhat ov dhe French leçon. And doo not
dhe Inghiſh vulgar ſay farden, ſrub, dixonary, Indian;
and India's; cultaſh, nonpluſh, frontiſhpiece and Poarchmouth;
for fardhing, ſhrub, diccionary, engine, Indies;
cutlas, nonplus, frontiſpice and Poartſmouth?
COMPONENTS precede compounds: dherfore ſimpels
aſpirates. Dhe elder dialects dhen continnuing dheir
prefference ov dhe former, dhe Scottiſh ſtil lovs even
dhe ſimpel guttural, much beyond dhe moddern aſpirate:
retaining dhus mac, thac or thic, ſic, birk, keſt, caf
cart, calk, ſtreek; rig, brig, fike, dog; for match,
thatch, ſuch, birch, cheſt, chaf, chart, chalk, ſtretch;
ridge, bridge, fidget, and dodge. Mac may be les reccogniz'd
a match, remaining onely in ſuch old phraze
az I nevver kenn'd (or kent) hiz mac: I nevver knew hiz
fellow. Nor can it be denied, dhat kirk and kirn ar
nearer to' Greek orrigin, Κυριου οιϰος (Frenchly Curiou oicos)
and ϰιρυαω (kirnao), dhan ar church and churn. So σομφος
(ſomphos) ſeems (raddher dhan ſunk) to' hav ſpawned dhe
ſumph: for Scotch ſomtimes, thro' lov ov forrain Ettymollogy,
prefers dhe aſpirate; az trumph to' trump, for
dhe ſake ov triomphe; trump (like trompe) being engaged
for dhe Jews-harp. Dhe Scottiſh doof (u French) appears
a varriacion ov douf, az dhis ov dow'd (pall'd),
hwence dhe Ingliſh dowdy. Dhus trace we dhe Ingliſh
ſhriek and ſcreech from dhe Scottiſh ſcriech, az dhis from
dhe Gaulle ſgreach, widh dhe ſame guttural aſpirate. So
ſcreed, dhe Scottiſh rent or tair, az vizzibly allied to'
dhe Celtic ſgrait rag, and to' dhe Ingliſh ſhred; hwich
may alſo ſeem dhe contractive ov ſheared. Old Scotch
oft inſerted dhe lambent licquid with dhe ſimpel guttural;
az in mickel or muckel, ilk, hwilk, for much, each,
hwich. Dhe Scotch iddiom, Jon or James ov dhat ilk,
implies Jon or James ov titel dhe ſame widh dhe furname.
Ilk aſſumed a, hwen harmony ſaught dhe ſyllabel;
az on ilka day, and ilka hil; evvery (or each)
day, and evvery hil. Milk remained for milch, even in
dhe adjective; az in a milk-cow, for a milch-cow. Big,
dhe Scotch bear (coarſe barley) ſeems, in dhe ſenſe ov
bild, a nearer relacion ov bilge. In dhis anallogy ſwag
(if not ſwath) and ſmug, proov dhe parents ov ſwatch
(ſampel) and ſmudge (ſmuggel) a ſmile. So ſtrong produced
ſtroonge, harſhly ſtrong, or ſtrongly harſh; hwile
dhe e, hwich waz often proud to' ad or chainge notthing,
left ſpung (fob) and ſpunge, like ſing and ſinge,
to' Scottiſh optics and ears, a coincident pair. A lozzenge,
dhen appearing but a lozenge, left notthing beſide
a lozeng, az dhis (to' dhe ſpurners ov nazallity) a
mere lozen, for a pane.
AMONG dhe cauzes ov articculating chainge, muſt be
delticately traced, and clearly aſcertained, dhe ſoarces
and ſemblances ov licquefaccion. Dhe ſſlender we ſaw
formerly (I. 237) repprezented in Scotland by Z. I and
Y wer queſtionles dhe firſt repprezentatives: y wriggelled,
not onely into' z, but into' g; hwen i, lengthening
into' j, commenced in French dhe ſoft, in Ingliſh dhe
hard ſibbilating aſpirate. Dhus dhe French jartiere,
and jardin, muſt hav tranſmitted dhe yarter
and yarden, are dheze became garter and garden. Yard
remains in won dialect a mere area; but continnues in
dhe older a garden. So dhe Lattin janua formed
(probbably) dhe Ingliſh yate, hwich ſtil iz dhe gate, (az
dhe gate, from gae, now go, iz dhe way) in Scotland.
Yates proovs hence a ſurname in boath dialects; az Gates
commences in won. Garth, likewize a ſurname, waz
dhe Yorkſhere ſubſtitute ov yard; az waz yerd dhe
Scottiſh ov erth. Dhe Scotch adjective yahp ſpeaks dhe
ſtommac agahpl; ſo to' gaunt iz dhe Ingliſh to' yawn.
Dhis interchainge haz occazioned dhe unequal conteſt
between Speech and Ettymollogy, dhat iz, between
perſonallity and parrentage, in won ov manny inſtances.
From dhe French baïonette hav we perſiſted to' ſee (but
can ſee no more) bayonet, hware we muſt hear baggonet.
From dhis melting or aſpirating power ov dhe g, hav
we found Newburg run firſt into' Newbury, dhen
into' Newberry; Edinburg into' Edinburgh, dhence
into' Eddinburrough or Eddinburrow, So, ſimpel or
compound, dhe harſh, at length inſufferabel, burg or
burgh, paſt evverihware (ſooner or later) into' borough
for burrough or burrow, and berry: dhus in a Royal
burrough (ſo happily clear ov a Rabbits burrow!) in dhe
citty ov Suffolk named (equally) Berry-St. Edmunds.
or St. Edmunds-Berry, az in dhe lane ov London denomminated
Non, in Ingliſh alone, haz g played dhe licquefier.
Before l and n, dhe Itallian, and dhence before dhe latter,
dhe French Orthoggraphy, haz made it dhe announcer
ov licquefaccion, to' take place after dhe reſpective
licquid: az in ſeraglio, bagno and compagnon:
dhe now Ingliſh bannio, and compannion;
our picturage preferring dhe nattural licquefier, az doz
dhe French before l, in ſerrail, travail, travailler, or
dhe like. So after i vocal, dhe latter (or articculating) l,
proovs no unnattural melter: az in dhe French pavillon,
dhe child ov paviglione (varied into' padiglione) and dhe
parent ov our pavillion. If dhe licquids be alſo named
half-vowels, az variouſly approaching to' vocallity; no
won ſo approaches it, az doz l, hwich dhe Itallian ſet
dhe French dhe exampel ov exchainging widh i: az in
chiara fiamma from dhe Lattin clara flamma. Certain
it iz, dhat i, j, and y came into' erly (az ezy) interchainge;
nor les certain dhat y, g, and z became, in
various nacions and languages, ſcribbled, from ſimmilarrity,
into' interchainge. Dhe neareſt to' dhe primmitive
Hebrew licquefier, doutles waz i. In
darkening ages, z prooved at length dhe od picture;
az in dhe Scotch zit, zeir and zeſter, for yet,
year, and yeſter. Nor iz aught (ſurely) liker to' Z,
dhan its verry ſelf inverted. Hence doutles dhe
occular coincidence, yet different articulacion, ov dhe
French Noel, and dhe old Ingliſh Zuil (perhaps alſo
Zoel) hwich now can he notthing but Yule; az
it remains in dhe ſurname. No organnic ſounds
being more cloſely allied, or dhence more interchaingeabel,
dhan licquefaccion, aſpiracion, and ſibbilacion;
Ioel haz dhus com round in dhe ſucceſſive
ſhapes ov Joel, Yoel, Zoel and Noel, to' dhe Brittiſh
Zuil and Yule. Hwen dhe iniſcial took dhe French
form and power ov N, iz perhaps hard to' ſay (dho
Gallic Anticquity may poſſibly trace it); but it ſeems not
unnattural to' ſuppoze dhat, on dhe converſion ov dhe
Gauls, Noel might aſſume a Gaulic terminacion in
Nollag or Nolluig; if dhe former waz not merely an
abbreviacion ov dhe latter. Be dhis az it may, all return
to' ioel or joel, hwich ezily expands to' JEHOEL,
Dhe Lord God; dhe awfool and ſublime (and univerſal)
name ov dhe Feſtival, dhat cellebrates dhe Incarnacion.
In dhis verry manner did Ζεύ̃ πατερ (Zeu or Dzeu pater)
melt into' Iupiter or Jupiter, uttered Romanly Yupiter
or Yoopiter, az Julius waz vertually Yoolius: hwich ar
in Ingliſh (dho not in Lattin) vertually Dzhoopiter and
Dzhoolius. If licquefaccion ſwallow aſpiracion in dhe
Ingliſh humor and humillity; dhat totally ſupplants dhis
in dhe Scottilh yowl for dhe Ingliſh howl. Yel ſeems indeed
dhe parent ov yelp, hwich Anallogy calls dhe child
ov glapir.
JUSTICE dhus attempted to' dhe ſlender licquefaccion;
ov dhe braud, it haz been long ſince (I. 97) obzerved,
dhat oo compreſſed or emboddied into' w, muſt in all
tungs hav been ſubject to' interchainge widh dhe depreſſive
labial aſpirate. If Londoners be liabel to' interchainge
wile and vile; no wonder Abberdeens-men, to'
prezerv dhe aſpiracion (hwich Londoners often looz)
ſhood be apt to' ſay file for hwile. More pardonabel iz
furl for hwirl, dhan worſe for verſe. Dhe Ingliſh how
waz indeed unfortunately varied into' dhe Scotch interjeccion
ov expoſtulatory ſurprize, hweddher, Ow! Vow!
or Wow! as in Vow! man; or, more coarſely, Wow!
BOATH dialects drop familliarly dhe labial depreſſive,
ſomtimes dhe direct, aſpirate. Dhus became havveſt,
havveth or havs, and havved; haſt, hath or haz, and
had. So becoms colloquially guiv me five-pence halfpenny,
guimme fippence hapenny: and ſo hear we, I
guin it him for I hav guivven it him. In ſom dhe ſimpel
labial onely can drop, az in dhe licentious ahternoon
for dhe decent afternoon; or in dhe verry familliar Hah
don! for hav don. Poetry may wel claim like licence
in e'n, o'r, ehr and nehr; for even, over, evver and
nevver. Dho evil runs alſo into il, nedher Ingliſh nor
Scottiſh ſtile wil be much exalted by dealing familliarly,
edher widh dhe devvil or dhe de'l. Certain it iz, dhat
dhe Scotch did widh boundles fredom drop dhis aſpirate.
If won dialect ſtil mince ſtove and ſhaiz into' ſto' and
ſhai', or ſtow and ſhay; Abberdeeniſh may wel ſhorten
preev (for proov) into' pree. By like proſces came behooved
(formerly perſonal), into' boo'd and boo't
(u French); or be'd and be't, in dhe North: I boo't
(or boo'd) to' doo'd: I be't (or be'd) to' de'd or de't, for,
It behooved me to' doo it. So I wad (afterwards wod)
loo'r ha' ye coo'r dhe boord (u French); abbreviating,
I wood liefer hav yoo covver dhe board; now, I wood
raddher hav yoo lay dhe cloth. Hwile won dialect varied.
povverty into' poortith, and anoddher (at leaſt az vulgarly)
ſigh (now ſy) into' ſithe; no les nattural wer dhe
chainges (nay interchainges) ov ſuch az I dev loo (u
French) my doo: I doo lov my dov — a weel-faur'd
a wel-favor'd las! Dhare a braw har'ſt (or harft):
Dhare'z a brave (a fine) harveſt! Dhe dental aſpirate
alſo vulgarly ſinks in boath dialects. Az Ingliſh vulgarrity
hurries hweddher, no les dhan hwiddher, into'
hware; braud Scotch ſquezes, ſimmilarly, ſmoddher into'
NEXT to' dhe vocal ar dhe articculating licquids meltabel;
hweddher into' cognate effiſcience, or into' quieſcent
gard; az we hav equally ſeen (I. 72. 141.) Effective
or ſervile, l final, ſomtimes medial, melts in dhe
Scottiſh Dhus ball and boll, pool and fool (boath
ſhort) bulk and ſculk, allum and Allardice, wer baw and
bow (dipthong), poo and foo, book and ſcoog, awm and
Airdice: all won wool, aw, é, oo, a figgurative Scotticiſim
for All won thing; or, dhe vile Ingliſh pleonaſm,
Equally dhe ſame. Nay pluc waz pook, and twelvmonth
towmont. Anallogouſly hav ſallow, fallow, and hollow,
wonce perhaps ſallough, fallough, and hallough, ſhrunk
into' dhe Scotch ſaugh, faugh, and heugh, az wel az
how. Ov like orrigin muſt be haugh (hweddher from
hollow or valley) on dhe borders ov boath kingdoms:
dhence natturally compounding ſuch names az Philliphaugh,
Feddherſtonehaugh, Woollerhaughhed. How, for
hollow, haz produced dhe Scottiſh verb howk.
Hweddher houf, hant (truly hahnt), dhence churchyard,
be a (bold) formative ov dhe old verb haft inhabbit;
or immediately Teutonnic, impoarts not much dhe curious
Reader. Dhus howewer, dhe adjectives waugh
(or waf) and baugh, vappid, widh dreigh, ſlow to'
draw, intimate dhemſelvs dhe ofspring ov wallow, bald,
and drawl. So ſullen or ſulk, dhe Ingliſh prodgeny ov
ſour, may hav ſpawned dhe Scottiſh ſooch (the
guttural); if dhis be not Natures own expreſſive ſullen
ſound. But, nattural az it iz for a low Londoner to'
ſhut dhe febel vowel ov fellow or window, in fellor or
windor; ſo nattural iz it for an Eddinburrougher ov like
(almoaſt ov anny) rank, to' warp dhe idea widh dhe
ſound (or dhe ſound widh dhe idea) ov callow, from
warm, to' freſh, and even cool, in a callor oaſter (oiſter)
or a callor eg.
Az an Ingliſh ſtrong licquid may be tempted to' ſink into'
ſervillity in walnut or pſalm; dhe licquid ov bal or dal
febel, Scottiſhly ſinks in ſuch names az Balfoor (Frenchly
Balfour) or Dalkeith. Yet if Cholmondeley and Abbergavenny
may proov Chomley and Abberguenny; Ballindalloch
and Marjoribanks may more ezily harmonize
into' Bandalloch and Marchbanks, dhan did Setuval
into' St. Ubes, or Olyſippo into' Liſbon.
NOT to' repeat dhe tranſmutacions we hav ſeen I. 73.
and elſehware: it may not be unplezing to conſtellate
(and dhence to' compare) dhe various chainges, made by
evvery dialect ov Grece. Numberles wer dhe vocal
peculiarities and predileccions. Dhe Attic dearly lovv'd
ω (o long), dhe Ionnic, η (e long); dhe Dorric and
Eollic (az ſince dhe Latin and Scotch) α (a). Dhe Attic
(ſomtimes dhe Dorric) added ι (i ſhut or ſhort) doutles
to' preclude dhe claſh ov conſonants. Dhe Ionnic inſerted,
ſomtimes expelled, it. Dhe Attic uzed contraccion,
dhe Ionnic dilatacion. Dhe Attic and Dorric chainged
ς (s) into' τ (t), az πρασσω (praſſo) into' πραττω
(pratto), σύ (ſy, ſu French) into' τύ (ty, tu French),
προς (pros) into' προτ or ποτι (proti or poti): ſo dhe
Beottic, μαζα (madza) into' μαδδα (madda), dhe Attic
συμμαχος (ſymmachos) into' ξυμμαχος (xymmachos); dhe
Ionnic (diſſos) into' διξος (dixos). Dhe Ionnic wood
ſimplify an aſpirate, az εφορα̃ν (ephorân into' εποραν (eporân);
dhe Eollic wood aſpirate a ſimpel, az δασος (daſos into'
θασος (thaſos); and wood chainge won aſpirate into' anoddher,
az θλιβω (thlibo) into' φλιβω (phlibo). By no les
aflinnity did dhe Eolians turn μυρμηξ (myrmex) into'
βυρμαξ. (byrmax), ομματα (ommata) into' οππατα (oppata).
Dhe Dorians interchainged guttural and dental; ſaying
τέ̃ινος or τηνος (teînos or tênos) for εϰεινος (ekeinos), and τοϰα
(toca) for τοτε (tote). Boath dhey and dhe Ionians turned
labial into' guttural or pallatal; πώ̃ς (pôs) into'
(côs), dhoze βλεφαρα (blephara) into γλεφαραa (glephara).
Dhe Beocians, on dhe contrary, turned guttural into'
labial, az γυνα̃ιϰες gynaîkes) into' βανηϰες (banêkes).
To' Tranſpoziſcion hav all dialects been expozed in
dhe articulaccion ov dhe ignorant or inattentive, ſomtimes
ov dhe knowing and ellegant. Dhe Greek Poets
wer nevver at a los for expreſſion. Beſide havving to'
chooz among dhe oddher dialects; dhey formed dhe
boldeſt ov all. Dhey lengthened, ſhortened, added,
curtailed, chainged and tranſpozed, at plezzure; not
following caprece, but couvenience. Suffice it here to'
exemplify dhat Tranſpoziſcion, hwich dhe Poettic enjoys
ſo far beyond her ſiſter-dialects: ϰαρτερος (carteros) for
ϰαρτερος (crateros), έδραϰον (edracon) for έδαρϰον (edarcon),
έ̔μμορα (emmora) for μεμορα (memora). So dhe Eollic
σϰενος (ſenos) for ξενος (xenos), and dhe Dorric μασδα
(maſda) for μαζα (maza, dhat waz madſa or madza).
And ſo dhe Lattin piſtris, nay piſtrix, for priſtis; or
Lybia, for Libya. Nor les natturally, dhe French breline
for berline; widh dhe diminnutive brelingot, more
authorized (by uſe) dhan berlingot. So, among dhe
vulgar or clowniſh pervenir, pormettre and apporcher;
for prévenir, promettre and approcher; or, in dhe like
Ingliſh claſſes, pordidgious for prodidgious; prodgidy, for
proddigy; for phyzziognony.
If, on boath ſides dhe Tweed, dhe rifraf acs, for
aſk; and, particularly on dhe South, drive not dhe
waſps, but dhe wapſes, away; if dhe Ingliſh, even ov
rank talk ov childern and iorn, for children and iron;
if film twiſt into' dhe conſtitucion ov flimſy or ſlimzy;
if dhe French au brun, and craſſe (or graſſe) hav by
dhe ſame figgure formed dhe Ingliſh auburn, and dhe
Scotch Carſe; if brunir, bruniſſant, affoard our burniſh;
dhe Lattin ignis, inverſive, might wel produce dhe
Scotch inguel (fire), ov hwich dhe old plural Inglis (for
Inguels) ſtil conſtitutes dhe ſurname; nay reign and
condign, til quieſcents wer known, might ſimmilarly
claim dhe ſounds ov ring and conding. Impung haz by
(by ſom late crittics) been found evvery way dhe more
nattural ofspring ov impungo, dhan impugn ov impugno.
But entirely ov Scottiſh warp ar garſe, corſe, firth, thirl,
guirn, orp, ſcart, birz (or briz), warſtel, and terlis; for
gran, cros, frith, thril, grin, throb, ſcratch, bruiz,
wreſtel, and trellis. So (like dhe Ingliſh figgurative
brunt, from burn) brie, crud, broad, wrat, ſcruf,
truf, drouth; hwoml, hittel, forſet; for burg, burrough,
or burrow; curd, board, wart, ſcurf, turf, draught;
hwelm, tickel, ſurfeit. Staw, wer it not ſtall, might
dhus hav inverted ſate; az did Corſ-houſe, Coſſer-houſe.
Three muſt be allowed dhe more oſtenſibel parent ov
thred, thretteen and thretty, dhan ov third, thirteen, and
thirty: ſo dirge became dhe dragy. Dhe Scotch verb
to' dree may edher dhus be a tranſpoziſcion ov dhe old
Ingliſh verb to' dure (remaining in dhe compound endure)
Eddinburrowly, az Parriſly, to' door (u French)
and Abberdeeniſhly to' dere; or a varriacion ov dhe
Ingliſh verb to' dry (like lee for ly), in dhe dubbel ſenſe
ov dhe French eſſuyer, to' wipe of (or dry up) and to'
undergo or perform. To' dree pennance, iz preciſely
eſſuyer la pénitence, or faire pénitence. Kittel, dhe
Scotch verb for kitten, varies but dhe licquid: kitling iz
dhe correſpondent ov kitten dhe diminnutive noun, hwich
doz indeed but vary chaton. Kittel, in dhe ſenſe not
onely ov tickel, but ov tickliſh; if not allowed a mere
tranſpozzitive ov tickel, may be held dhe ofspring edher
ov dhe Dutch ſimmilar term, or ov dhe French,
chatouiller. Tirl, thirl, and ſkirl, ar obvious tranſpozzitives
ov dhe Ingliſh tril, thril, and ſhril. Can harl be
a varriacion ov trail, raddher dhan a contractive ov
harceler? or can harn (if barn cannot) be dhe prodgeny,
az wel az correſpondent, ov dhe Ingliſh brain? Hweddher
dhe Scotch verb ſcunner be a reggular formative ov
an unknown ſcun, or ov an annalodgic ſqueam, hwence
ſqueamiſh; or more probbably a twiſter ov dhe Gaulic
ſcorn or ſgorn dhe throat, may open a new vein ov
Ettymolodgic ſpecculacion. By various (no longer unaccountabel)
chainge, larder became laidner; az nordhern,
ſoddhern, eaſtern, weſtern, noardlen or noarlen,
ſoodhlen, eaſtlen: not norland, or dhe like.
Dhat dhe old ſindel ſhood claim anny boddily relacion to'
its ſynnonymy ſeldom, ſeems (but perhaps onely ſeems)
to' defy dhe powers ov articculating varriacion. Az
régliſſe produced liccorice. and Reſtalrig harmonized into'
Leſtarric; dagger might twiſt into' durk, ſpout into'
ſtroop, and pluc into' pook. Spurtel (ladel) if not dhe
direct ſpawn ov ſpurt, may (by tranſpozzitive madgic)
hav ſhrunk from ſtirruppel, if not harſhened from
ſpattule, az freckel dilated into' ferntickel. If bolt (widout
a mirrakel) cood be transformed into' (or from) dhe
Dutch ſlot; ſhut, firft becomming ſcut (like ſhril, ſkirl;
and ſhipper ſkipper), might dhence pas into' ſteik, hwich
iz likewize dhe Teutonnic term. Sure az evver μορφη
(morfe) waz mettamorphozed into' μορφα (morfa), and
and dhence into' forma; dhe French bout (end) haz
prooved ſimmilarly (but dubbly) inverted into' dhe
Scottiſh doup: un bout de chandelle, dhe doup ov a candel,
being a candels end.
IF tranſpoziſcion hav ſo graitly affected all, eſpeſcially
dhe elder and remoter, dialects; manny terms becom
Scotch by contraccion, ſom by dilatacion. Jo or Joey
endears Joſeph in Ingland. Hiz endearer in Scotland iz
Jozy: for dhare Jo ſhortens Joy, in dhe tender ſenſe ov
Sweethart. Curch ſeems dhe curtailer ov kerchief, if
not ov dhe Gaulic ciarſin or ciarſur; and iz indeed a
highland-woommans hed-corvering; for hwich contry--
lowlanders, ov like umbel rank, uzed a toy, or large
linnen-hood widh a cape. Related to' dhis or not, curtooſh
iz a Scottiſh bed-gown. Kerchief (couvrechef)
covvers but dhe hed: curtooſh (perhaps couvre tout)
covvers all beſide. Fleech, coax or hwedel, appears a
ſtump ov dhe French fléchir, to' moov or bend; dho not
widhout relacion, boath in ſoll and boddy, to' dhe
French and Ingliſh flatter. Dhe verb rivvet proovs
Scottiſhly roov (u French). A cartel we alreddy know
to' be a cartfool; az an Ingliſh pottel (ov ſtrawberries)
haz been a potfool, dho now onely a chip-conefool.
Dhus a hantel, corruptly hankel, iz Scotch for an indeffinite
handfool; meaning dhe hands fool, a grait
deal: az dhe French ſay, donner à pleines mains, to'
guiv widh boath hands, unboundedly. Dhe figgurative
and familliar ſpice ſeems dhe ſhrimp ov ſpeſcimen. I'l
guiv yoo a ſpice ov it. But dhis iz alſo lngliſh. Meſter,
in Ingliſh titel, ſtil ſeen ſhrewdlv Mr. appeared at leaſt
by halvs, perhaps raddher by half, in Scotland, to' quallify
a litterary carracter: az Mes. Jon — Mes. Tommas —
for Meſter Jon — Meſter Tommas — Az (dhe French)
maiſtre varied, not onely to' maître; but to' dhe burleſk
meſſer, and dhe dignified meſſire (if dhis be not a compound
ov ſire); maiſter became ſucceſſively maſter,
meſter, and mes dhe diminniſher in Scotland. Dhe eldeſt
ſon ov a Lord, Barron, or Vicount, waz formerly ſtiled
dhe Maſter ov dhe reſpective peerage. Ingliſh ſtile ſets
him onely at dhe hed ov hiz onnorabel broddhers. Dhe
Ingliſh dawdel not onely varies into' dadel, but ſhrinks
into' daw: az in dhe addage A wollen meddher maks a
daw dochter. A willing (or An active) moddher makes a
lazy daughter. Dhe Ingliſh yel dilated into' dhe Scotch
yelloch (guttural), hwen dhe French bourg, Germanly
and Scottiſhly aſpirated burgh and bruch, became
Ingliſhly burrough or burrow. Az dhe old Scotch fur
extended to' dhe Ingliſh furrow; ſo dhe Dutch and
Ingliſh moras ſhrank into' mos, Scottiſhly coincident
widh dhe Ingliſh ofspring ov mouſſe. By making i (az
if e) dhe mere ſoftener ov c, dhe Scotch looz a ſyllabel
ov pronunciation, ſaying pronunceacion or pronunſacion;
hwich corrupt Ingliſh utters in like manner pronounceacion
or pronounſacion.
DHE Scots, like dhe French, wer apt to' preclude
collizzion, and lop a final dental; hweddher parted from
anoddher but by a febel vowel, or ſo coinciding widh
it: az in ellevate for ellevated, and load for loaded.
After anoddher conſonnant, dhey lopt edher a ſimpel
dental or dhe labial aſpirate; az in corrupt act, in Dunkeld,
ſelf, and ſerv; leving dhen onely to' dhe ear corrup
ac, Dunkel, ſel, and ſer. In a febel termination
indeed, a final depreſſive dental might ezily ſink in dhe
dental licquid preceding; in won dialect az in dhe
oddher; in Hammond, az in Drummond. Dhe interjeccion
and adverb, no and not, being ſo nearly ſynonnymous;
no wonder dhe Scotch held dhem indiſcrimminate;
ſaying, Nah, nah, I dinnah (or dinna) ken;
for No, no: I doo not know; or, I don't know: and,
bolder dhan dheir parragons dhe French, nah or na
remained for not, even before a vowel; I cannah (or
canna) underſtand it, I cannot underſtand it; and ſtil
ye'r no minding, for yoo doo not mind. Certain it iz
dhat pénultieme and antépénultieme, did no more dhan
dhe Lattin penultimus or antepenultimus, induce dhe
Scotch penult and antepenult, more dhan dhe Ingliſh
penultimate, or antepenultimate. But certain it iz, dhat
dhe Scotch did follow dhe French, in curtailing ſom
aincient names, hwich dhe Ingliſh hav continnued to'
expand: az Herrodote, Thucydide, Sweton; for
Heroddotus, Thucyddides, and Swetonius. All familliarize
Herodian, Juſtin, Livvy; Homer, Virgil, Horrace,
Marſial, Juvenal. Yet all retain Sillius, Florus,
and oddhers. Ingliſh and Scotch retain Perſius, dho dhe
French make him but Perſe. Dhe Ingliſh ſtil expand
dhe Lattin compendium, hwich dhe Scotch compendize
into' compend. Old Ingliſh ſaid childeren and hundered;
low Ingliſh ſays childer, and high Scotch hunder. Dhe
ſame Scotch ſays alongſt for along; and dhe ſame Ingliſh
again for againſt; or raddher, aguen for aguenſt.
Boath dialects lop dhe beguinning. Like ſquire, pottecary,
rac; and, widh umbler Ingliſh, cute, bacco, tato;
for eſquire, apottecary, arrac; acute, tobacco, potato;
ſay dhe Scotch, head, haven, file, ſtound, and deed;
for behed, behaving or behavior, defile, aſtound (or
ſhoot) indeed.
EVVERY ſmoodh dialect haz avoided alike dhe needles
claſh ov conſonants, and intergahp ov vowels. Dhe
polliſhed Attic dherfore waz apt to' ſubjoin Iota haz I
iniſcial to' a terminating conſonant. Greek and Lattin often,
and Itallian almoaſt always, terminate widh a vowel.
Aincient languages, and ſomtimes moddern, elide a
final, before an iniſcial vowel. Az Lattin and Greek
occazzionally ſuppreſt s final before a commencing conſonant;
and Lattin elided m final widh dhe vowel before
anoddher vowel; evvery diction haz won or oddher
inſertive articulaccion, to' preclude dhe meeting ov
vowels. Ingliſh, widh ezy propriety, ſubjoins to' dhe
indeffinite artikel, preceding a vowel, dhe dental harmonious
licquid. Hence hav two vulgarrities crept into'
Ingliſh practice; won making dhe artikel rob its object
ov dhe dental, dhe oddher making dhe object rob artikel
ov dhat licquid: in an aught for a naught, a cifer; and
a newt for an ewt, propperly a ewt, equivvalent to'
a yoot: az dhe inſertive dental can no more take
place before licquefaccion, dhan before aſpiracion;
nedher being a vowel, but each an articulation. Dhus
muſt we ſay, an air and a hair, a hearing ear, an ear
and a year, a ewer and a unit, a univeſal hiſtory, a
hiſtory univerſal, a humor (hwich iz no more dhan a
umor), a humming bird, an umbel ſervant, az an utter
ſtrainger; an onnor, a horſe, a houſe, an outrage; an
owl, a howlet, and dhe like. Did dhe Ingliſh, az dhe
Scotch, drop dhe licquefier ov u, and utter inſted ov
yoo, onely oo; dhey wood ſimmilarly ſay an uſe, an univerſity,
for a uſe, a univerſity: ſo, hwile one continnued
dhe word, ſuch an one waz az recquizite, az ſuch a won
iz now.
IF, even from ungarded Londoners, may yet be herd
allablaſter, admiraltry, umberrella, propperriety and
propperrietor, maſſacry, preventative, obſtroppalous and
rombuſtical; for allabaſter, admiralty, umbrella, propriety
and proprietor, maſſaker, preventive, obſtrepperous
and robuft; nay covveteous, grieveous, michieveous,
and mountaneous, plentuous, invidduous, inſidduous, and
aſſiddious; no wonder if dhe remoter dialect ſwel dhe
number widh monſtruous, momentuous, ſtupenduous: for
covvetous, grievous, miſchievous (ſtrong on dhe firſt, az
miſchief on dhe prior ſyllabel), mountainous; plenteous,
inviddious, inſiddious, aſſidduous; monſtrous, momentous,
ſtupendous; and dhe like. It muſt be owned, dhat dhe
Scots nevver ſay covveteous; nor dhe Ingliſh monſtruous.
Dhe former doo extend admiralty, commonalty, cazzualty,
and ordnance, into' admirallity, commonallity,
cazzuallity, ordinance; and wood treat in like manner
mayoralty and ſherrifalty; but dhat dhey hav provvoſtſhip
and ſerrifdom in dheir ſted. Cazzuallity iz doutles
a philoſopphic abſtract; and dhe ordinance, a ſollemn
term ſubſtituted, by certain Scottiſh ſectaries, to' dhe
Holy Saccrament. Dhe poettic realty, contracting, ſupplants
not reallity; more dhan doz fealty, fidellity.
Colloquial Scotch ſomtimes lops a letter from dhe beguinning;
az we know in ream and neze, for cream and
ſneze; ſomtims ads to' dhe end; az in dhe pronomminal
ſevverals, dhe verb ſummons, dhe (Gaulic) noun
rumpal or rumpel; for ſevveral, ſummon, and rump:
ſo in dhe old law-terms, toolzie and ſpoolzie for toolyie
and ſpoolyie; now toil (tumult) and ſpoil. Dhe ſame
dialect ſpreds dhe vedgetabel doc into' doccan or dockin,
for docking; az dhe annimal rat, into' rattan or rottan;
and ſwels dhe verb ſcate into' ſketch; ſo making boath
dhe ſcate and dhe ſcater, dhe ſketcher: yet ballances
exchainge by diminniſhing a ſledge to' a ſled.
VOCALLITY, ſomtimes Articulation, az ſurely az
Precizzion and Harmony, muſt graitly depend on
dhat Emphaſis, or enfoarcement (ov won ſyllabel beyond
dhe reſt), hwich iz propperly named dhe ſtres. Ov
dhis dho dhe theory waz, widh dhe oddher Principels ov
dhe Ingliſh Language, long ago (by dhe ſame hand) reduced
to' demmonſtracion; yet, az evvery word, in
propoarcion to' its number ov ſyllabels, iz liabel to' juſt
ſo manny (at leaſt poſſibel) varriacions ov ennergy; in
notthing can diſtant dialects be ſuppozed more to' diſagree.
Ov diſſyllabels indeed, ſom nouns and verbs differ onely
in dheir enfoarcement; az conteſt and conteſt, rebel and
rebbel: nor iz it les nattural to' enfoarce dhe former
ſyllabel ov a noun, dhan dhe latter ov a verb. Hence
it prooved nattural for dhe diſtant, or dhe unexperienced,
to' hope dhe contraſt univerſal. Yet, az evvery
Ingliſh word may, widhout varriacion ov ſound, becom
alternately noun and verb; manny ar in boath equally
ſtrong on dhe latter, oddhers on dhe former ſyllabel. It
impoarts dherfore particcularly dhe Scots to' obzerv
(hwat pure verſiſicacion wil beſt aſcertain) dhat Ingliſhly
emphatticized alike on dhe ſeccond ar verb and noun, in
ſuch az permit, ſuppoart, diſpute, reply, decree, deceſe;
dhat, in like manner, dhe verbs purſue, ſuccede, widh
cedes oddher compounds, ar followed in foarce by dheir
accions or collectives, purſuit, ſucces, and dheir fellows.
Enſue muſt join purſue, much more be joined
by its own branches, enſuing, and dhe reſt; but iſſue,
noun or verb, ſtrong on dhe prior part, iz oridginally a
noun. Hwile dhus proces ov time, or oddher progreſſive
object, derives its ennergy from procede; dhe French
procès, tranſmitting dhe proſces (or proceding) ov law
or ov kimmiſtry, haz (in dhis tranſplant) ſhut, by diftinctively
enfoarcing, dhe former vowel. Strong on
dhe latter ar event, exploit, memoir; az effect, adept, or
inept; July, az ally, noun or verb; Leghorn, az Kinghorn.
If dheze, bating dhe limmited exception, be invariably
energettic on dhe ſecond ſyllabel; much more
muſt dhe verb depute, hwich, in Ingliſh, iz nevver deputed
for depputy. Eſquire, and arrac, ſo empower
dhe latter ſyllabel, dhat dhe former iz enfebled away,
unles by Joccularrity or Affectacion. Squire and rac,
ar dhe words remaining. MILTON not always a moddel
ov verſiſicacion, waz perhaps dhe laſt Ingliſh poet dhat
ſtreſſed dhe former ſyllabel ov mankind, or dhe firſt ov
dhe verb contribbute. Ally and deny hav drawn demy--
paper, regardles ov demmigods dhemſelvs. Divine, devout,
defunct, direct, elect, corrupt, perverſe, and uncooth,
ar ſtrong (for evvery rezon) on dhe poſterior ſyllabel.
Equally ſtrong on dhe oddher ar (az natturally),
frontier, engine, envy, comfort, effort, exile, April, novvel,
canton, patron, biggot; of widh ſollemn, extant, perfet.
Barrier, ſomtimes chiming widh career, iz fool az nattural
a compannion ov frontier. Caprece, (like her
French parent caprice) ſtrong on dhe ſecond; haz been
ſomtimes thaught capriſcious enuf to' prefer dhe oddher
enfoarcement. Strong iz dhe latter ov reverſe verb or
noun; az iz dhe former ov travverſe, in dhe figgurative
ſenſe ov roam. Dhe verb pervert draws dhe adjective
perverſe, to' ly like reverſe, on dhe latter; dho diverſe
duly differs from boath, az from divert; or az doz from
advert, adverſe. Dhe verb converſe reggularly
ſtrengthens dhe latter, dhe ſubſtantive converſe dhe
former ſyllabel.
VERB natturally ſtrengthens its terminacion, hwence
dhe formatives muſt procede: adjective, in like manner,
hwen ſuſceptibel ov degrees. Dhus create, obey, occur;
ſincere, ſedate, robuſt. It iz eſſencial to' remember, dhat
dherfore ſtrong on else latter ar dhe verbs confort, concert,
convict, convert; conteſt, contraſt, compact,
conflict, conduct, convoy, converſe, confine, compres;
impres, inſult, impoart and expoart, tranſplant, tranſpoart
and transfer, prefix, eſſay, ſurvey, ſurcharge, deſcant
and accent, concord and diſcord, digeſt and farwel;
widh evvery tract, ject, and ment, az contract,
object, torment; nor les ſtrong on dhe former, dhe
nouns conſort, concert, and dhe reſt. So differ dhe ſubſtantives
agent, regent; dhe adjectives, abſent, prezzent,
frequent, gallant, compound; widh dhe verbs agent,
abſent, prezent, and ſo on. Such preciſely proovs dhe
difference ov dhe verbs rebel, record, preſage, prelude,
premiſe, produce and cement; and dhe nouns rebbel, reccord,
preſſage, prellude, premmiſe, prodduce, and cemment.
Yet evvery won ov dhe verbs may be unvariedly employed
az its own ſollemn action; az evvery won ov dhe
nouns for a familliar verb. Lament dhus remains invariably
ſtrong on dhe latter; az doo dhe verbs ſubject
and comment, often upon dhe former. Dhe verb incenſe,
and dhe noun incenſe keep reſpectively unchaingeabel;
hwich holds alike ov tranſcribe and tranſcript. Secret,
and ſecrete, ar wel diſcrimminated; az ar indeed antic and
anteke or anteek, human and humane. Buffet, dhe Ingliſh
noun, duly ſtrong on dhe former; and buffet, dhe
French noun, duly ſtrong on dhe latter; alter not in
verbal capaſcity. Dhe ſubſtantives, Auguſt and Supine,
ar dhus ezily ſevvered from dhe adjectives auguſt and
ſupine: nor doo ſupply (dhe contractive ov ſuppelly)
from ſuppel, pozes from poze, or careſt from care, keep
les ezily clear ov dhe raddical verbs ſupply and pozes, or
ov dhe particippel careſt, hwich but contracts careſſed.
DHE Scots, perceiving dhat raddical verbs ſo natturally
emphatticize dheir ending; and dhat ſevveral nouns
becomming verbs, invert dheir ſtres accordingly; hav
imadgined dhemſelvs authorized to' uze dhe ſame fredom
widh bias, canvas, ſilence, ſentence, triumph, comfort
and ſollace; az in dhe North, widh ſeccond: much
more widh dhe oridginal verbs conſtrue, reſcue, (reſſcue),
reſpite or reſpit (reſſpit); govvern, harras, ranſac and cancel;
all Ingliſhly invariabel in prior ſtrength: az iz perfet
in evvery capaſcity, dho dhe Scotch hold it perfite, a
rival to' dhe Ingliſh polite. Obzerving practice ſo nicely
diſtinguiſhed from practiſe, dhey cood not fancy dhe verb
and noun (az dhey ar to' dhe Ingliſh ear) indiſcrimminabel.
No more cood dhey ſuppoze dhat ſodjurn and
adjurn differ az Eaſt and Weſt; dhe former enfoarcing
dhe prior, dhe latter dhe following ſyllabel.
Az ſom verbs enfoarce dhe beginning, like ranſac,
harras, and perjure; widh dheze iz diſtinguiſhed conjure
dhe joccular verb, from conjure dhe compannion ov
adjure: nor can dhe agents but follow dheir verbs. If
branches dhus follow roots, no les muſt compounds
ſimpels. Vallid, now ſeen az it iz, precludes even dhe
occular confuzion ov invallid widh invalid; hwich compliments
its French parent invalide: but dhe ſtres ov
certain muſt chainge in aſcertain. Dhe noun tribbute iz
accompanied howevver by dhe verbs contribbute, diſtribbute,
retribbute, and attribbute; hwile dhe ſubſtantive
attribute, keeps az duly dhe antepenultimate ſtrong.
Duo dhe ſepparate powers, or enfoarcements, continnue
in ſuch occazzional compounds, az contry-man or
copper-plate; hwich may be rezolved into' a man ov dhe
contry, or a plate ov copper; dhe antepenultimate claims
neſceſſarily dhe ſuperior, leaving dhe laſt but ſeccondary
ſtres, in dhe figgurative and ſettelled compounds contriman,
copperplate, and dhe like. Prefer, refer, revere,
interfere, cannot but remain in dheir ofspring preferring,
referring, revering, interfering, and dhe reſt;. but cannot
remain in refference, prefference, revverence, interference;
more dhan in revverend, revverent, or dhe like.
Interdict dhe noun, draws az natturally primal az dhe
verb interdict final ſtres. Pollyſyllabels dhus, no les
dhan diſſyllabels, derive dheir ennergy, by formation,
compoziſcion, ſittuacion, and clas. Dialects howevver
vary dhe enfoarcement ov boath claſſes, according to
diſtance from dhe ſeat ov Ellegance, and dhe center ov
Propriety. Low ranks ov dhe oddher Brittiſh nations ar
apt to' enfoarce dhe penultimate, inſted ov dhe antepenultimate;
ov contrary, induſtry, ſuperfluous, influence,
carracter; and doutles oddhers. Calledonians ov
evvery rank ar intereſted to' reccollect, dhat partake,
pozes, devize, commit, enquire and remain, muſt continnue
to' enfoarce dhe ſeccond ſyllabel ov partaking and
partaker, pozeſſor, devizor az devizer, committee, enquiry,
and remainder. So retain commands retinnue;
hwich dhus (in ſpite ov clas) joins continnue, a traceabel,
dho diſtant, relacion ov contain. Nor let us wonder
dhat retinnue iz joined by revennue, hwich Ellegance
dhus diſſociates from avvenue: for Anallogy iz dhe
guide ov man; not man, ov Anallogy. Aſſail dhen
hints, not onely dhe vehemence ov dhe aſſailant; but
dhe violence ov dhe aſſaſſſin: dhis no more aſſaſin, dhan
dhat aſſalant. Knowing dhe dubbel power ov concord,
we ſhal no longer find it unaccountabel. dhat concordance,
ſtrong on dhe ſeccond, ſhood proov dhe genneral
opperacion ov dhe verb; and concordance, ſtrong on dhe
firſt, dhe diccionary ov dhe Bibel.
DHUS it iz dhat impart, dhe verb, not dhe noun,
followed by important and impoartance. So dhe adjective
proteſtant, for proteſting, az natturally follows
proteſt; az repentant, for repenting, follows repent;
hwile protteſtant ſtrong and ſhut in dhe antepenultimate,
proovs a ſort ov neggative (relidgious) diſcriminacion.
Dhe medial ſtrong in horizon, follows dhe Greek όριζων
(horidzon) not dhe immediate parent horizon (for orizon)
ſtrong on dhe laſt. But oraiſon,ſimmilarly ſtreſſed,
turns its ſeccondary into' primmary ſtrength in dhe firſt
ov dhe Ingliſh orrizon. Az dhe ſtrongeſt vowel ov oratio
leads to' dhat ov our oracion, dho orateur (not orator)
guides to' our orrator; Lattin terms like virago and
vertigo, retain dheir penultimate foarce in Ingliſh, hwen
adopted. Dhe meeting licquids guiv ſtrength or ſtoppage
to' dhe firſt vowel ov armiſtice; dhe ſtronger aſſemblage,
after dhe ſeccond ov interſlice, makes penultimate
overturn even antepenultimate power. Dho, by
dhis parramount ennergy, principel and principal, mannipel,
mannikel, annecdote, antidote, and diſcipline,
widh a thouzand oddher triſſyllabels, be primmarily
ſtrong on dhe firſt, dherfore ſeccondarily ſo on dhe laſt
ſyllabel; abſolutely ſtrong on dhe middel, conſequently
weak on edher extreme, ar diſcipel, cathedral, vagary,
quandary, Canary. Comprize muſt queſtionles command
comprizal, and conceal concealment; but we wel know
dhat chaſtize commands not chaſtizment, more dhan advertize
advertizment; dhat not dheir verry parents
chaſtiment (now châtiment) and advertiſſement (now
avertiſſement) command edher; but dhe alone antepenultimate
power; hwich ſucceſſſor and confeſſſor (equally
primmitive) ar equally proud to' obey. Mem keeps dhe
ſame ſtrength in member, remember, remembrance and
remembrancer. So covvenant (cuvvenant) remains unchainged
in covvenanter, and intelligence in intelligencer.
No les iz to' be noted dhe penultimate ſtrength ov dhe
adjectives inteſtine, clandeſtine, obdurate and conſummate,
verb or adjective. Projectile follows dhe verb project, not
dhe ſubſtantive prodject. Oddher adjectives in ile prefer
antepenultimate, for primmary, dhence ultimate for
ſeccondary ſtres; az puerile, juvenile, mercantile; dho
evvery antic, az romantic, pedantic, muſt confes penultimate
power. Dho raven, noun or verb, open alike
dhe ſtrong penultimate; and its particippel ravening, no
les duly, dhe antepenultimate vowel; dhe particippial
ravvening, like dhe cognate (and almoaſt ſynonnymous)
adjecttive ravvenous, diſtinguiſhes itſelf by dhus ſhutting
dhe emphattic vowel; az in ravvening (or ravvenous)
woolvs. Dhe diſſyllabel verbs enſue, purſue; impoart,
project, reſpect, collect, conduce, intend, prevent,
ſubjoin, compare, prepare, explain, define, keep dhe
ſtrength on dhe ſeccond ov enſuing, purſuant and
purſuance, impoartant and impoartance, projectile az
projecting, reſpective, collective, conducive, intenſive,
preventive, ſubjunctive, comparrative, preparrative,
preparratory, explannatory, definnitive. So nedher
finite nor infinite commands infinnitive, infirmity, or infinnitude;
but dhe ſame antepenultimate ennergy, hwich
commands dhe indiccative and imperrative, dhe adjective
widh dhe ſubſtantive. Dho indicate and immitate boath
own dhe ſame influence, and indiccative (az a primmitive)
follows dhe cogent exampel; immitative, nomminative,
and communicative appear dhe obſequious children ov
immitate, nomminate, and communicate. Dhus it iz dhat
Eli (diſtinct, by dhe dipthong, from Ely) ſets dhe exampel
ov penultimate ſtres to' Elias; but dhat Levi and
dial deny not dhe ſtil graiter antepenultimate power ov
Leviathan and dialogue. Nor can anny now miſtake
dhe ſtrength ov depozzit, envellop, exammine, imadgine;
more dhan ov immage, Ittaly, Itallian, and dhe like.
Much les need we wonder at onneſt u's keeping alike
open and ſtrong in mute, amuze, amazement: accuze,
accuzer, accusative; pure, purity, and purify; illume,
illumine, and illuminate. If dhe Scots (az in ſilence or
ſentence) wood gladly ad to' dhe diſſyllabels, transferring
ſtres from noun to' verb; much more muſt dhey find it
nattual to' transfer dhe primmary antepenultimate foarce
ov a noun to' dhe place ov alreddy ſeccondary ſtrength in
dhe triſſyllabel verb; az intereſt, mannifeſt, evvidence,
influence, countenance. Dho dhe Ingliſh in a few inſtances,
may ſeem to' authorize dhe practice; az in
riddicule or compliment; dhey nedher in dhe abov, nor
elſehware, uze dhe fredom to' turn primmary into'
ſeccondary ſtrength, except in verſe: and dhare Ellegance
allows no needles departure from nattural ennergy
nor makes dhe ſmalleſt difference, even in a verb ſo
natturally ſtrong on dhe firſt az recconcile:
In recconcil'd extremes ov draught and rain.
hwich precludes not dhe poettic power ov interchainging
primmary and ſeccondary ſtres; in
Dh' extremes so draught and rain ſo recconcil'd:
warrantably az rimes dhe ſame poet,
— Hwat ſay dhey more or les,
Dhan dhis; dhat happines iz happines?
Dhus it iz, dhat ſuch triſſyllabbic verbs az ar or ſeem
formed from diſſyllabels ſtrong on dhe prior ſyllabel, dho
ſtil primmarily ſtrong on dhe firſt, may transfer dhe
ſtrength to' dhe laſt ſyllabel: az, from (or ſeemingly
from) Tantalus, human, civvil, real; tantalize, humanize,
civvilize, realize. Dho eſſence and quieſcence (az
quieſcent) be equally enfoarced on dhe penultimate, to'
antepenultimate power ſubmits quinteſſence; hwich, dherfore
inſuſceptibel ov medial foarce, may poettically
ſtrengthen edher extreme. Strong az ar on dhe latter,
ſuch verbs az excel, precede, and divide; dhey cannot
preclude dhe iniſcial foarce ov excellence, preſcedent and
divvidend; more dhan ov addequate or difficult. Subſequent
and ſubſequence muſt join dhis clan, no les dhan
conſequent and conſequence. Yet can it not be joined by
dhe penultimately ſtrong adjective precedent, or its abſtract
precedence; hwich accompany antecedent and antecedence,
in penultimate enfoarcement. Nor can it be
denied, dhat dhe Scots, miſtreſſing (misſtreſſing) and
diſtreſſing (disſtreſſing) all dheze, ar az apt to' transfer
dhe ſtres ov difficult and difficulty, from dhe firſt to' dhe
ſeccond ſyllabel; az to' dhe third ov dhe adjective, hwen
dhey uze it for dhe verb (to') puzzel. To' difficult, hweddher
widh iniſcial or final enfoarcement (medial here
lngliſhly impoſſibel), may doutles make edher a perſon
or thing diffcult. But to' make a perſon difficult, iz to'
make ſuch perſon hard to' pleze, raddher dhan perplexed
to' anſer. Yoo difficult me, implying dherfore onely
Yoo make me difficult, cannot alſo ſignify Yoo guiv me difEmphattic
az muſt be dhe firſt ov confident, commodore,
vaggabond, violent, violet, and dhe like; Diſtinccion
compliments French Ennergy on dhe final
ſtrength ow confidant, commandant, maggazene and rezzervoir.
Like defference iz paid to' violin and palanquin,
in violin, pallankin, and certain oddher forrainers;
hwile harlequin, natturalized into' harlekin, boaſts primal
power in Ingland.
STRES, like all elſe in our language, reduced now to
ſcience; no word can hav doutfool emphatticizement.
Dhe ſame ranks indeed dhat penultimately rely on a carracter
ov induſtry, ſo contrary to' dhe ellegant antepenultimate
enfoarcement, may be herd on dhe ſame penultimate
key to' tune dheir edducacion from an academy.
Dhe Ingliſh clas juſt above muſt be bred at an accademy,
az hoo ſhal arrain its accrimony? Yet ellegant Nature in
acaddemy widh anattomy, az in anallogy widh ſupremmacy;
in monnarky and theoccracy, geoggraply and
orthoggraphy, owns antepenultimate power. Such iz
dhe unequal conteſt between dhe firſt and ſecond ov
pollygamy and polyggamy. Manny tetraſyllabels, howevver,
lay dheir primmary ſtres on dhe firſt, and conſequently,
dheir ſeccondary on dhe third ſyllabel: az, pallinody,
olligarky, hierarky, orthoeppy, ignominny, contumely,
contumacy, cerremony, pattrimony, aggriculture;
arbitrary, preffatory, and, in ſpite ov neceſſity acces,
direct,refreſh, conſiſt, all ſtrong on dhe ſeccond; neſceſſary,
acceſſary and acceſſory, dirrectory, reffectory, conſiſtory;
all ſtrong on dhe firſt ſyllabel. Stil dheze doo
but ſpeak dactyllian regard to' antepenultimate power,
treating dhe laſt ſyllabel az a ſupernumerary. But,
hwen words dhus grow into' pollyſyllabels, dhey proov
natturally divizzibel into' dhe component (or ſeemingly
component) parts. Az monnoſyllabel, and pollyſyllabel,
dhus conſiſt ov dhe Trokee and Dactyl; monno-ſyllabel,
polly-ſyllabel; ſo ov dhe dubbel Trokee conventickel,
tabbernackel, reſceptackel; vertually conven-tickel, tabber--
nackel, reſcep-tackel, widh dheir fellows. Dhis dubbel
enfoarcement but exemplifies anew dhe grait principel
ov' vocal ſtres; dhat alternacion ov labor and reſt, indiſpenſabel
to' human exercion: a doctrine firſt elucidated
by dhe prezzent Writer, in hiz Principels ov dhe Ingliſh
Language (I. i. 8.); and reilluſtrated (II. iv.) in dhe
former Vollume ov dhis Work.
BUT ov emphattic doctrine no part iz more impoartant,
az non hiddherto' les underſtood, dhan dhe tranſference
ov ſtres; az from won part ov ſpeech to' anoddher,
ſo particcularly from litteral to' figgurative acceptacion.
Dhus dherfore hav we lernt to' diſtinguiſh ſuch
verbs az rebel and convert, from ſuch nouns az rebbel and
convert; to' procede from indicate to' indiccative; from
fanattic to' fannatic, from arrithmettic to' arithmetic;
and dhe like. Nor les iz it eſſencial to' diſcrimminate dhe
varriacion ov ennergv from litteral to' figgurative poſſibillity,
terminating adjectives widh abel, ibel, or ubel;
abſolutely enfebelling dhe penultimate after dhe ſtrong
part ov dhe root, in its branches; but ſeccondarily enfoarcing
it, after dhe enfebled antepenultimate, in dhe
cognate primmitives. In dhis manner doo accept, commend,
admire, compare, lament, conſole, reduce, emphattic
on dhe latter, remain (unchainged) in dhe formative
and litteral acceptabel, commendabel, admirabel,
comparabel, lamentabel, conſolabel, reduccabel or reducibel;
az neſceſſarily az anſer, harras, ranſac, cancel
and comfort, continnue dheir foarce on dhe firſt in
anſerabel, harraſſabel, ranſaccabel, cancellabel, comfortabel;
or dhe reſpective like. Dho dhe latter be dhus
unchaingeabel, dhe former, uzed figguratively, moov
dhe primmary ſtres a ſyllabel bac, (from dhe ſeccond to'
dhe firſt); ſhutting az naturally dhe vowel, if before
open, hwen dhey vary poſſibillity into' probbabillity or
propriety. Dhis dhey doo by enfoarcing dhe firſt ov
acceptabel, commendabel, admirabel, comparabel, lammentabel,
conſolabel. Dhus differ dhey diamettrically
in ſenſe and ſound. Dhe litteral acceptabel, neſceſſarily
ſtrong on dhe ſecond, implies dhat may (poſſibly or abſolutely)
be accepted; dhe figgurative acceptabel (az ſurely
ſtrong on dhe firſt), no les ſurely implying dhat muſt
(probbably or propperly, or dezirably) be accepted. A
thing dherfore iz abſolutely acceptabel, or can (perhaps
muſt) be accepted; punniſhment for inſtance, or pain;
hwich may natturally be dhe reverſe ov acceptabel or dezirabel.
Dhus evvery thing iz commendabel, dhat can
(and hwat cannot?) be commended; but dhat alone iz
commendabel, hwich merrits commendacion, and ſo iz
indiſpenſably to' be commended.
Un, being dhe Ingliſh, and in dhe forrain denier ov
ſuch qualifiers; negacion may lend ſom light: dhe litteral
natturally claiming dhe domeſtic, dhe figgurative
dhe oddher prepoziſcion. Dhat hwich cannot (poſſibly)
be accepted, iz dhus unacceptabel; dhat, hwich cannot
(propperly or plezingly) be accepted, iz inacceptabel.
Dhat, hwich cannot be lamented iz unlamentabel: dhat,
hwich iz not (raſcionally) to' be lamented, iz illamentabel.
Hwat cannot be compared, iz uncomparabel:
hwat admits no comparrizon, or iz beyond compare, iz
incomparabel. Hoo cannot be confoled iz unconſolabel:
hoo wil not be conſoled, iz inconſolabel. Nor need it be
told, dhat dhe litteral compounds keep dhe ſtres on dhe
third, and dhe figgurative on dhe ſecond ſyllabel; az
dheir ſimpels on dhe ſeccond and dhe firſt. Exactly ſo,
repairabel and repparabel, unrepairabel and irrepparabel.
Vennerate and immitate guide to' vennerabel and
immitabel; communicate to' communicabel, and dhe like;
un ſtil denying dhe litteral, az in dhe figgurative compounds;
but widh no chainge ov ſtres. Produce and reduce
may az certainly form produceabel and reduceabel;
az adopt producibel and reducibel; uzing dhe reſpective
privvatives, widh dhe nattural chainge ov ſtres; unproduceabel,
unreduceabel; and improdducibbel, irredducibbel.
Foarceabel and foarcibel ar dhus litteral and figgurative;
chaingeles in ſtres, and indeed (almoaſt) coincident in
ſound. Widh like annalodgic certainty can correct and
elect form correctabel and electabel; denied doutles, by
uncorrectabel and unelectabel; az expect in boath ſenſes
and ſtreſſes, expectabel, widh unexpectabel and inexpectabel:
hwile corrigibbel and elligibbel proov dhe adopted
quallifiers ov morral poſlibillity, dhat iz, ov propriety;
hwich incorrigibbel and inelligibbel deny. Az duly az
ledgibel and illedgibel, readabel and unreadabel, ar ſtrong
on dhe antepenultimate; muſt intelligibbel and unintelligibbel
ſtres primmarily dhe ſyllabel before it. So differs
dhe ennergy ov corruptabel and corruptibbel, uncorruptabel
and incorruptibbel; diſſolvabel and diſſolubel, rezolvabel
and rezzolubel, reputabel and repputabel, preferrabel and
prefferabel, widh dheir reſpective deniers. And ſo enfoarce
dhe firſt ſuch primmitives, az exorabel, evvitabel;
and dheir neggatives dhe ſeccond, az inexorabel, inevvitabel.
Nor need we wonder dhat dhe figgurative ar dhe
more frequent (dhence more familliar) quallifiers. Litteral
poſſibillity iz ſo taken for granted, dhat its negacion
can ſeldom find place. For dhis rezon, az wel az in
compliment to' dhe forrain immediate parents, in alone
can compound invizzibel, inaudibel, inacceſſibel, imperceptibel;
acceſſibel and perceptibel retaining dhe ſtres ov
acces and perceiv, hwich ſtil more certainly commands
perceivabel and unperceivabel; dho inconceivabel may
now be ſuppozed almoaſt entirely to' ſuperſede unconceivabel,
unles az a poſſibel formative ov dhe poſſibel
compound verb unconceiv. Som conſtittuents ov dhe
figgurative and primmitive clas appear more frequently,
az more natturally, in dhe pozzitive; oddhers, in dhe
neggative carracter: az ſuſceptibbel, and irreffragabel;
ov more genneral employment, dhan reffragabel or inſuſceptibbel;
all howevver, like dhe figgurative acceptabel
and inacceptabel, corruptibbel and incorruptibbel, neceſſarily
ſtrong on dhe foarth from dhe end. Yet, howevver
natturally contraſted be lamentabel and lammentabel,
unlamentabel and illammentabel; deplorabel, ſuppoartabel,
ſurmountabel; litteral or figgurative, pozzitive
or neggative, invariably retain dhe ſtres ov deplore,
ſuppoart and ſurmount; az doo comfortabel and cancellabel,
dhat ov comfort and cancel.
DHE Scotch, nor dhe Scotch alone, ar ſtil apt to' miſtake
dhe ſtres ov certain aincient names. In dheze, dho
dhey thaught dhemſelvs warranted to' indulge forrain
vocallity; dhey has' been les obzervant, dhan dhe Ingliſh,
ov primmitive ſtres. To' dhe ſeccond ſyllabel did
dhe Scotch transfer dhat ov Canaan and Balaam, hwich
dhe Ingliſh enfoarce on dhe firſt; ſinking dhe ſeccond
vowel by febelnes to' (almoaſt) inaudibillity, az if Can'an
and Bal'am. Dhe antepenultimate ennergy, ſo genneral
in Ingliſh pollyſyllabels, haz rendered ſtraingers inattentive
to' dhe penultimate power ov Sardanapalus; dhe
compounds ov bulus az Ariſtobulus: no les dhan to' dhat
ov Ariſtogiton, Ariſtides and Heraclitus. Dho in manny
Greek and moaſt Lattin names, a vowel before a vowel
waz febel and ſhort; az in Danaus, Tanais (Ingliſhly
Dannaus, Tannais) Perſeus and Perſius, Pholoe (Ingliſhly
Pholloe). Antinous (Ingliſhly Antinnous); manny
Greek names in us wer apt to' ſtrengthen and lengthen
dhe vowel before it; az Menelaus (Ingliſhly Mennelaus)
Peneus, Sperchius (Ingliſhly Sperkius), Achelous (Ingliſhly
Ackelous). So, before oddher endings, Eneas,
Briſeis, Ptolemais, and oddhers. Dhe Eneid howevver,
or Enneid, follows Ingliſhly dhe Illiad in enfoarcement.
Febel and ſhort iz ſimmilarly dhe penultimate ov Ardea,
Lydia, Libya, Meſopotamia, and manny more. Yet
ſtrong and long iz, no les neſceſſarily, dhat ov ſuch az
Judea, Eubea, Berea; Eea, Medea, Enyo; Thalia,
Hippodamia, Iphigenia; hwich laſt indeed manny moddernize
by enfoarcing dhe penultimate before final
coaliſcion, like Eugenia and Aglaia; or like dhe Hebrew
names Iſaiah, Maaſeiah, Zeruiah. Hwen in
dheze iah iz articculated, no coaliſcion takes place, and
dhe penultimate vowel iz enfoarced; az in Uzziah, Jerremiah
or Jerremias. But, female names ſtrengthen
dhe antepenultimate vowel; az Athaliah and Herodias:
a diſtinccion dhe Scotch need peculiarly to obzerv.
Nor muſt dhey forguet (hwat haz been elſehware intimated)
dhat Greek names in es, evver ſo febel, open
and prolong dhe vowel (according to' oridginal quantity)
independant ov anny ſervile: dhus Thales, Hercules; az
if Thalees, Herculees; and dhe reſt. Dho howevver
dhe laſt vowel be (almoaſt) az open in Euphrates, az in
Soccrates; dhe names ar az differently enfoarced, az ar
Caledon and Callydon: dhe penultimate being ſtrong in
Euphrates and Caldon, and dhe antepenultimate in
Soccrates and Callydon; hwich ſhut dhe ſtrong vowel,
and ſo dubbel dhe conſonant, dhat waz ſinguel in Lattin
and Greek. Dhat antepenultimate, hwich boath dhoze
diccions held ſtrong and long in Caledonia, and ſhort az
weak in Caledonia; equally enfoarces, (in Ingliſh) dhe
o ov Callydonia and ov Calledonia; ſhutting alike dhe
ſeccondarily ſtrong vowel, and conſequently making ſo
diſtant contries coincide.
BUT Calledonia, to' prezerv her fammilies, muſt,
hware poſſibel, prezerv dheir names. Az dhe Ingliſh
Pole, Coke; now Pool, Cook, and dhe reſt; ar ſo varying
dheir appearance to' enſure dheir reallity: az dhe
Scottiſh (and French) Home, iz dhus natturally veering
into' Hume: ſo muſt, if dhey with (and hoo doz not
wiſh?) perpetuity, Dalzel, Mackenzie, Menzies, and
dheir fellow-licquefiers, adopt dhe ſame exact form ov
dhe vocal licquid, dhat ſecures dhe Ingliſh Sawyer,
Bowyer, and Fludyer: hoo nevver perhaps affected dhe
ſemblance ov Sawzer, or dhe like. Dalyel, Mackenyie,
Menyies, and dhe reſt, cannot but be proud to' follow
dhe exampel ov won ſacred name, long loſt in dhe figgure
ov Zuil; and now found in dhe fair ſhape ov Yule.
Nedher Melvil nor Colvil wood, more dhan colnel or
culnel, be herd in Ingland; did Melvin and Colvin, (az
now doz Ballantyne) venture to' appear dheir own melodious
ſelvs; raddher dhan lead dhe Ingliſh (evver
reddy!) to' treat dhem az dhe ſlaves ov dhe def tyrant
Ettymollogy. Hware, howevver, dhe true picture iz
yet inviolate, ov anny aincient name; to' warp (and
warp wilfoolly) dhe unabated power, wer unwordhy
anny native ov dhe land, to' hwich it belongs. No
Caledonian or Hibernian can evver be mean enuf to' ape
inability: an inability, hwich reflects no more diſonnor
on dhe Ingliſh, dhan on dhe French, hoo ſet dhem dhe
exampel, ov relinquishing dhe guttural aſpirate, az a
ruffer ſound dhan even dheir propper names cood admit.
Dho dhe Welch, like dhe Ingliſh, hav ſmoodhed dhis
guttural away; and ſo retain onely Bauan and Vauan (or
Bawan and Vawan) ov Baughan and Vaughan; hwich
dhe Scottiſh Strachan (az if Straughan) joins Ingliſhly
in Strawan; dhe oddher remnants ov dhe Gaulic tribes
can ſtil, becauz dhey doo ſtil, emit dhe fool guttural, in
ſuch names az Bucchan, Brechin, Drogheda; Lough--
Ern, Loch-Lomond, Auchindinny, Auchtermuchty, and
dhe reſt: dhe Scotch havving evver preferred dhe direct,
az dhe juſt picture ov dhe guttural ſound.
DHEZE hints havving all been antiſcipated, boath in
dhe former and prezzent Vollume; to' dhis chapter a
concluding caucion proovs indiſpenſabel, on dhe emphattic
part, or ſyllabbic ſtres, ov Caledonian names;
hwich wil in dhis point, no more dhan Greek proppers,
acnollege Ingliſh law. Peculiarly dherfore az ar enfoarced
on dhe penultimate Thalia, Euphrates, Ariſtides,
Thraſybulus; no les foarcibel on dhe latter, or laſt, ar
Cantyre, Blantyre, Auchtertyre, and evvery Celtic tyre;
hwich, like dhe French terre, ſignifies land. Alike
ſtrong on dhe laſt ar ſuch az Auchintoul, Auchinbrec;
and Auchinlec moddernized into' Afflec, ſtil ſtreſſed on
dhe latter in Scotland; dho by Ingliſh Anallogy, on dhe
former. Yet dhe Ingliſh enfoarce dhe latter, and dhe
Scotch dhe former ov Carlile. Carham dherfore or
Cardigan, Stanmore or Stanley, howevver natturally
ſtrong on dhe former or firſt, can no more preclude
ſtrength from dhe ſeccond ov dhe Ingliſh or Welſh
Carpue, Carnan, Carnarvon; than ov dhe Scotch
Cargil, Carneggy, Arbuthnot, Strathmore, Cathcart,
Dunlop, Dundas and Dundee. No more (in-fine) ar
Elderſlee, or Woodhouſelee, bound to' transfer dhe ſtres
from dhe laſt to' dhe fiſt, widh Hammerſley or Wedderly,
dhan Amſterdam to' ſtres widh Nordhampton, or
Nordhington; or dhe proppers ov won language to' receiv
all dhe laws ov anoddher.
NEXT to' dhe three grait artikels ov pronunciacion
peculiarity ov dialect muſt ly in term, phraze, o
arraingement. Hware words and iddioms becom diſtinct,
different dialects conſtitute different languages
But dhe ſame roots, branches, or compounds, often remain,
boath in aincient and moddern dialects; hwile
dhe latter, ſomtimes dhe former, hav, parſially or totally,
chainged dheir ſenſes or dheir ſounds. Dhis
graiteſt (az leaſt ſuſpected) dainger, dhis primmary
foarce ov mutual miſunderſtanding and unintended miſrepprezentaccion,
cannot too ſoon or too attentively be
obviated in evvery clas ov ſpeech. Dhus doo dhe following
Ingliſh words becom Scotch, by being applied in
a different from dhe prezzent Ingliſh acceptation: Abbacy,
college, claſs, humannity, land, lodging, loft, roof,
ſole, chimney, reek; ſtair, turnpike, tolbooth, cauſey,
wynd, cloſe, gate, poart, gutter, ſhed, park, dike, ſlap,
pollicy. Dhe Scottiſh dialect uzes abbacy for abbey,
college for univerſity, clas for ſcool or ſcool-room, humannity
for Lattin, land for tennement, lodging for manſion-houſe,
loſt for gallery, roof for cieling, ſole for ſil,
chimney for grate or ſtove, chimneypiece for mantelpiece,
reek for ſmoke; ſtair (hwich iz but ſtep) for ſtaircaſe,
turnpike for winding-ſtairs or wel-ſtairs, az ſcale--
ſtairs for ſtairs direct; tolbooth (not unlike dhe Lattin
careeres) for prizzon, cauſey for middel pavement, az
plain-ſtones for ſide-pavement or foot-way; wynd for
lane, not dhat winded (or wound), but dhat wended or
went, near dhus indeed to' bended or bent; gate for
going (or walking) way, and now in gait, dhe way ov
going, dhe walk or manner ov walking; poart (French)
for gate, cloſe for alley, gutter for kennel, ſhed for ſlip
ov land, park for paddoc, dike for wall, ſlaps for gap in it;
pollicy for plantation or planting-improovment, round
a rural manſion, hwich dhe ſame dialed titels dhe place.
Dhe Scots retain, az may be ſuppozed, dhe older
names ov things annimate and inannimate. Hence dheir
continnuing uſe ov tod, brac, glede, fluke, wilk, midge,
for dhe now-Ingliſh fox, badger, kite, flounder, perwinkel,
gnat; and dhe familliar interchainge ov ſtang,
ſtote, hog, grice, boar, tike, widh dhe quite oddher
cretures colt or foal, ſteer or boolloc, lamb or yong ſheep,
pig (grice being dhat ov dhe wild-boar) beir or bair, dur
or dog; ov hwich latter, indeed, a tike iz but a varriacion.
In figgure, dhe Scottiſh draggon ſoars dhe Ingliſh kite
dhe harbinger ov balloon. Dhe Inbliſh pad iz a pacer;
dhe Scotch pad, dhe pillion upon it. No les varied in
ſound and ſenſe ar higher annimals: lad and las, bride
and bridegroom, wife and frend. In Ingland lad and
las mean yong boy and guirl; in Scotland an unmarried
(ſomtimes even a married) man and woomman. Bride
and bridegroom (dhus far her umbel ſervant!) ar applied
by dhe Scotch, az by dhe Dutch, to' dhe parties juſt before
marriage; by dhe Ingliſh, to' dhe pair juſt after it.
Man and woomman ar genneral terms, comprehending
reſpective particculars. Wife waz wonce in Ingliſh, az
ſtil in Scotch, interchaingeabel widh woomman: witnes
an old wife, perhaps nevver married. Dhe Dutch hav
debaſed dhe word into' a groce acceptation. Nature
gave to' all men, relations dhe firſt frends: dhe Greeks
held frends oddher ſelvs. Az dherfore evvery broddher
and ſiſter iz a frend, evvery frend proovs a broddher
or ſiſter; and yet dhare iz a frend, dhat ſticketh cloſer
dhan a broddher!
Ov human occupations, herd, wright, and ſmith muſt
hav been dhe erlieſt, az moaſt neſceſſsry: dhe tender,
dhe worker, and dhe ſmiter. Won fed all manner ov
cattel, named alſo (from Lattin and French); dhe
ſeccond became ezily engroced, howevver various hiz
powers, by dhe grait material, wood; and dhe laſt found
ſoon ſuffiſcient variety in dhe metallic reign. So genneral
agents required ſpeſcificacion in dheir objects. Precizzion
produced ſhepherd, cartwright, blacſmith, and
dheir fellows. Hwile to' dhe old dialect dhe indeffinite
carracters continnued to' ſuffice; refining language tranſferred
dhe name not ſo much from dhe keeper, az from
dhe French harde, to' dhe graiter objects ov hiz care.
Dhe oxherd or ſwineherd dhus tended dhe herd ov oxen
or ſwine, az faithfoolly az dhe ſhepherd or goatherd, dhe
floc ov ſheep or goats. Dhe Ingliſh joiner conſpired
widh dhe French carpenter, to' exterminate onneſt old
Wright; hoo, like Smith, remained onely in ſpeſcifying
compounds, or in a ſimpel ſurname. Dhe carpenter,
ſtil excluded dhe land-habbitacions ov Scotland, became
at leaſt dhe ſhipwright dhare; hwile in Ingland, az in
France hiz parent charpentier, he iz dhe genneral worker
in wood. Tradeſman and merchant hav, in Ingland, extended
dheir idea. In Scotland, dhoze terms (like ouvrier and
marchand) mean not much more dhan artifficer and
hopkeeper. Dealers in wine, vinnegar, coal, or oddher
commoddity not ſold in ſhops, ar by dhe Ingliſh ſtil allowed
dhe titel ov merchant. In South-Britrain dhe
clodhier (or mannufacturer) makes and prepares dhe cloth,
for dhe cloth-factor; hoo, from hiz warehouſe, ſupplies
(widh dhe bales wanted) dhe woollen-draper, hoom dhe
Scots name dhe cloth-merchant. A ſilk-merchant iz, in
in like manner, dhe Ingliſh ſilk-mercer; az in Ingland,
dhe habberdaſher ov ſowing-ſilks or threds, iz nedher
more nor les dhan a ſilkman. Dhe ſteward on an eſtate
haz been hiddherto' termed by dhe Scotch dhe factor, or
chaumerlan for chaimberlain. Dhe Ingliſh baily and
Scotch griev (or overſeer) iz hiz depputy. Dhe anallogy
may ezily rize to' dhe firſt and ſeccond madgiſtrate ov a
corporacion, hweddher dhe Scottiſh Provvoſt and Bailies;
dhe Ingliſh Mayor and Aldermen (elder-men or ſennators);
le Prévot des Marchands, et les Echevins de Paris; ou
les Maire et Echevins d'Orléans. Provvoſt and Baily
hav been high dignities in Ingland, az dhey yet ar in
France and in Scotland. Provvoſt iz ſtil dhe ſuperior in
certain Ingliſh colleges; and dhe High-Baily retains hiz
titel (at leaſt) ov madgiſtracy in Weſtminſter. Az baily
howevver haz ſunk to' a low officer in Ingland, ſo precentor,
from a (muzical) dignitary ſtil ſubſiſting in Ingliſh
cathedrals, haz ſunk in Scotland, to' a parriſh--
FOAR parts ov dhe boddy ar named in Scotch by Ingliſh
words now ov oddher meaning: dhe ear, dhe palm,
dhe buttoc, and dhe ankel. Dhe ear iz yet called dhe
lug, hwich iz dhe lobe ov it, or ov annithing elſe; dhe
palm, or hollow ov dhe hand, dhe loof; implying (perhaps)
elongacion, hweddher ov hight or deepening; if
loaf transpoze not vola. Dhe hip, hwich iz dhe haneh
or buckel-bone, iz onely transferred to' dhe butting part
ov dhe fleſh. Dhe Scottiſh cute (dho uttered Frenchly)
iz no groſer dhan dhe Ingliſh (truly vulgar!) abbreviacion,
ov acute; and ſo denomminates dhe ſharp bone
ov dhe leg. Dhe claw ov a crab or lobſter, varied natturally
into' dhe tae, now toe; az dhe claw ov a tabel,
may converge into' a foot.
Ov nattural inannimate things, dhe Ingliſh ſky vaut,
or welkin, proovs by hwatevver anallogy dhe Scottiſh
lift: ſo a fall ov ſnow ſwels into' a ſtorm ov ſnow; and
even dhe meek ſnow on dhe ground, ſeems punningly
arrouzed into' a lying ſtorm. An Ingliſh dimpel ſinks
raddher dhan ſwels, to' a Scottiſh pit, in dhe cheek,
dhe chin, or dhe wauter. Gennerals doutles imply particculars:
hence iz wauter ſtil dhe ſubſtitute ov rivver,
benorth dhe wauter ov Tweed; not (on dhe) ſouth (ſide)
ov (dhe rivver) Tweed. Hwatevver be dhe ſoarce ov dhe
Scotch merry lilt, a tune ſtarts emphattically a ſpring,
a nattural ſpring ov joy: Auld ſprings bear (or guee)
nae price — Old ſongs bair or guiv no price, dho frequently
dhey be dhe fineſt, Boarn (like its parent
borne) dhe bound or limmit, came ezily to' repprezent
(in burn) dhe rivvulet, ril, or brook, dhat bounded particcular
propperty. In Scotland, and remote provvinces,
it dhus uſefoolly continnues to' glide; but, in its primmitive
ſenſe, it haz almoaſt vanniſſhed to' Dhat undiſcovver'
d contry, from hoos boarn No travveller returns.
Stripe Scottiſhly figgures, not onely a wauter-boarn,
but a ſlip ov land. Dhe ſhore, on hwich keys or hwarfs
ar bilt, becoms dheir ſubſtitute in Scottiſh expreſſion.
Pith, being dhe marrow ov plants, ſpeaks in Ingliſh
figgure intellectual; in Scotch, corporeal ſtrength. By
ſuch interchainge ov cauz and effect, container and content,
ov hoal and part, litteral and figgurative, doo dhe
Scots uze bear or bair, widh its diminnutive big, for its
formative or compound barley; lint dhe prodduce, for flax
dhe producer; hwin and fog, dhe preddeceſſor-terms for
furz and aftermath, dhe ſucceſſors; briar, for dhe peering
blade, hweddher from rezemblance to' dhe Ingliſh briar, or
by deſcent from bruyere, heath; hed for ear, ov grain; corn
for oats, ſpice for pepper, flower for nozegay; blade for leaf,
ov roze or cabbage; lime for mortar, hwich iz lime plaſhed;
bubbel for ſnot; berry for curran; alſo for pap, infantine
gruel; gravy for ſahce, perhaps widhout gravy; roaſted
(truly roaſtet) hens, for roaſt ſowls; pen for quil, like dhe
Ingliſh quil for pen; nib, dhe point, for dhe hoal beak
or bil; prawn for ſhrimp, its diminnutive; and ſtore,
for dhe cattel, dhat compote it. Different contries wil
hav different names for dhe ſame kind ov bred; ſomtimes
different kinds under won name. Dhus dhe
Scotch bake iz buttered biſcuit; and dhe Scotch bun, dhe
Ingliſh cake, hwile dhe Ingliſh bun varies into' dhe
Scotch cooky, hwig, and oddher nicnames. Dhe Scotch
cake iz a braud and thin oaten biſket; dhe fardel, won
thic and triangular; applied dherfore alſo to' dhe ſhortbred,
ſo named az conſiſting ov dhe fineſt flour and
butter, oft enriched widh ſugar and confections. A
ſheaf, ſheav, raddher ſhave, ov a loaf, iz a large ſlice ov
it; a crumb, a ſmall bit, firſt ov bred, dhence ov anny
thing; a tet, a littel taſte ov it; a hair, dhe ſmalleſt
partikel, eſpecially ov ſugar or ſalt. In dhe ſame figgurative
and familliar ſtile, dhe Scots employ foar partitives
or extractives ov cluſtered quantity; but not ov
promiſcuous application: loc, from dhe French loque;
pickel (or puckel) from dhe Spanniſh poco; curn, varied
from quern; and hween, hwich but varies fewing. Dhus
a pickel, a curn, a loc, means a littel (ov) ſalt, ſagar,
ſand, or dhe like. So a pickel hay, a loc ſirae; a littel
(or ſom) hay or ſtaw, and a hween apels, a few appels.
In wairabels, dhe Scotch employ loop for ftitch, ov anny
thing workt or knitted; and loops for frogs, or trimmings;
dhe nec, for dhe cape ov a coat, and dhe collar ov a
ſhirt; az dhe handband, for dhe wriſtband: a coat, for a
petticoat; retaining alike pouch for pocket, and poke for
bag. Dhe Ingliſh ſtil make pouch edher hag ov a wallet,
az wel az dhe leddhern pocket for gunpowder. No
wonder poke remains in dhe old addage: By not a pig
in a poke; hware alliteracion haz varied dhe annimal
from dhe French, dho dhe Ingliſh, enclozing doutles
different annimals, let onely dhe cat out ov dhe bag. So
doo dhe French and Ingliſh interchainge dhe cat and
dog. N'éveillez pas le chat qui dort. Let ſleeping
dogs ly. Un chien regarde bien un évêque. A cat may
look on a king. Dho dhe exchainge be always accountabel,
notthing can now make Ingliſh dhe uſe ov napkin
for handkerchief, knitting for tape, boxes for galoſhes or
ſhoo-ſlippers; ov a cod, codware and pincod, for a pillow
(or a pod), pillowcaſe or pillowbair and pincooſſion.
Dhe Scotch hav kept dhe bezom, and dhe Ingliſh dhe
ſimpel broom, its primmitive material, for dhe ſweeping
implement: boath hav kept inkhorn for inkpiece, by
ſimmilar cauz; dho horn make no part ov dhe won,
more dhan broom ov dhe oddher. Birch, being in Ingland
dhe material ov dhe rod, proovs dhare its az nattural
ſubititute, az doo dhe taws (or tawed thongs) in Scotland.
Brander or brand-iron, filler, tea-kitchen, tea-tray,
ſlop-bowl and ſugar-box hav, by various (not always
obvious) cauz, guivven way to' grid-iron, funnel,
(perhaps varied from tunnel) tea-urn, tea-board, ſlopbaſon,
ſugar-diſh. Dhe bands ov a dore, howevver expreſſive,
hav yielded to' dhe hinges. Widhout impropriety
doo dhe Scotch uze decay for decline, ov helth.
Yet not alike mutually underſtood, won dialect pronounces
a perſon in a decline; dhe oddher, in a decay. coffin,
in all its parent-tungs a baſket or hamper, haz not
unnatturallv, in Scotch, ſubſtituted Berrial, (or
familliarly berrying) in edher kingdom dhe terminating
action, iz oft in boath uzed for dhe hoal ſolemnity ov
dhe funeral. So dhe Scotch extend ſcutcheon, dho but
won member, into' dhe hoal atchievment, vulgarized by
dhe Ingliſh into' hachment.
Guear, ſtil (rich) ſubſtance or welth in Scotland, iz
ſcarce known ſouth ov, Tweed, but in a horſes guears
or caparrizons. Like dhe Lattins and dhe French, dhe
Scotch expres by dhe principal material (ſilver, melted
into' ſiller) dhe grand equivvalent monney. Dhe Ingliſh
fee iz a lawyers, phyziſcians, or oddher onnorary; dhe
Scotch alſo, a ſervants wages. Dhe Scottiſh ſtipend iz
purely eccleſiaſtical; dhe Ingliſh implies anny ſallary.
Dhe parſonage-houſe iz in Scotland dhe manſe, and dhe
glebe-land dhe glebe. Wit ſtil includes in Scotland, not
onely dhe flower, but dhe hoal eſſence ov wizdom or
knollege. Dhus E' wot bought iz worth twa for nought:
Won wit baught iz worth two for naught; or, Baught
wit iz beſt. I had nae wot o'd: I had no notice ov it. Ye
wod hae wot o' aw theng! Yoo wood know every thing.
Az a flaw iz a crac or blemmiſh, a fib iz in Scotch a
flaw. Dhe Scots call a prezzent a compliment; hwich
it may ſo far be, az it doz onnor. Dhey term a quarrel
or littigacion a plea, hwich iz but an argument to'
plead; and guiv dhe genneral name ov account, to' anny
bil ov particculars due. A glee, hwich iz in Ingland an
arch littel ſong, iz in Scotland a litteral ſquint. Dhe
fret hwich ſpeaks in Scotch a ſuperſtiſcious obzervance,
may be better traced dhan from φρητια (fretia) dhe mouth
ov a wel, or even from φριττω (fritto) I ſhudder, from
dhe Gaulic freitach, a vow. Dhe Scotch hold abundance
dhe ſuffiſcience it aught to' produce; dhe Ingliſh
hold abundance, according to' orrigin, dhat indeffinite
much, ſo apt to' graſp at more.
DHE adjectives, ov hwich dhe Scots hav retained or
altered dhe primmitive ſenſe; differing edher way from
dhe Ingliſh, ar few (if anny) beſide gentel, tender, frail,
dainty, ſtingy, diſcrete, ſmart, pointed, momentary,
propoarcional, conform; widh oddhers we ſhal ſee in
peculiar combinacion. Dhe gentel Shepherd iz dhe highborn
Swain; a tender perſon, an ailing perfon; a frail,
a febel, conſtitucion; a dainty lad, a fine fellow, dhe
verry antipode ov an eppicure; a ſtingy, a ſurpercillious,
not a cloſe-fiſted carracter; ſtinted az ar boath. A diſcrete
perſon iz a civvil perſon, in Scottiſh idea, hwich
holds civillity dhe teſt, nay dhe ſynnonymy, ov diſcreſcion
or diſcernment. A ſmart child, or perſon, iz a
quic or clevver won. A pointed iz a preciſe, punctillious,
perſon. Had not momentary been herd in Scotland
for momentous, and ſpirritual for ſpirrituous, ſuch
chainges wood ſcarce hav been ſuppozed poſſibel. Yet
hardly more tollerabel iz dhe affectacion ov dhe deffinite
matthemattic terms propoarcional and central, for dhe
equally propper indeffinites propoarcionabel and centrical
or centric. Dhus talks Propriety ov all elſe propoarcionabel,
not propoarcional; az ov a centrical (or centric) (not
central) ſittuacion. So ov all elſe conformabel, not conform;
dho BACON did philoſopphically ſay: Variety ov
tones doth diſpoze dhe ſpirrits to' variety ov paſſions conform
unto' dhem. No wonder if ſocial and ſociabel be
confounded, dho preciſely ov dhe ſame indiſpenſabel
diſcriminacion. Social ar all members ov ſociety; ſociabel
onely dhoze, hoo ar qualified and inclinabel to' partake
ſocial joys. In Ingliſh az in French, dhe date ov
dhe year prefers dhe cardinal to' dhe ordinal number.
Dhus dhe year won thouzand, ſevven hundred, and
eighty-ſix: not dhe year (won) thouzandth, ſeven-hundredth,
eightieth and ſixth, az in dhe aincient languages.
So ſay dhe Ingliſh, Number won, number two; not
Number firſt, number ſeccond, and dhe reſt. Yet, hware
dhe Freneh ſay, Henri Quatre, Louis Quatorze; dhe
Ingliſh uze Henry dhe foarth, Lewis dhe foarteenth,
and dhe like.
Two centuries ago our Language, dho advancing to'
her ſtandard, had nedher introduced its az dhe neutral
appropriative, nor hoo az dhe relative perſonal pronoun:
an ellegance, hwich not onely ſevvers perſons from
things, but our tung from dhe tungs dhat ſurround her,
or even dhat wer tuned before her. Hence dhe gate
turned on his (for its or her) hinges; and hence Our
Fahdher, hwich (for hoo) art in Hevven! Won had not
yet becom dhe butifool perſonal pronoun, except in dhe
ſenſe ov ſomboddy: much les cood dhe reflecting appropriative
(wons) appear. Hence prooved he, hiz, and himſelf,
dhe indefinite ſubſtitutes ov won, wons and wons--
ſelf; and hence behooved it dhe vennerabel Tranſlators
to' ſay:
To' lov hiz neighbor az himſelf, iz better dhan all
hoal-burnt-offerings and ſaccrifices.
Hwich muſt now be, To' lov wons neighbor (if not nabor)
az wons-ſelf, and ſo on. He dherfore and himſelf
cannot reprezent won and wons-ſelf, az dhey ſtil attempt
in dhe old dialect, ſaying; Dho won ſhood meet widh dhe
graiteſt diſappointments, he (for won) ſhood nevver abandon
himſelf (for wons-ſelf) to' deſpair.
4. VERB.
Manny ar dhe verbs, hwich under won form hav different
meaning, or different application, in dhe dialects:
particcularly to' — cry, greet, ken, notice, mind; find,
cap, throw, caſt, hurl, tine, looz, teem; kindel, light,
dight, ſwerv, ſerv, want, lern, hire, ſet; flite, flit,
ſtay; yoke, ſhear; ſow, work; wale, enhance, apply,
poddher, miſguiv; ſtic, guide, challenge, diſcharge,
ſcale; ſcalp, pay, nip, ding, affront, blac, green, even;
ſcorn, gloom, ſnuf, fever.
DHE old dialect cries upon (for calls to') a perſon; and
cries (for calls) won litterally up or down. So a crying
wife, iz indeed a woomman (not weeping, but) crying out,
in labor; hwile a greeting iz a crying or weeping (not
a ſaluting) carracter. Dhe Ingliſh greet iz a reggular
verb; dhe Scotch pretterites ar grat and grutten. Ken
dhe old (ſo Scottiſh) know, haz now no Ingliſh idea, but
dhat ov deſcry, or know afar.
Hiz eaguel-glances kenn'd dhe foe,
Dho far beyond my ken.
Notice, az a verb, takes Ingliſhly deſigned, Scottiſhly
accidental, notice. So different iz I did not notice him,
I did not obzerv him; from I did not notice him, I took
no notice ov him. So to' notice a thing iz to' bring it
into' notice, not merely to' perceiv it. In like manner,
to' mind haz dialectically verry different, even oppozite
(az active and paſſive) ſenſes. I doo not (or don' t) mind it,
means in Scotch, I doo not remember it: in won dialect,
I hav it not in my mind or memmory; in dhe oddher,
I beſtow not my mind (or attenſion) upon it. Find iz uzed
Scottiſhly for feel: I find it yet, I feel it ſtil; nay, for
ſeek or ſerch: Find in yoor pooch for'd — Feel or ſerch
yoor pocket for it. Dhe Ingliſh cap (at leaſt) verſes; dhe
Scotch cap (for catch) evverithing az, (from tordre) dhey
throw (for twiſt) evverithing; hwile dhe Ingliſh throw,
in twiſting ſenſe, onely thred or ſilk. It wer forrain here
to' hint, dhat a woodden bowl from dhe ſhape iz, not
quite widhout cauz, named a cap in Scotland: Nor,
az in looſe dialects won particippial often ſupplants anoddher,
can we wonder if a cappet boddy repprezent a
capping (ſnappiſh) creture. To' caſt iz no unnattural
(wer it entirely a Scottiſh) repprezentative ov to' warp,
az wood or mettal; nay, ov to' chainge or fade, az doz
a cullor. To' hurl, hwich iz to' ſhoot or lanch widh
direct veloſcity, iz by dhe Scotch employed for hwirl,
hweel or trundel. In dhe ſublime dherfore
— Vengeance hurls dhe bolt — az
— Aingels — tine dhe ſlant lightning.
To' tine waz dhus to' ſhed or looz, az it ſtil iz in dhe
aincient dialect. Aw waz tint, dhat fel by — ov punniſhment,
dhe hoal (and more) waz dezerved. Dhe Scotch
uze loſt for drown'd: dhe ſhip and crew wer loſt, for —
dhe ſhip waz loft, and dhe crew drown' d. To' teem,
(from tumere) to' ſwel or be fool, procedes Scottiſhly to
dhe ſenſe ov overflowing and pouring out; hwence teemed
ſeems to' hav ſhrunk into' teem (emptied or empty)
in dhe North, and to' toom (u French) in dhe South ov
Scotland. To' kindel fire, iz dhe old and juſt expreſſion.
Dhe Ingliſh now light dhe litteral fire, and kindel anny
figgurative flame; but fire-lighters alone uze lit for lighted,
az doo buf-duelliſts or dheir admirers, fit for faught.
Dight, dhe old wipe or clean, ſcarce coutinnues Ingliſh in
dhe compound particippial bedlight, trimm'd or trict up.
Swerv, inverting dhe power ov dhe aſpirate, becoms dhe
Scottith ſwerf, peculiarly uzed for ſwoon. To' ſerv, or
help at tabel, iz French and Scotch; but Scotch onely iz
ſerv for ſuffice. Ar ye ſerv'd (truly ſerr'd)? Hav yoo
(got) enuf? To' ſerv wons-ſelf ov a thing iz an obſolete
Galliciſm, for making uſe ov it. To' want, uniting in Ingliſh
dhe gradacion to' be widhout, to' need, and to' dezire
(carere, indigere, deſiderare) can ſcarce be uzed widh
precizzion, hware nedher need nor dezire, far les hware
averſion iz implied. Incongruous dherfore muſt appear
He nevver wants an ailment, in evvery ſenſe but dhat ov
being widhout it; dho even dhare dhat ov need may be
implied, pain being ſomtimes conducive to' plezzure.
Nor les excepcionabel, becauz impreciſe, iz — Won cannot
guiv common-ſenſe to' him hoo wants it, hwich may
edher mean, Won cannot guiv common ſenſe, hware
nature haz denied it; or, Won, hoos ſenſe iz uncommon,
cannot (always) guiv common-ſenſe, to' him hoo requires
it, onely ov dhe common kind. In dhe oridginal and
indeffinite acceptacion ov not havving, ſays dhe Scottiſh
poet —
Hiz onnor manna want: he poinds your guear.
Syne drivv'n frae hooſe and hald, hwaur wol ye ſteer?
Dhe Squire muſt hav hiz due: he pounds, and lo!
Drivven from houſe and hold, ah! hwiddher go?
Dhe ſame interchainge ov cauz and effect, dhat made
apprendre teach az wel az lern; made lern boath lern
and teach. Je vous apprendrai à vivre: I ſhal lern (for
teach) yoo better manners. To' hire, like its correſpondent
louer, ſignifies in Scotch boath to' let and to'
hire; dho in Ingliſh dhe latter no more implies to' let,
dhan doz now lern teach, or let ſtop, az in dhe wonce
ſore let and hindered; or in Hamlets I'l make a goaſt
ov him, dhat letteth me. By ſuch coincidence ov
oppozites, doz looſe language ſomtimes ſay:How much
d'ye guiv for dhis or dhat? inſted ov How much doz won
guiv, or how much doo yoo take for it? Certain it iz, dhat
a horſehirer or ſtabler means in Scotland a horſe-letter or
ſtabel-keeper; becauz he iz ſaid to' hire out, hwen underſtood
to' let out hiz horſes for hire. Dhe Ingliſh alſo
let inannimate propperty, houzes, lodgings, farms, or dhe
like; hwile dhe Scotch continnue to' ſet dhem. Az
vulgar Ingliſh uzes litterally ſet for ſit, gennuine Scotch
uzes figguratively and Frenchly ſet for ſit on or becom.
Il vous ſied bien de parky de la ſorte: It ſets (for becoms)
yoo wel (litterally, it ſits wel on yoo) to' talk ſo. How
different from dhe Ingliſh iz dhe Scotch ſet of, for turn
out or ſend a packing! If he grow trubbelſom, I'l ſet
him of — I wil turn him out or away; I ſhal ſend him a
packing. Dhe Scotch ſet in dancing, hware dhe Ingliſh
foot it. To' flyte or flite (to' fly out), ſtil Scotch for — to'
ſcold, waz wonce Ingliſh for burſting into' tears. Dhou
pootteſt my flutings into' dhy bottel: dhe laccrymal, or
tear-vial, ov dhe aincients. Flit or fleet, widh ſhort or
long vowel, keeps Ingliſh for wing away, or fly ſwiftly;
but iz entirely Scotch, in dhe caſe ov mooving to' anoddher
houſe or abode; az in dhe old phraze before Martinmas
and Hwitſuntidc: D' ye ſit or flit? a queſtion
arizing, not from lov ov chainge, but ov improovment.
Perhaps in evvery dialect, except Ingliſh, ſtay and rezide,
ar interchaingeabel. No wonder if Hware doo yoo ſtay?
(for Hware doo yoo liv?) be a Scotticiſm. To' yoke being
(doutles) often figgurative, dhe Scotch yoke not onely
dhe drawers, but dhe carridge; ſaying: Yoke dhe horſes,
for, poot to' dhe horſes; nay, dhe coach iz yoket, for,
dhe horſes ar poot to'. To' ſhear opperates onely widh
ſhears; but dhe Scots ſhear grain widh a hook, hwile dhe
Ingliſh reap it widh a ſickel. So, widh oddher due inſtrument,
dhe former ſhear (cut down) hwat dhe latter
ſhred — cale, greens or cabbage. To' ſow or work widh
dhe needel, remains Scotch, in dhe old ſound and ſhape
ov ſew. Dhe Ingliſh now preferring and peculiarizing
dhe genneral term, work, talk ov a workt (not wraught
or ſow'd, far les ſew'd) waſtecoat, or oddher piece ov
needelwork. So dhe Scotch work ſtockings, and dhe
Ingliſh knit dhem. Dhe Scotch call knitting-needels,
hwat dhey ar, wires. Dhe needel and hweel ar common
to' Minerva's daughters; dhe roc and reel wer dhe diſtaf
and romb. Dhe firſt ſimpel taſk ov dhe needel, waz
(perhaps) dhe ſewing (now ſowing) ov a ſeam; and dhence
came to' ſpeak anny taſk ov needel-wook. Sew (ſow)
yoor ſeam, laſſy: mind yoor work, guirl. To' wale or
wile, to' hev wol and weil, iz in Scotch, to' pic and
chooz. To' wale may hav been to' mark, after picking;
and to' wile, to' gain by wile. Ingliſh, hwich did col
(and clip), now ſnufs dhe candel; dim Scotch continnues
to' col it. To' enhance (from enhauſſer, dhe preddeceſſor
ov rehauſſer) ſtil in Ingliſh, az in French, to' or
ſo far az to' engroce. Won may apply to' a perſon, but
muſt apply wons-ſelf to' a purſuit. Nor can an argument
(howevver annimated) apply to' a caſe: it can but
be applicabel to' it. To' poddher confines dhe buſtel,
verry propperly in Scotch, to' a canvas. To' miſguiv,
genneral in Scottiſh acceptacion, Ingliſh ſcarce now
knows anny miſguiving befide dhat ov dhe hart. My
hart miſgave me: my hart failed me. To' ſtic, being
infix, came Scottiſhly to' ſtab,deſtroy, or poot an end to'
annithing. To' guide, from conducting a perſon, proceded
in Scotch to' mannage or anny way uze anny
thing. Dhus perſon or thing, il uzed, iz Scottiſhly il
guided. To' challenge won widh a thing, means in
Scotch to' charge won widh it, or arrain won ov it. If
dhe Ingliſh charge a perſon to' doo a thing, az wel az
widh dhe dooing ov it; and diſcharge a perſon from a
duty, or from dhe dooing ov it; dhe former being a
pozzitive command, dhe latter preciſely its remooval, iz
by dhe Scotch (not unnatturallv) extended into' a prohibiſcion.
Turning dherfore diſcharge not merely into'
dhe privvative, but dhe oppozite ov charge; az dhey
charge a perſon to' doo a thing, dhey diſcharge him alſo
to' doo it; meaning to' guiv him dhe contrary charge, or
to' charge him not to' doo it. Ingliſh howevver, hwich
may hinder to' doo or from dooing, can onely diſcharge
(diſmis or releaſe) from a duty, or its performance. To'
ſcale, hweddher from eſcaler or eſcailler (now écaler and
écailler), to' ſhel or unſhel; σϰεδαω (ſkedao), I ſhed or
ſcatter, or from dhe Gaulic ſcoillam, to' ſplit or burſt;
includes, by Scottiſh extenſion, to' diſmis, diſperſe,
evaccuate. Iz dhe Kirk ſcaled? Iz church over? Scale
dhe ſcool: diſmis dhe ſcollars. To' ſcalp means in
Scotch to ſpank or ſmac, widhout excoriacion; az to'
pay, in like infantine ſtile, correſponds widh dhe
figgurative and familliar to' lic. Ye'l be paid (peid),
bairn. Yool be lict, child. To' nip, chiefly now figgurative
in Ingliſh, iz ſtil in Scotch to' pinch. To' ding,
oridginally to' drive or knoc, means in Scottiſh figgure
to' beat or outdoo. Nah! ye hev dung me: Nay, yoo
hav outdon me. To' affront iz, in Scotland, to' poot
out ov countenance; in Ingland, to' poot out ov temper.
To' blac, like to' ding, means to' outwit, or ſurpas in
ſkil; perhaps, from dhe no verry gennerous opperacion,
in uncerremonious times, ov dhe victors blacking dhe
brow ov dhe vanquiſhed. To' green, meaning Scottiſhly
to' long, muſt figgure dhe paly hue ov dhe longing;
or ov hwat Ingland terms dhe green-ſicnes. To' even
won perſon to' anoddher iz, in Scotch, to' poot won on
dhe levvel widh dhe oddher. He iz even'd to' her: he
iz imputed her match. To' ſcorn means no oddher
Scottith ſcorn, dhan a jeer. To' gloom, or look glum, to'
ſcoul, to' frown, to' pout; affects not ſo much in Scotch
dhe ſky, az dhe beholder. Dhe nordhern dialect ſays:
D'ye ſnuf? Dhe ſoddhern, Doo yoo take ſnuf? Won, I'm
no ſnuffer; dhe oddher, I am no ſnuf-taker. Dhe latter,
ov anoddher nazal verb: Don't ſnif; dhe former;
Dinna ſnifter. Dhis: he ſnivvals, for, he ſpeaks thro'
dhe noze; dhat: he ſnivvels, for he drivvels. Dhe Scotch
retain dhe primmitive dwine, hware dhe Ingliſh prefer
dhe diminnutive and frequentative dwindel. Dhe Ingliſh
on dhe contrary know onely pine; dhe Scotch, boath
pine. and pinguel. Az dhe Ingliſh prefer dhe iddiom to'
dhe nomminal verb in, to' take ſnuf, raddher dhan to'
ſnuf; ſo in to' take dhe fever?or grow ſeveriſh, raddher
dhan to' fever.
INGLISH adverbs ar ſomtimes warpt into' Scottiſh
peculiarity; az reddily, freely, ſimply, prezzently, elſe,
and aguen, dhus employed: Dhat wil not reddily happen,
for — Dhat wil not probbably happen; he waz freely
kind, for — he waz excedingly kind; it iz ſimply impoſſibel,
for — it iz abſſolutely impoſſibel; hware iz he prezzently
dhe ſenſe ov préſentement)? for — hware iz he
now? I hav told yoo elſe, for — I hav -told yoo alreddy.
Doo not aſſk me now: I'l tel yoo aguen, for
— Doo not aſk me now: I ſhal tel yoo afterwards,
or anoddher time. Hwenevver iz often confined
by dhe Scotch to' dhe ſpeſcificacion ov. az ſoon az,
hwich dhey alſo familliarize into how ſoon. He ſhal
hav it hwenevver, of how ſoon, he coms; for — az ſoon
az he coms. Dhe old conteſt between dhe indeffinitely
extenſive nevver ſo and evver ſo, oppozites ſo near az to
he almoaſt interchaingeabel; ſeems howevver duly determined,
againſt dhe long-prevailing neggative. Dhis
won inſtantaneouſly perceivs; talk evver ſo much, or
rezon ehr ſo long. Dhe Scotch uze Com away, for
Walk in, or Com forward; and ſay away., for ſay on —
Procede. Plezing iz dhe ſurprize ov dhe Scottiſh intejeccion
Out away! O ſtrainge! Iz it true? Yoo don't ſay
ſo! Cognates proov natturally interchaingeabel: dhus
out for of, in ſuch phrazes az Hwat made (wonce garred
or gart) yoo cut out yoor hair? — I wood cut out dhe
ſleve — So — Take out yoor glas, or I'l cut a lug out ov
yoor hed; for — Drink of yoor glas, or I'l cut won ov
yoor ears of. Out iz perhaps more raſcional, if les
dhan up; in — Dhe quarter (or oddher term) iz
almoaſt out, or almoaſt up. Az dhe French hav onely
où boath for hware and hwiddher, boath Brittiſh dialects
Vulgarly uze hware in edher capaſcity, and ſo agree to'
ſaccrifice won diſtinguiſhing az diſtinctive buty ov Ingliſh
diccion. Adjectives may, in all dialects becom ſubſtitutes
to' dheir verbs. But, dho Ellegance may ſing ſweet for
ſing ſweetly, ſhe ſays not ſweet ſung for ſweetly ſung; ſo
not ezy done for ezily don, far les dhis much and dhat
much, dhis far and dhat far, dhis high or dhat high, for
dhus much and ſo much, dhus far and ſo far, dhus high
or ſo high. We cannot dherfore ſay ſom (for ſomhwat)
better, dho we may ſay, no (for not anny or not annithing)
better. Uncooth, ſcotcht into' unco', becoms a familiar
hightener: unco' good, unco' wel; unco' ſare, unco'
wae; for verry good — ſwel — ſore — ſorry. But unco'
keeps dhe adjective in an unco' phraze! — a ſtrainge
adoo! or dhe like. Right, ſtil dhe juſt mezzure in
form (az right revverend, right onnorabel) waz wonce
ſo in evvery ſtile, even in dhe ſacred: az, Right dear ar
dhy words unto' my ſoll; yea, ſweeter dhan honney unto'
my mouth! — Wonderfool ar dhy works! and dhat my
ſoll knowest right wel. How haz dhe. ſublimeſt Ingliſh
ſunk into' dhe umbleſt Scotch! Right, dhe nattural ſynnonymy
ov (dhe prezzent) verry or duly, iz now ſcarce
equivvalent to' pretty or tollerably; in dhe now Scotch
right good and right wel, barely pretty good and tollerably
wel; for hwich latter phraze dhe. ſame dialect uzes
dhe familliar gaily; or, ſtil more familliarly,gay and wel
(not unlike dhe Ingliſh pure and wel), az wonce wonder
wel! for wondrous wel! Nay, dhe moaſt familliarly colloquial
Scotch mezzure ov complecion waz, after no dhat,
dones (u French) or denes: az no dhat dones il — not ſo
abſolutely or completely bad. Even waz no unnattural
predeceſſor ov juſt, in even (or, e'n) now for juſt now.
Dhe Scots ar apt to' ſpeak aſſent by dhe interjective Juſt
ſo! meaning (by habbit) littel elſe dhan Verry wel
hear — I underſtand — obzerv — I allow it. Dhus: Yoo
ſhal hav my hoal proggres. I firſt went to' Mr. — and
ſaid: Sir, yoo muſt know dhat — Juſt ſo! Dhen waited
on Lady— and told' her my deſign in dheze terms: Maddam,
for certain rezons not unknown to' yoor Ladiſhip, I
propoze to' — Juſt ſo! To' make a long tale ſhort, I addreſt
won and anoddher ſo ſuccesfoolly, dhat — JUST, so!
replied at evvery poſſibel interſtice.(not to' ſay interval)
dhe complaizant az pacient hearer. Split-new and brand--
new familliar equivvalents in dhe dialects, ar boath
perhaps az good az ſpan-new, or even ſpic-and-ſpan,
hwich doz boaſt good authorrity.
I keep no antiquated ſtuf:
But ſpic-and-ſpan I hay enuf.
DHE dellicate ſittuatives or directives, wel named.
prepoziſcions, muſt be liabel to' much impropper, becauz
to' much propper interchainge. No wonder, if dhe
Scotch employ abov and below dhe tabel, for on or under
dhe tabel; abov and below dhe bridge, for on and under
dhe bridge. Abov or below bridge intimates fardher up
or down dhe rivver; dheze two prepoziſcions pointing
a ſittuacion indeffinitely higher or lower, nedher. immediately
over nor under .dhe object. Dhe Scots peak
dhemſelvs on going along (ſtil more on going alongſt)
dhe bridge, conceiving dhat to' go (az ſay. dhe Ingliſh)
over it, iz to' fall over won ſide. Won may go along a
bridge, widhout ſo much az going upon it, if no wauter
be, under. If dhe low Scotch uze alongſt for along, dhe
low Ingliſh uze again (or aguen) for againſt (or aguenſt).
Boath nacions talk vulgarly ov going over dhe dore (dhe
Scots, ov croſſing it) for, over its thresſhold. Nor doo
dhe Scotch blunder more, hwen dhey ly over dhe window,
inſted ov looking out ov it. Dhe Scotch look on
widh oddher, hware dhey ſhood look over widh each oddher;
on dhe ſame book, hwen two chance to' hav but
won. Dhey doo not let on, hwen dhey ſlily take no
notice, or ſeem ignorant ov a thing. How oft ar reſt and
mocion confounded! Low Scotch ſays: he iz 'into'
(meaning in) dhe room. Low Ingliſh ſays: he iz gon in
dhe contery, for, he iz gon into' dhe contry: an exchainge
indeed quite az warrantabel, az dhat ov calling
or bringing a thing in (for into') queſtion; and az wel
doutles may won poot a thing in practice, az poot it in
wons pocket. Dhe Scotch may hav been careles enuf
to' ſay, poot dhe horſes in dhe coach, for poot to' dhe
horſes; but dhey nevver wer likely (az alledged) to' invite
a frend into' dhe fire, dho dhey doo (not unnatturally)
ſay, Com in to dhe fire; dhat iz, com inward to'
dhe fire, or com in towards it; az dhey ſay, Sit in to'
(for towards) dhe tabel. On and upon ar not always interchaingeabel.
On (not upon) ſittuates time, and
ſpeſcifies manner. On ſuch a day (or ſimply, ſuch a
day) won goes on foot, on horſebac, on board, on a toor
or on an expediſcion; won goes, or iz ſent, on an errand,
on an embaſſy.
— Smitten frends
Ar aingels ſent on errands, fool ov lov.
Yet dhe Ingliſh doo ſay, gon upon biznes, not about
biznes; dho dhey ſay familliarly, Go about yoor biznes.
Dhey ſay alſo: Hav yoo (got evver) a watch about yoo?
and, a watch waz found upon him. Like dhe Scotch
provverb, Time about (and dhe Ingliſh, Turn about.)
fair play; Scottiſh iddiom guivs word about, or line
about, for . word or line in turn. But dhe ſame iddiom,
(alas!) makes a leader march upon (for at) dhe hed ov
hiz men, marries a man upon (for to') a woomman, and
threttens to' tel upon (for ov) a delinquent. Dhe Scotch
can ſee no incongruity in meeting a perſon on dhe ſtreet,
on dhe crown (az waz dhe manner) ov dhe cauſey; hwaraz
dhe Ingliſh meet a perſon in dhe ſtreet, ſuppozing
ſides eſſencial to' a ſtreet, and naming won ſide (but) a
row. Dhe French and Scots decide ov, dhe Ingliſh on (or
upon) a matter. So dheze inſist on or upon, hwile dhe
Scotch inſiſt for it. But dhe Ingliſh prommiſe for, and
dhe Scotch (prommiſe) upon it. North-Brittons call for,
or barely call, an acquaintance; dheir ſoddhern neighbors
call on (or upon) a frend. Dheze wait for, or ſimply
wait, a perſon or thing; dhoze wait on edher. In reſpectfool
vizziting, dhe ellegant Ingliſh wait on (or upon)
a perſon; dhe ignorant or affected wait ov a perſon. But
all talk on (or upon) a ſubject, ov or about a thing. Dhe
vulgar indeed, (wil) in evvery dialect, interchainge ſo
dellicate cognates. Dhe ſame clas dhat ſays at Eddinburrough,
How long wil I wait on yoo? inſted ov How long
ſhal I wait (or ſtay) for yoo? ſays at London: I know
notthing on it, for I know notthing ov it. Yet iz it obzervabel,
dhat Propriety iz equally attentive in dhe uſed
ov dhe iddioms on a ſudden and all ov a ſudden. No
les dellicately diſcrimminabel ar dhe prepoziſcions, to', at,
widh, for, from, by, and thro', evver a monnoſyllabel;
its formative' thurrough, or thurrow, being always an
adjective. Alreddy hav we glanced-at dhe groceſt prepoziſcional
ſcotticiſm — married on or upon, far les
rabel dhan married widh, hwich ſom Scottiſh writers' uze
for married to' a perſon. Dhe next moaſt vulgar (dho
not incongruous) in word or in writing — iz to' lay wons
account widh a circumiſtance or event; hware Angliciſm
ſays, to' make account ov it, to' reckon upon it, to' take
it for granted. Different prepoziſcions affect perſons and
things. Won muſt ſee after a perſon, az wel az about
a thing. Won object iz contraſted to' (not widh) anoddher.
Won paſſage iz recconciled widh — won perſon to'
— anoddher. Won haz an averſion at or to' — an abhorrence
onely at — impropriety. Won may be angry widh
a perſon, becauz at a thing; in, widh, from, or thro' dhe.
dezire ov amending edher. For ſuch a purpoſe won
wiſhes to' ſpeak widh dhe perſon on dhe ſubject; to' talk
widh or to' dhe perſon about (or concerning) dhe matter; —
to' dhe point, to' dhe purpoſe, to' ſom purpoſe, to' good,
dhe beſt, or anny purpoſe; yet nevver (Scottiſhly) to' purpoſe:
for dhat wer to' no (particcular) purpoſe. So dhe
Ingliſh doo a thing on purpoſe, or purpoſely; but not
a purpoſelike, inſted ov a propper manner. If hwy ar
yoo angry at it? be good Ingliſh; hwat ails yoo at it?
iz good Scotch, for hwat faut doo yoo find in (or widh) it?
So, in genneral, hwat ails yoo? for hwat doo yoo ail?
To' ail iz dherfore no active, but a neuter verb; and
hwat, in dhe laſt phraze iz govverned by in, az to', or
hwatevver may beſt ſupply dhe ellipſe. Dhe Ingliſh
differ widh a perſon, in a particcular, on a point, about
a thing. To' differ from won, iz merely to' be a different
perſon. So dhey part widh an object, hwen dhey
rezign it; and part from a place or perſon, in quitting
ſuch place or perſon. Dhe Scotch ſay, to' part widh
child; dhe Ingliſh, to' miſcarry. To' aſk a thing at a
perſon, to' wonder ov a thing; and to' crave (in dhe
ſenſe ov dun) a perſon for a thing, ar ſcotticiſms, az galliciſms.
To aſk or enquire, to' demand, crave, entreat
or beſeech a thing ov a perſſon; to' require a thing ov or
from a -perſon; to' aſk ov a perſon a thing, az an anſer,
a ſolucion, a ſavor; to' aſk a perſon ſor a thing; to' poot
dhe queſtion ov a thing to' a perſon; to' admire an object,
and to' wonder at it, or to' make a wonder ov it, ar true
and propper angliciſms. Won muſt dhus take care not
to' enquire at a wrong hand, or in an impropper quarter;
but ov dhe due intelligencer, about or concerning anny
matter; and particcularly ar we to' enquire after (not for,
ſcarce about) a perſons helth. Dhe Scotch confound
locallity widh appropriation hwen dhey (deſign, az dheir
lawyers) ſtile ſuch a perſon at, for ov, ſuch a place; hwen,
dho he may belong to' it, or it to' him, he iz known to'
be (perhaps) a hundred miles from it. Propperty dherfore
and Propriety join (iſſue) in ſtiling dhe perſon ov dhe
contry, citty, town, place or eſtate, widh hwich by propperty,
rezzidence, or oddher relation, ſuch perſon may
be connected; in hwatevver contry, at hwatevver place,
or on hwatevver ſpot dhe perſon may occazzionally be.
At pointing dhus a deffinite, and in an indeffinite ſittuacion,
a perſon (perhaps ov and from London) may be addreſſed
at (or in) Kingſton, (in, not at) Jamaica. Dhe
Scottiſh iddiom nane or nathing avaw, meaning non or
notthing (ov for) at all, iz now almoaſt obſolete. Dhe
Scotch walk thro', dhe Ingliſh acros, a room. Dhe
former dooing evvery thing thro' (for in) time, hope thro'
time to' compas even Ingliſh Propriety; hwen wonce
dhey hav taken her thro' (for in) hand, or into' ſerious
contemplacion. To' and from, nattural oppozites, dherfore
ſomtimes claſh, ſomtimes coincide. In counting
dhe advance ov time, it ſeems nattural Plezzure, in
proſpect, to' count dhe minnutes to' dhe comming our;
but for Pain, from it; to' pronounce dhus ſo manny or ſo
few minnutes wanting to', from or ov dhe our; or dhe
time widhin ſuch number ov it. Anoddher contraſt ov
to' and from, iz dhat ov Peddantry and Propriety. Dhe
former thinking ov notthing but averſus ab or alienus à,
iz ſtiffly averſe from, and foreign (not forrain) from,
evvery thing dhat haz not reallity ov Lattin, or at leaſt
phyzziognomy ov Greek. Nor iz dhe latter les decidedly
averſe to' dhe admitting ov edher Greek or Lattin iddiom
or aſpect, dhat may be (az in dhe prezzent caſe) abſolutely
forrain to' Ingliſh Anallogy. Dhe Ellipſe iz averſe.
or forrain (widh or in regard or reſpect) to' dhe plan,
propozal, purpoſe, or ſubject. Like ſupplement wil
juſtify hinder to'. I ſhal not hinder yoo (keep yoo behind
in yoor tendency) to' go; az good az I ſhal not
hinder yoo (keep yoo bac) from going. Dho dhe Scots
be dhus warranted in dheir favorite (dhence familliar)
expreſſion: Ye'l no hender ſec a yen to' doo (u French)
ſae an ſae: Yoo'l not hinder ſuch a won to' doo ſo and
ſo; not ſo can dhey warrantably content dhemſelvs to' doo
a thing, inſted ov widh dooing it. To' and of may proov
interchaingeabel. He, hoo ſteddily doz biz beſt, cannot
fail, ſooner or later, more or les, to' ſuccede, or ov
ſucceding, or ov ſucces. Like fail ov, colloquial Ingliſh
ſays to' mis ov a thing, dhat iz, to' mis part ov it. To'
mis iz to find wanting or not to' find, not to' hit. Dhus
miſſes won wons mark or way.
Dhy way dhou canſt not mis: me mine requires.
Dhe French proffit ov, dhe Scotch proffit from, and dhe
Ingliſh proffit by, a thing. To' and for, havving ſimmilar
tendency, muſt be often interchaingeabel. But for haz
various acceptation: ſo indeed haz to'. He braught a
letter to' ſuch a perſon may imply, He braught a letter
addreſt to' ſuch a perſon; or, to' ſuch he brought a letter,
howevver it wer addreſſed. So, dhe letter he braught
for ſuch a won might be edher directed to' ſuch perſon,
or delivered in hiz ſted, or in hiz behalf. For may point
a cauz, az wel az an effect. A man may dy for adeed,
hwich he committed for plezzure. Dhe Scotch ſay vulgarly,
to' burſt for laffing; dhe Ingliſh, to' burſt (or dy)
widh laffing. Various ar dhe phrazes articculated (if won
may ſo ſay) in boath dialects by dhe prepoziſcion for.
Dhe Scotch doo a thing for ordinary, dhe Ingliſh for
common; dheze alſo for good, dhoze for good and all.
Diſtinct dhen ar widh reſpect to' — in reſpect ov — thro'
reſpect for — a perſon, or for ſuch perſons exertion ov
dhoze powers, dhat guiv to' hope (for) dhe approbacion
ov HIM, widh hoom iz no reſpect ov perſons. Won may
doutles hav ſom ſkil in (ſcarce ov) a ſcience, ſom acquaintance
widh it, nay ſom knollege ov it; widhout
havving dhat taſte for it, hwich alone can carry anny
purſuit into' ellegant and ampel acquiziſcion. Dhe Scotch
after a comparrative, uze ov; dhe Ingliſh for, az dhe
prepoziſcion ov conſequence or cauzallity. Dheze dherfore
declare dhemſelvs dhe better for a thing; dhoze,
dhe better ov it. When dhe Ingliſh hav braught objects
into' comparrizon widh each oddher; dhey dezire won
in comparrizon ov, or in prefference to' anoddher. Dhey
wonce tautolodgically preferred won thing before anoddher;
dhey now verry propperly prefer won to' dhe
oddher. Yet, wer Scripture-ſtile les reſpectabel dhan it
muſt evver be; hoo ſhal fear, or not be proud, to'
follow? —
Remoov'd from kind ARBUTHNOTS aid,
Hoo knows hiz art, but not hiz trade;
Preferring hiz regard for me,
Before hiz creddit or hiz fee.
Dhe Scotch uze by, az if beſide or compared widh, hware
dhe Ingliſh uze elliptically to', for compared to'. Hwat
iz dhis by (for to') dhat!
All human joys to' mental joys ar mean.
So by prooved Scottiſhly widhout, contraſting its Ingliſh
opperacion. We wil guet it don by yoo: We ſhal guet
it don widhout yoo. By may be conſtrued edher elliptic
or expletive in dhe Scotch familliar phraze, I care na (or
no) by, nearly equivvalent to' dhe Ingliſh I don't care, or
dhe Scottiſh I'm verry ezy, hwen indeed dhe reverſe iz
dhe caſe. Dhe Ingliſh ſay — widh child by, dhe Scotch
to', a perſon. To' and til, being boath terminal, dho
dhe latter onely ov time, cood not but be interchainged
in diſtant dialects. Not paid til ſuch a term, implies,
Not paid before it: not paid to' ſuch term, iz — not paid
up to' it. Dhe Ingliſh furniſh provide, indulge, inſpire
— a perſon widh a thing; dho dhey inſtil a thing into' a
perſon, inſtruct him in it, inform or apprize him ov it,
and acquaint him not onely ov, but widh it; (that iz,
make him acquainted widh it. When dhey provide for
a perſon, dhey provide not dhe thing to' dhe perſon; but
dhe perſon widh dhe thing. Dhe perſon provided for iz
dherfore provided widh, not in, dhe object. So won
makes a point ov (not in) dooing a thing; az won iz in
dhe uſe ov dooing a thing, ſurely not to' doo it. Won iz
not liabel in, but to', dammages; ſo may be braught in
for dhem. Or waz dhe old ſubſtitute, if not predeceſſor,
ov ere, now are, before — or evver yoor pots be made hot
widh thorns — So, lang or dhan — long are dhen — Done (u
French) or ye baud: don are yoo bade, or bid, dhe now
familliar pretterite. Gent. Shep.
And, or he war, for raizons I'l no tel,
I radher wad be mixt woh mools myſel.
And, are he wer, for cauz not to' be told,
I raddher wood be minguell'd widh dhe mold.
No ſcotticiſm iz more frequent dhan dhe uſe ov
az for dhan; like French que, dhe equivvalent ov boath:
auſſi grand que — az grait az — plus grand que — graiter
dhan — So ſay dhe Scotch graiter az — more az — raddher
az — for graiter — more — raddher dhan — A les abſurd
ſubſtitute ov dhis conjunccion, waz nor, now obſolete in
edher dialect. More nor dhat iz indeed more intelligibbel
dhan more az dhat, for more dhan dhat. Dhat may
in Ingliſh, az que in French, be dhe ſubſtitute (not
alſo Frenchly dhe repeater) ov dhe conjunccion becauz
or az after a comparrative: I am dhe les pacient
ov pain, dhat I never before hav known it. But a verry
galliciſm wer — I expected to' hay ſeen yoo, az yoo had
ſaid yoo wer to' be in town; and dhat (for az) yoo had
prommiſed to' call on me; better elliptically — and had
prommiſed to' call upon me. Αν (an) for εαν (ean), if
lent dhe old Ingliſh, and Scottith an. An't like yoor
onnor — If it pleze yoor onnor — if roar onnor pleze or be
plezed. Like and pleze, dhus interchaingeabel, admitted
won and. dhe ſame conſtruccion. Boath, neuter, became
imperſonal. Boath hav ſince becom active and
perſonal. Equally ſays dhe — If yoo like, and if
yoo like it. If yoo pleze iz dherfore edher, if yoo be
plezing, or if yoo be plezed. So think waz imperſonal,
hwen it compounded methinketh or methinks, and
methaught; ov (to') me (it) thinketh or thinks, (to') me (it)
thaught; now more commonly I think and I thought.
INTERJECCION iz Natures own voice; and, in its principal
clas expreſſive ov ſenſacion, muſt be genneral az
human ſenſibillity. Heigh! foolly guttural, waz dhe
firſt expreſſive ov admiracion: Heigh, lad! Heigh, las!
Hwen dhe guttural vanniſht, heigh became hah! continnuing
to' compound heyday! and heigh-ho! vertually
but ha-ho! Dhe Scotch Oot! Hoot! Toot! ar dhe peeviſh
equivvalents ov dhe Ingliſh Out! Tut! Poh! Piſh!
and Pſhaw! az dhe Ingliſh Huſh! became dhe Scottiſh
Hwiſht! or Hwiſt, hwich (commanding ſilence) names now
an Ingliſh game at cards. Ay (αει aei) waz dhe Ingliſh
az wel az Greek, and iz ſtil dhe Scotch always. But dhe
ſlender vowel ov dhe adverb braudened into' Oy! dhe
familliar Yes. Dheze two combine reluctant aſſent
Oot, oy! or Hoot, oy! Yes, ſure! az ſays dhe contry
Oh, yes! dhe cappital ov Ingland.. Dhe Scotch retain
dhe ſollemn yea! hware dhe Ingliſh now prefer in dhe
ſame intenſive ſenſe, dhe oppozite nay (from, ναι nai). He
made ſuch a propozal; yea! (now nay!) he went fardher:
an interchainge, howevver apparently od, perfectly recconcilabel.
He made ſuch a propozal; yes, he did:
but he went fardher. On dhe oddher hand, He made
ſuch a propozal; no, he did not: he went fardher.
Won ſays, he made it, but graiter: dhe oddher, he
made not dhat, but a graiter: hwich cood not be dhe
identic, dho dhe les waz doutles included. To won interroggatory
doo (by like oppozite ellipſe) a Scottiſh pozzitive
and an Ingliſh neggative, form an equivvalent
anſer. Hav yoo been onely (or but) ſo long? Hav yoo
don onely (or but) ſo much? Dhe Scot anſers, Yes: I
hav. Dhe Ingliſh perſon anſers, No: I hav been no,
longer — I hav don no more. Nature, uncorrupted,
wishes to' lern; ſhe wiſhes, even hwen liſtles, to' hear.
Hwen ſhe haz, perhaps by inattention, let dhe plezzure
eſcape; her brief, almoaſt involluntary, interrogation iz
A? (ſlender) drawling, howevver ſudden, into' onneſt inſipiddity;
and ſomtimes articculating widh aſpiracion:
Ha? nedher more nor les dhan dhe Greek Doo ſo,
and ſo — A? or Ha? dhe leaſt plezing, becauz dhe leaſt
attentive, poſſibel ſubſtitute to' Pappah! Mammah!
Sir? Maddam? I beg yoor pardon — I did not hear —
Hwat wer yoo plezed to' ſay? and almoaſt az provokingly
vulgar az dhe old Scotch, Hwat'z yoor wol (for wil)?
But ſo and ſo muſt not here be Scottiſhly conſtrued into'
dhe Ingliſh ſo-ſo! or dhe French là-là! Az dhe French
call a ſoſo-wine a two-ear'd wine, (un vin à deux oreilles)
dhat makes won ſhake wons hed; dhis dubbler may be
termed in boath tungs dhe two-eared interjection; compozing
dhe moddeeſtly-contemptuous ſymbol ov hwat iz
always contemptibel, meddioccrity; except in dhe glorious
acceptation ov dhe golden mean; hwich, far from a
ſoſo-ſittuacion, iz dhat middel (between extremes), hware
alone human happines can dwel. Dhe Ingliſh variouſly
employ dhe reppetiſcion Wel, wel! Dhe Scotch ar apt
to' inſert a partikel, hwen attentive, ah! how affecting!
hwen inattentive, ah! how inſippid! Wel, ah! wel:
perhaps for Wel, ah, wel ſpoken! how different dhe
Weel, ah, weel! I'l be upſide wih ye: Wel,
wel! I ſhal be even widh yoo. Equally low iz now dhe
Ingliſh, Dear hart! dhan hwich notthing can be lower,
but dhe alſo Ingliſh Dear hart! alive? Boath dheze hav
indeed ſunk into' Dear me! hwich edher alſo means notthing,
or ſuch an ellipſe, az no won wil take dhe pains
to' ſupply, in prefference to' dhe likewize elliptic Oh!
Dear — Dhe old Ingliſh, and ſtil Scottiſh Troth! Faith!
or dhe like, ar deſpicabel expletives, hware not impious
aſſeveracions. Indeed, dho in verry deed decompoundabel,
can no longer allow dhe Scotch deed to' omit dhe
prepoziſcion. In fact continnues a Brittiſh, az In a
word a Gallic iddiom. Such may be deemed in ſhort,
widh in brief: but infine iz a mere (inſepparabel) varriacion
ov dhe French enfin.
HWARE no oddher miſapplicacion can be charged,
miſarraingement may conſtitute Scotticiſm. Propriety
rainges words (az nearly az poſſibel) in dhe order
ov idea's. Hwen objects occur in conjunction, dhe principal
natturally leads. Dhus fahdher and moddher, bred
and butter, knife and fork ar az nattural (dhence az con-ſtant)
az right and left, right and wrong; hand and glov,
lov and frendſhip. Nor les natturally doz dhe prior precede;
az night and day, maſter and ſcollar. Dhe Ingliſh
doo toaſt (or did) Church and King; dhe Scots, dhe
King and dhe Church: boath on principel. Between
goold and ſilver, ſilver and goold; vinnegar and pepper,
pepper and vinnegar; pen, ink and paper; or paper, pen
and ink; occazion, or dhe ear, may determine. Occazions
ar doutles ov going from bottom to' top, az wel az
from top to' bottom; dho we mezzure onely, from hed to'
heel, from hed to' foot, from top to' toe. Nor ſay dhe
French les raſcionally depuis les pieds juſqu' à la tête,
fond en comble — from dhe feet to' dhe hed, from bottom
to' top, dhan du haut en bas, from top to' bottom. Yet
dheze ſeem raddher willing to' aſcend, according to'
dhe ſynthettic; and dhe Ingliſh to' deſcend, after dhe
annalyttic manner. Nor iz dhis annihware more obvious,
dhan in dhe Ingliſh inverſion ov armé de pied en cap —
armed cap-a-pee. In won direccion go dhe Scots, from
dhe hed to' dhe foot ov a walk or ſtreet; and dhe Ingliſh,
from dhe top to' dhe bottom. So' dhe former ſit at dhe
hed and foot ov a tabel; dhe latter at dhe hed and bottom:
for on dhe top ſtand dhe diſhes and plates. But
dhe Ingliſh hav wel transferred things to' dhe top ov dhe
drawers, from dhe drawer-heads! Dhis doz indeed rezembel
anniboddy elſes (for anniboddy's elſe) hwich iz no
more Scotch dhan Ingliſh; but dhe ſtile ov Ignorance or
Inattenſion. Az for a thing pretty enuf, and a pretty
enuf thing; yoo had better, and yoo better had; or ſuch
oddher interchainges; dhey ar nedher Inghliſh nor Scottiſh;
but (differ az) direct and inverſe, (az) preciſe and
careles. Dialect wil doutles vary dhe place ov dhe direct
and indirect object; nay, wil ſomtimes interchainge dhe
object widh dhe agent. Pronouns, by varying dheir
terminacion widh dheir ſtate, guiv more dhan common
ſcope to' tranſpoziſcion. Since dhe Ingliſh ſay, ſhow me
dhe thing; dhe Scotch, in ſhow me it, becom dialectic,
by prezerving dhe arraingement; hwich proovs ellegantly
varied, hwen dhe direct object appears in a pronoun;
and ſo claims, in ſhow it me, dhe next place to' dhe verb;
dhe next and febleſt place, dhe idea reprezented being
known. Dhe ſubject and object ov conſtitucional agrement
ar interchainged in Scotland. Dhare dhe taker doz
or doz not agree widh dhe thing taken; food, redgimen,
hwatevver; hwich, on dhe contrary, in Ingland, agrees
or diſagrees widh dhe receiver. If won contry ſay,
Such food, phyzzic, or oddher particcular, doz not agree
widh me — widh my conſtitucion; dhe oddher doz but
invert dhe phraze widhout altering dhe ſenſe, in ſaying:
doo not (dhat iz, my conſtitucion doz not) agree widh
ſuch food, phyzzic, or aught elſe. Yet ſays Ingliſh
familliarly, az ov old: I ſhal be agreabel to' annithing,
my choice or taſte ſhal agree to' annithing; Annithing
wil be agreabel to' me. Az dhe Ingliſh uze indifferently
dhe conſequencial reduplicacion — Good and wel or wel
and good; az infantine Ingliſh plays at Bo-peep! and infantine
Scotch at Keek-bo! or Teet-bo! So ſoddhern
Scotlings play at Hide and ſeek, nordhern at Seek and
hide. In dhe union ov two ſurnames, it haz been obzerved,
dhat dhe former prevails in Scotland, dhe latter
in Ingland, hwen onely won ov dhe united ſurnames iz
uzed. Dhus iz Dr. W. A— D. known chiefly by dhe
oridginal name ov Dr. A. at Eddinburrough; and Dr.
R. H— S. by dhat ov Dr. S. dhe aſſociated ſurname, at
II. REDUNDANCE and DEFISCIENCE, widh occazzional
DHO language be not dhe work ov man, dialect iz by
diſtance apt to' vary propriety, by encreſe, dimminucion
or interchainge. A Scot ſays familliarly, Com and take
yoor dinner, or Com and drink yoor tea; for Com and
eat a bit ov dinner, or Com and drink tea; az an Ingliſh
perſon ſays, I ſpent my evening agreably. Dhe former:
Go to' yoor bed, go to' dhe ſcool (az if to' won ſpeſcified);
dhe latter: Go to' bed, go to' ſcool. Kindnes dhus and
ſociabillity ſo dictate dhe pozeſſive pronomminal, az precizzion
wonce added own to' our, yoor, hiz, her, and
dheir, in dhe London - our'n, and its ſoar compannions;
now dhe pronouns ours, yoors, hiz., hers, and dheirs.
Az notthing more enriches anny ſtile dhan a propper
eppithet, notthing iz more nauſeous dhan a needles
quallifier, dhan dhat hwich iz alreddy inherent in dhe
ſubject. Dhus calls Inattenſion for a clean plate — knife
— glas, and dhe like; or for ſtrong ale, hware no oddher
iz. Wer comfort always in compannionſhip, dhe
Ingliſh ar (here at leaſt) highly ſociabel. If dhe Scots
dutifoolly congrattulate dheir Sovverain on dhe birth ov
yong prince or princes, dhe Ingliſh ar (vulgarly) ſubject
to' dhe yellow (nay. to' dhe blac) jandice (à la jauniſſe
jaune, et à la jauniſſe noire!) nor les to' dhe fever and
ague, hwile dhe Scotch know onely dhe ague, az did
dheir anceſtors dhe aicces, hwich waz but dhe French
accès, dhe (returning) fit. Dhus, widhout dhe aid ov
Scotticiſm, even widhout hiz Madjeſty's royal privvilege
and licence, nay widhout ſtimmulacion from dhe luker ov
gain, may won collect togueddher a hoal library ov books,
overflowing widh inundations ov ſuperfluous redundance,
and yet make no near approach to' dhe clenzing ov dhe
Augean ſtall. Dhe two artikels (dhe and a or an) by
dheir verry oppoziſcion ar in dainger ov interchainge.
Az dhe Ingliſh talk ov a perſons havving got dhe collic,
dhe Scotch talk ov a perſons havving got dhe cold; hwich,
not being ſo ſpeciffic a diſtemper, dhe Ingliſh call a cold.
Dhe Scotch pay for littel artikels ſo much dhe piece, dhe
pound, dim ounce, or dhe like; dhe Ingliſh, ſo much
a piece, a pound, an ounce, and ſo on. In point ov
price it may be noted by dhe way, dhat Ingliſh and
Scotch ſhillings ſink by won ellipſe, before a fraction.
Az dhe Ingliſh ſay three and ſixpence, dhe Scotch ſay three
and a baubee. Dhe Scots doo a thing wonce (or howevver
often) in dhe our, day, or dhe like; dhe Ingliſh wonce an
our, a day, and ſo on; dhoze, wonce in dhe two days (de
deux jours l'un); dheze, evvery oddher (or each alternate)
day. Frequent iz dhe Scottiſh redundance ov dhe (deffinite)
artikel. Dhus doo Scottiſh boys go to dhe ſcool, play at
dhe ball, or dhe billiards; keep dhe Kirk, and ſay dhe
grace at dhe tabel; hwaraz Ingliſh go to' ſcool, play at
ball or fives, at billiards; attend Church, and ſay grace
at tabel. Redundant alike iz dhe artikel in ſuch phrazes
az — She goes to' dhe market — I met her at dhe market
— he iz not in dhe town. So in dhe long run haz been
ſhortened at long run. On dhe oddher hand, dhe Scotch
juſtice ov pece follows dhe French juge de paix, raddher
dhan dhe Ingliſh juſtice ov dhe pece. Dhe Scottiſh
titel dean ov facculty, for dean ov dhe facculty (ov
Advocates), iz obviouſly az looſe or impreciſe, az dhe
ellipſe (ov year) in dhe fifteen or dhe forty-five, leves dhe
dates more deffinite, dhan dhey can be widhout due
artikel; hwich we know (to' be) indiſpenſabel, if we
ſpeak to' dhe purpoſe. Dhe familliar iz doutles more
elliptic dhan dhe preciſe. Az dhe Ingliſh uze ezily
next day for on dhe next day, dhe Scotch ar apt to' run
into' — ſame day — ſame year, for on dhe ſame day, in dhe
ſame year, or dhe like. So moddeſty wil ſomtimes avoid
eggotiſm, at dhe riſk ov quaintnes, or even ov imprecizzion.

Received yoors, and ſhal obey it.
Yoors, to' command — A. B.
NOT unlike dhe Ingliſh rize up and fall down, ar dhe
Scotch open up and looſe down. Dhe adverbs encreſe or
complete dhe opperacion, az did dhe ſeeming neggatives
in dhe old compounds diſannul and unlooſe. To' rid
(uttered red) up dhe houſe, or aught elſe, waz dhus to'
doo it up propperly, to' ſet it in order. To' red, being
dhus to' clear, ſevver, or unravvel; to' red waz to' part
battellers; and dhe redding-ſtrake, dhe daingerous parting-troke
hwich howevver duty wil nevver fear. Som
(pretty plauzibly) interpret I wod na red ye, (not, I wood
not clear yoo, but I wood not advize yoo; from dhe old rede,
hwich ſignified counſel. Dhe Ingliſh find in redundant in
dhe thret: I ſhal make him eat in hiz words. If dhe Ingliſh
howevver make won doo a thing, dhe Scotch cauze won
doo it, or cauze it be don; hwile dhe Ingliſh ſteddily (az
accountably) cauz won to' doo dhe thing, or cauz it to' be
don. Az pronouns ar ſomtimes quaintly ſav'd, ſo ar dhey
often by fancied precizzion ſquander'd; az in he himſelf,
hware edher wood ellegantly, and dhe latter emphattically
ſuffice. No wonder if ballad-ſtile be redundant, or
if Dhe cobbler he di'd, and dhe bels dhey did toll.
Colloquial French ſays: C'était un grand homme, que
Céſar: He waz a grait man, Ceſar. An onneſt Yorkſhere
man: He waz a grait man, waz Ceſar; and an
innocent old-faſcion'd Scot: He waz a grait man, Ceſar;
at (for dhat) waz he e' n. Nor can it be denied dhat
Precizzion favors dhe Scottiſh waz or com before dhe
Gallic eight days, fifteen days, twenty days; az Monday
waz eight-days; Monday com eight-days; hwile dhe
context alone can ſepparate laſt Monday-ſennight from
next Monday-ſennight. It muſt be owned dhat dhe
Ingliſh lov few words, dho dhey know not always how
manny wil doo. To' dhe Ingliſh butifoolly laconnic
provverb, A word to dhe wize, dhe Scottiſh ads (from
dhe Lattin) iz enuf; hwile dhe French juſtly compliments
dhe naſcional quicnes, in Le ſage entend à demimot:
dhe wize underſtands at half a word. In like
manner, Better late dhan nevver, muſt be allowed az
much more capacious az more conciſe, dhan Better late
thrive, dhan nevver doo wel. Dhat dhe untutored or
inattentive wil in all dialects be more liabel to' exces
dhan defect, wil ezily occur to' dhoze hoo reflect dhat
foolnes iz apt to' overflow, and attenſion alone can mezzure
quantity, in hwatevver part or parts ov ſpeech. Vulgarrity
doz blunder and bluſter into' dhe right-hand-ſide
(for dhe right-ſide, hwich iz doutles dhe ſide on dhe right--
hand) ov a ſtreet. Dhe ſubject-matter iz now old Ingliſh,
edher part ov dhe compound occazzionally ſufficing
Obſolete iz alſo yoo cannot chooz but doo ſo; az iz, I
doo not dout but dhat (Scottiſhly hwat) it wil happen;
hware edher but, dhat, or boath, ar ſuperfluous. But
notthing iz more meaningles, dhan dhe colloquial got in a
vulgar Ingliſh mouth: Hav yoo got anny monney in yoor
pocket? Hav yoo got (evver or ehr) a ſixpence? I hav
got nevver or nehr a (for no) ſixpence. Dhat iz all I
hav got to' tel yoo. Boath dialects ar ſomtimes elliptic.
Az Ingliſh uzes dhe ſpeſcifier for dhe ſpeſcified, a ſtage
for a ſtage-coach; ſo Scotch, dhe work for dhe workhouſe.
But ellipſe muſt not hazzard obſcurity, or commit
ſuch imprecizzion az at prezzent rages; in ſentences
like dhe following, hware conciſenes but poorly compenſates
inaccuracy. Dhe moaſt ingenious and dezerving
perſons ar ſomtimes dhe leaſt known and rewarded:
hware Propriety wil not fear to' aſcertain dhe reppetiſcion
ov dhe ſuperlatives, in — Dhe moaſt ingenious and (dhe)
moaſt dezerving perſons ar ſomtimes dhe leaſt known and
(dhe) leaſt rewarded. If dhis obzervacion affect equally
boath ſides ov Tweed, numberles ar dhe ſcotticiſms arizing
from ellipſe les ezy to' ſupply. Ov dheze a few may
enabel to' annalyze dhe reſt. To' be by dhe hed, waz to'
be overtaken by dhe hed in liccor. It macs na — It makes
no matter; like N'importe, (It) matters not — No matter.
To' make ov — To' make much ov — a perſſon. To' take
upon — To' take effect upon — an object. To' take on — iz
to' take on tic; alſo, to' take on dhe Kings livvery, to'
enliſt. Dhe Ingliſh (familliarly) take on, hwen dhey take
to' hart, or moarn; az dhe Scotch think on — lay to' hart,
hwen dhey doo not let on, hwen dhey (ſeem to') take no
notice. To' take widh an imputation, iz to' acquieſce
widh it; to' take widb (if not with dhe noun) iz to take
fire, az to' go widh (herd woth or with) iz to' go to' pot,
to' guiv way. To' think long, iz to think dhe time long,
and dhence to long. To' think ſhame iz to' think it (a)
ſhame, to' be aſhamed. Numberles ar dhe oddher Scottiſh
iddioms, accountabel by Ellipſe. A Scots bairn man
hae a piece: a Scotch child muſt hav a piece ov bred.
An umbel Scotch-woomman not onely draws or ſpins a
thread (now thred); but ſpins her hweel, ſpins dhe flax
or tow on her hweel, az an Ingliſh boy (clearing dhe
acorns ov dhe lay-cord) ſpins hiz peg-top, or makes it
ſpin, and a Scots callant dozes hez peary. By like ſupplement,
abſurdity wil vanniſh even from ſuch phrazes,
az Blow dhe bellows, or Fil dhe kettel; hwen dhe fire iz
to be blown, and dhe kettel (to' be) emptied! Blow
widh or from dhe bellows dhe fire — Fil from dhe kettel
dhe tea-pot.
TIME admits various ellipſe, az wel az amplificacion.
Alreddy hav we contraſted Sunday waz fifteen-days, and
Sunday com fifteen-days, to' Sunday fortnight and Sunday
fortnight! He came on Tueſday waz (a) twenty--
days, and wil go on Tueſday com eight-days. He came
Tueſday three weeks, and goes Tueſday ſennight. If paſt
and future may dhus be couched in concommitance, dhe
grait object Time itſelf may be Scottiſhly wrapt in its exhibbitive:
By dhis — By dhat — time. So dhe firſt ov
dhe month or year implies Scottiſhly dhe firſt part, or
beguinning (not firſt day) ov it. Dhe Ingliſh uze half paſt
anny our, for dhe half-our paſt it; dhe Scotch uze half,
for half dhe our to' com: dhoze dhus, half paſt twelv;
dheze, half-won, for half an our after twelv. Dhe cloc
may be before or behind — dhe true time, widhout going
faſt or ſlow, az dhe Ingliſh phraze it. But widhout exces,
defect, or incongruity, Scotticiſm varies oddher phrazes
ov time: ſaying, a good time, in time comming; dhe
day, dhe laſt harveſt; Monday firſt, Yeſter-e'n, contracted
Yeſtreen, Faſtrens e'n (Faſtings even); and meaning,
a good hwile, for dhe future (quaintly in future); dhe
oddher day (or t'oddher day), laſt Autumn, Monday next,
or next Monday, yeſternight, laſt night, or yeſterday-evening;
Shrove (or Shrov)-Tueſday; hwich ſignified in
old Ingliſh, Confeſſion-Tueſday, dhe eve ov (or day before)
Aſh-Weddenſday, dhe day ov (humiliacion in) duſt
and aſhes, or dhe firſt day ov Lent. Dhe ſame dialect
varied at wonce dhe artikel and dhe appropriative; uzing
dhe day, dhe night; dhe morn, dhe morns morning;
more moddernly to'-morrows morning, like Sundays
night; for to'-day, to'-night; to'-morrow, to'-morrow--
morning, Sunday-night.
Prepoziſcion miſapplied we ſaw in its place. Scotticiſm
ſprings variouſly from dhe abſence, no les dhan
prezzence (impropper or exceſſive) ov dhis (moaſt) dellicate
part ov ſpeech. Dhe Scottiſh, following dhe
French iddiom, quarrels won; dhe Inglifh quarrels widh
won; ſo dhat remembers ov a thing, hwile dhis foolly
remembers it. Nonobſtant cela, howevver, leads notwidhſtanding
dhat; hwile dhe Scotch notwidhſtanding ov
dhat, ſeems to' decompound dhe prepoziſcion; az Ingliſh
law certainly doz (or did) in annithing elſe dhe
contrary notwidhſtanding. Dhe Scotch, on dhe oddher
hand, make a falſe ellipſe in dhe teaching yooth, dhe
treating a ſubject; for dhe teaching ov yooth, dhe treating
ov a ſubject, or dhe like; hware dhe deffinite artikel demands
dhe gerrund or action, dho dhe particippel duly
remain, in teaching yooth, treating a ſubject, or hwarevver
iz no cauz ov chainging it. Edher ov or old iz
redundant in a child ov ten years old. But non abov
dhat age can be pardoned for laying a bit bread, or a
piece paper, for a bit ov bred, or a piece ov paper. Yet
a hween callants muſt be forguivven, if a few boys may.
Dhe partitive adverbs, much, more, moaſt; and littel,
les, leaſt; ellegantly omit, dho dhey may preciſely expres
(before a noun) dhe partitive prepoziſcion: Much
curteſy, littel kindnes. if we can preciſely ſay dhe moaſt
ov bennefit, we cannot dherfore ſay, dhe graiteſt ov bennefit,
dho dhe graiteſt ov bennefits be ſterling az dhe
graiteſt bennefits. Az dhe Ingliſh enter in, and dhe
Scottiſh eat in, ar equally pleonaſtic; dhe old hwarin,
hwarow, dharov, for hware or in hwich, ov hwich, ov
dhat or ov it, and (their fellows, ar demonſtratively az
redundant az dhe old for before dhe infinnitive artikel,
(to'), or from before hwence, hence, and dhence. Hwarin
iz in in hwich, or in in hwat; az from hwence, from
from hware. But dheze pleonaſms ar in edher dialect
too barbarous to' be believed, and too notorious to' be
known. Yet it may be aſked wonce more: Iz hwence
harder or more hazzardous to' ſay dhan from hwence,
hencefoarth dhan from hencefoarth, for to' dhan to', enter
dhan enter in, approach dhan approach near, and ſimmilar?
Or ſhal dhe cloud ov barbariſm continnue widh
Brittons impervious to' dhe ray ov Truith? Az dhe prepoziſcion
to' iz oftener elliptic dhan redundant, if dhe
Scotch ſuppres to' impropperly after dhe verb cauz, and
ſay not onely how much iz due yoo for how much iz due
to' yoo; but how much am I due yoo, for how much doo
I ow yoo; dhe Ingliſh doo ſomtimes familliarly ſuppres
(widhout obvious cauz) dhe infinnitive artikel after (dhe
verb) help, az after make; ſaying help him doo it, like
make him doo it; dho in boath caſes (eſpeſcially dhe
former) Precizzion wil ſupply dhe infinnitive artikel;
hwich ſhe cannot after let, or anny oddher auxilliary. Propriety
muſt dherfore equally let won doo a thing, and
ſuffer won to' doo it. Scotch iz more precife in ſaying
ſtay to' dinner, dhan Ingliſh in ſtay dinner; hwich may
unluckily ſignify ſtop it. Dhe like may be alledged ov
dhe Ingliſh ellipſe, dhat familliarly ſuppreſſes to' after
oppozite, hwich dhen becoms itſelf dhe prepoziſcion, in
ſuch phraze az — he livs oppozite dhis houſe — Dhey ſtood
oppozite each oddher. To' litteral oppoziſcion dhus iz
dhis familliar ellipſe confined; and even dhare dhe prepozifcion
(to') may preciſely be inſerted. Won may
aſpire at or to' a thing, won can onely arrive at it or
attain to' (ſollemnly unto') it; and dhence widh elliptic
ellegance attain it. But az common ſtile may approov,
admit, accept — a thing, or, — ov a thing; dhe adjective
wordhy muſt in ſollemn proze ſubjoin dhe prepoziſcion,
and may, in ſublime verſe, butifoolly ſuppres it: Dhis iz
a faithfool ſaying, and wordhy ov all acceptacion.
Dheze ar imperial works, and wordhy Kings. Looz we
dherfore notthing annihware wordhy (ov) our notice, nor
pay we much regard to' unvouched obzervacion. It iz
ezy to' obzerv dhat I'l write yoo iz more frequent in dhe
elder, dhan in dhe yonger dialect; yet not ſo ezy to'
proov its being confined to' edher; and, dho I wil (or
ſhal) write to' yoo be dhe con plete phraze, I'l write yoo
a letter iz az ellegant, az I'l write a letter to' yoo iz exact.
We tel a perſon a thing, and we ſay a thing to' a perſon.
But hwile we can preciſely tel a thing to' a perſon, we
cannot alſo anny way teach a thing to' a perſon: we can
onely teach a perſon a thing, (happy hoo can!) juſt az
dhe Lattins cood not docere aliquid alicui, but neſceſſarily
docuere aliquem aliquid. Dho dhen I ſhal ſhow it yoo,
be, at large, I ſhal ſhow it to' yoo; I ſhal teach it yoo,
means indeed hwat dhe Scots doo ſay, I ſhal teach yoo it;
az I ſhal teach yoo dhat, I ſhal teach yoo in or az to'
dhat particcular.
Conjunction, hwich we law ſubject to' daingerous exchainge,
may be likewize abundant or elliptical. Dhe
Ingliſh ar apt to' drop dhe conjunction az before dhe infinnitive
following an adjective dhus mezzured by ſo:
Be ſo good — ſo kind — to' doo ſo and ſo. Dhe Scotch
drop dhe prepoziſcion: Be ſo good az doo it. Precizzion
wood reſtore boath: Be ſo good az to' doo it. Intimacy
(or Affectacion) ſomtimes ventures: Be good enuf to' doo
ſo. Old ſtile, hence Scotch, pours dhe copious not onely
ſo, but alſo — or, but likewize — Yet ſollemn Ellegance
ſaid ages ago — not onely widh our lips, but in our lives.
Interjection, dhe gennuine child ov Nature, muſt in
evvery dialect teem widh foarcibel expreſſion, often dhe
ſame in all. But dhe ofspring ov ſudden emotion, fool
evverihware ov dhe fineſt ellipſe, can onely be redundant,
widh dhe ungarded; and defiſcient, widh dhe inſenſibel.

SOM ſcotticiſms exiſt but in won phraze, or in few;
on noun, verb, or boath: ſuch az, For my ſhare — for
my part; in place ov — inſted ov — A bairn at dhe pap,
a child at breſt; dhe pap ov dhe has (throat) fallen, dhe
pallate down; dhe wic ov dhe mouth, dhe corner ov dhe
mouth; dhe brawn ov dhe leg, dhe calf ov dhe leg; nae
ſmaw drenk (no ſmall drink), no petty perſonage; a
man ov é or yé (won) houſe hight, a man ov no grait
reach; not deep-drawn, no conjurer; an éfald (a won--
fold) man, an Izraelite indeed, in hoom iz no guile; a
doobbel chield, a dubbel (two-faced) fellow, dhe dubbel--
minded man, hoo iz unſtabel in all hiz ways; a houſe ov
but é (won) flat, a houſe ov but won ſtory; three rooms
on a flat, three rooms on a floar; a houſe (all) widhin
dhe hale land, premmiſes inſulated, unconnected,
complete, comprizing dhe hoal tennement; a good beild,
a good ſheler; a comfortabel being, a comfortabel dwelling
or ſettelment: dhe plight ov dhe ſaizon (or ſezzon)
dhe prime ov dhe ſezon; dhe plight-ancor, dhe ſheet
ancor: dhe Eddinburrough-coppy, dhe Eddinburrough
ediſcion; a good hand ov write or writ, a good hand ov
writing; plenty ov time, time enuf; a ſhort ſpace,
ſhort (or littel) hwile; a wee thought (or hair), a verry
littel; a ſmall point or tic, a little dot; a ful point, a
fool ſtop; a good ſconce, a good ſcreen, particcularly
from dhe fire; a fine glos, a clear (cinder-) fire; dhe
horn (or horl) ov a lace, dhe tag ov it. He maun hae
aw hez oarders, or he'l mac a wark — a phraze; He muſt
hav evvery thing in order, elſe he'l make a fus, a noiz.
Denna ſpic buf, don't talk ſtuf. I'l tel ye nadher buf
nor ſty, I'l ſay notthing to' yoo, good or bad. Ye'r
varry miſlear'd (milern'd), Yoo'r verry rude. I canna ſay
dhe lave (or dhe reſt) o'd, I can't think enuf ov it. Wol
ye gae cam lenth o' ſec a place? Wil yoo go az far az
ſuch a place? I wonna be in yoor réverence, or in yoor
comon, I won't be in yoor power; I ſhahn't Le obleged
to' yoo. I thenk ye'r oot o' yer judgement, or wrang
dhe head: I think yoo ar out ov yoor mind, or, out ov
yoor ſenſes. Ar yoo in habbits widh ſuch a perſon? Ar
yoo in a coarſe ov vizziting ſuch perſon? Naw; but I'l
gae dhat lenth wih yoo: No; but go ſo far widh
yoo. Dhe bairns hav gotten dhe play, dhe children hav
got a holliday. Strike a hac dhe poaſt: Mark dhe
mirrakel. Dhat merchant ſhal hav all my chainge: Dhat
ſhop ſhal hav all my cuſtom. He gave me a hat: he
made me a bow. I fear he haz littel to dhe fore: I fear
he haz littel before-hand, littel laid up, littel left. Ye'r aw
wrang: he'z up e' dhe buckel (or weel at hemſal). But I
dread he'l gae af at dhe nail wih hemſal: I wos he mayna
faw aw ſtaps, or gang a gray gate. He leves on nae deaf
nets: he fiſts at hac an mainger, ev no on wein an waſtels.
Aw dhes 'l coaſt hem monny a ſaut tear, though he let na
on, an kens I hev ſin hez hairt gret afore noo. Its el yoor
comon to' ſpic ſae: ev he be en ſec a tacking, he
ſpoails (or ſpeils) good (u French) leikly. Bat deed, he
woz ey a ſpelt bairn: nobody cud tal hwat he wod baut,
or thought he ſud be laſt at hez ain haund. A faithfool
ſpeſcimen ov Scottiſh colloquial iddiom! hwich may run
into' Ingliſh dhus: Yoo ar all in dhe wrong: he iz wel
to' pas, or in good condiſcion. But I dred hiz running
riot: I wiſh he may not fall to' pieces, or go to' pot. He
livs on no hollow nuts: he feaſts at roc and mainger, if
not on wine and walnuts. All dhis wil coſſt him manny a
briny tear, dho he poots a good face on it, hwile he knows
I hav ſeen hiz hart reddy to' burſt before now. It il becoms
yoo to' talk ſo. If he be in ſuch a caſe (or ſuch a
taking), he belies hiz appearance. But indeed, he waz
always a ſpoil'd child: noboddy cool tel hwat he wood be
at; or thought he ſhood be left at hiz own diſpozal.
WE ar not now to' lern, dhat evvery part ov ſpeech
iz liabel to' different, even oppozite, application in dhe
dialects. Scotch calls an onneſt boddy, hoom Ingliſh
calls an onneſt ſoll. Dhe former makes verry free, and
indeed verry charritabel, uze ov onneſt man. Hoo'z aw
wih ye, oneſt man: — How iz all widh yoo — how iz (or
fares) it widh yoo — how doo yoo doo, Frend? A fine
man or woomman, means in Scotch an excellent or accompliſhed
perſon; in Ingliſh, a butifool outſide. Handſom
continnues in Scotland litterally to' imply comlines
ov perſon, hwile in Ingland it haz almoaſt loſt its oridginal
idea, by hinting but dhe buty ov dhe face. A yong
man iz, by Scottiſh extenſion, conſtrued an unmarried
man; a grait fammily ov petty members, it dhence
confiddered a ſmall fammily; and dhe il bairn iz dhe
naughty child. A hale or harty man or woomman it
conſequencially figgured a raſh carl or wife; a free communer
iz queſtionles -he, hoo communes freely; and a
free communing proovs a foolly az plain at plezzant converfacion.
A ſinguel ſoldier iz a private man or ſentinel;
an even line a ſtraight won; a clear tabel, won rubb'd
bright; a winding-ſheet, a ſhroud. Annithing finniſht
iz don: dherfore annithing worn out iz Scottiſhly (ſaid to'
be) don. At marridge iz (or ſhood be) dhe higheſt human
good; hwen lovvers make it out, dhey doutles
make a good ov it. Beſt, for moaſt, proovs a ſuperlative
mezzure in dhe Scotch provverb: Dhe beſt, iz dhe beſt
cheap. Dhe beſt commoddity iz dhe cheapeſt; and, by
extenſion, dhe higheſt carracters (ar) dhe umbleſt. Az
dhe Scotch familliarize brawly (bravely) and finely, for
verry wel; dhey uze far les propperly dhe adjective bad
for dhe adverb il; to' hwich dhoze hoo ſubſtitute unwel,
may (and wil in good time!) deny dhe adjective by ungood.
In numeral, at in oddher ſpeſcifiers, dialects may
be ſuppoſed to' differ; but, in dual and trinal collectives,
Ingliſh haz variety ov peculiar ellegance: combining a
cuppel ov fowls or ov egs, a brace ov partridges, or oddher
wild-fowl: ſo a brace ov carp or tench, and a pair
ov ſoals. At dhe Scots call three herrings, or like
tripplet, a caſt; dhe Ingliſh link dhe ſame number in a
leaſh ov hounds, hares, woodcocs, teil, or dhe like.
Ellegance can no more ſay, won time, two times, for
wonce, twice, dhan two weeks or two ſtairs, for a fortnight,
or a pair ov ſtairs. Thrice makes dhe reppetiſcion
cloſer dhan three times. It iz nattural to' ſay, I
ſhal doo it; but firſt, I muſt doo ſuch anoddher thing.
No les nattural became it (perhaps in aincient feuds) to'
ſay: Hwat's firſtet, 's no forgueen; Hwat iz poſtponed,
iz not forguivven. Two figgurative expreſſions hav dhe
Scots for hwedel: butter a hwiting, and blaw in dhe lug.
Ye ken weel hoo to' butter a hwiting: Yoo know wel how
to' dres inſinnuacion. Denna gang ta blaw emmy lug.
Don't go to' tickel my ear (widh falſe muzic). Dhe
Lattins dhus poured oil into' dhe lug (not ear): az now
a ſpeciffic for dhe hearing. Mart. XII. II. ord. vulg.
V. 77.
Narratur bellè quidam dixiſſe, Marulle,
Qui te ferre oleum dixit in auriculam.
It haz ſhrewdly been rumor'd, Marul, cunning Pug!
Dhat dhou bair'ſt about oil, to' pop into' dhe lug.
No les accountabel, dho no longer known in Ingland, iz
to' curſe and ban — to' curſe and ſwair. But far more figgurative:
It wer telling her, if dhat wer true: It wer
good for her, if dhat wer true. Nor know dhe bold
Brittons to' ſwair by a perſon: jurare in verba alicujus —
to' hold anny perſon an orrakel, an infallibel; to' pin
dheir faith to' ſuch perſons ſleve. Dherfore ſays a proud
Scot: Swair by hoom yoo wil, I ſwair by noboddy. Nor
waz Horrace les proud dhan he:
Nullius addictus jurare in verba magiſtri,
Quo me cunque rapit tempeſtas, deferor hoſpes.
Swor'n to' no maſters arbitrary ſway,
I roam hware points PROPRIETY dhe way.
Oddher figgurative ſcotticiſms ar: to' bel dhe cat widh
won, to' diſpute it widh won; to' take dhe ſheaf frae
(from) dhe mare, to' poot of wons jurney; to' ſwim for
wons life, to' be in immment dainger; and ſo on.
INFINITE ar dhe varriacions beſide dhoze we hav ſeen
in dhe Scotch familliar uſe ov Ingliſh words; by ſubſtitucion,
arraingement, encreſe or dimminucion. Ye'r
a grait vague: ye'r ay vaguing. Yoo'r a grait rake:
yoo'r evver gadding. Waz dhe play throng? Waz dhe
theater throng'd, or crouded? Waz dhe (play-) houſe
fool? Ye pet me tel'd, but ye manna pet tel me. Yoo
poot me to' it, but yoo muſt not pooſh me. Ev ye want
to ken dhe names o' dhe play-actors, dhare hwat a chield
ftappet into' my haund: If yoo wiſh to' know dhe names
ov dhe actors (or players), dhare iz hwat a fellow poot
(or clapt) into' my hand. Stop iz dhus a Scotch equivvalent
ov poot. Hwat iz'd? Hwat iz it? Dhey caw'd a
bel: Dhey call it a bil. Ye may rid et; but I wonna
guee ye'd. Yoo may read it; but I wil not guiv it yoo.
E'n'z ye leik: Juſt az yoo pleze.
WE cannot now wonder at anny colloquial ſubſtitucion
or chainge. Tac batter, an batter'd: Take paſte, and
paſte it. Tac dhe gooſe (now indeed onely dhe Tailors,
in boath dialects) and gooſe dhe claes. Take dhe iron,
and iron (or ſmoodh) dhe linnen (-cloadhs). Tac my
mezzure: I'm gawn to tac af a new cot. Mezzure
me: I am going to' by (or hav) a new coat. My warthy
young Friend, I thought ye wod hev com an ſin us:
My wordhy yong Frend, I thaught yoo wood hav com
and ſeen us. I nevver ſet your ſand. I nevver ſit yoor
ſend — deny yoor ſummons — refuze your invitation. But
I wos ye wod lan me dhe cooſſer (u French). But I wiſh
yoo wood lend me dhe coarſer — dhe horſe. Denna ye
ken (or Dee ye na ken) he flengs? Don't yoo know (or
Doo yoo not know) he kics (or throws)? Ye thenk ta
ſhank me af ſae! Yoo think to' fob me of ſo! Hwan
doo com into' dhe yaird, I houp ye wol meind, ta poo
nadher froot (u French), nor flooers. Hwen yoo doo
com into' dhe garden, I hope you wil remember to' pluc
(or, pic) nedher fruit nor flowers. Let me at liſt beak
myſal in dhe ſun: Let me at leaſt baſk in dhe ſun —
Chop at dhe yat: Knoc at dhe gate. Tac af (or Left)
yer hat: Pool of yoor hat. Left (up) dhat prin: Pic
up dhat pin. Steer (for ſtir) dhe: Turn dhe ſpit.
Coor dhe board (boath u French), now, Covver dhe tabel:
Lay dhe cloth. Mac dhe ſallet: Dres dhe ſallad. Air
dhe drink: Take dhe chil of dhe liccor. Dhe bread 'z
el fir'd. Dhe bred iz il bak'd. I wad (ſince wod) na
ware my ſeller on' d: I wood not beſtow my monney
upon it Guimme ſomthing to' pet it our: Guiv me ſomhwat
to' help it (over, or) down. I nevver baud (for
bade) better: I cood nevver dezire better. Ye'r weel
boden: Yoo ar wel provided. Ye'l mac rich: Yoo'l
guet (or grow) rich. Ye'r ay throng wonning dhe warld:
hoo mickel (or muckel) d' ye won in dhe wic? Yoo'r always
bizzy making monney: how much may yoo ern in
dhe week? An ye had na bin ſae varry throng, ye wod
may-be hev comm'd a wee ſhooner (u French). if yoo had
not been ſo verry bizzy, yoo wood perhaps hav com a
littel ſooner. Wah! deed, I cam as ſhoon as I cud won.
Hwy, really, I came az ſoon az I cood (com). I boo' t
(u French) to' tac my beg-cot, cauz it woz rainin. I waz
obleged to' bring my grait-coat, becauz it rain'd.
Saundy, breng a bottel o' wein. Allec fetch a bottel ov
wine. Wol I breng red or hweit? Shal I fetch red or
hwite? Ye ſanna brac a bottel for me: Yoo ſhal not
open a bottel for me. Tac out yer glas, or I'l caſt out
wih ye: Take of yoor glas, elſe I ſhal fall out widh
yoo: lay yer lugs in't, go to' dhe bottom. Doo bidding,
or I' l guee ve o' dhe lug. Doo az yoo ar bid, or I'l
guiv yoo a box on dhe ear. I'l cloot yer haffets (half--
heds) or yer. chaſts: I'l box yoor chops. Denna boaſt
dhe bairn: Don't ſcold dhe child. Ye'l daſh dhe laud:
Yoo'l dant (or damp) dhe yooth. I daur ye to doo'd:
I dare yoo to' doo it. Dhat wonna daur me, wonna
daur on me: Dhat won't deter me, won't affect (or
tuch) me. Pac of wih yer butter: Make of — Guet
yoo gon. Tac care a' dhat bet cheze: Take care ov
dhat. I wos ye wod lat me be. I wiſh yoo wood let me
alone; az dhe low Ingliſh ſay, leve me (for let me) alone.
Gent. Shep.
Dhey'r fools, dhat ſlav'ry like, and can be free:
Dhe chiels may aw knit up dheir ſels for me.
Dhey'r fools, dhat ſlav'ry lov, and may be free:
Dhe fellows all may hang dhemſelvs for me.
Dhus dialect pervades dhe joccular and dhe ſerious. At
Cards dhe Ingliſh terms Spadil, Manil, and Loo becom
Spaud, Maul, and Lant. Dhe Scots ſay: Yoo ar firsſt
in hand, Yoo ar eldeſt hand; I play widh libberty, I
play widh leve; I play ſans prendre, I play alone; Yoo
renounced: Yoo made a revoke. It iz a remeze or a
repo: It iz a beaſt. Yoo hav but five cards, Yoo hav but
five trics; We hav dhe od lift, We hav dhe od tric.
SOM phrazes affect manners, and limmit genneral to
particcular ideas. Dhus from onnêtetê (in dhe ſenſe ov
civillity or gratuity), dhe Scotch call dhe bit, hwich falſe
Moddeſty leves on her plate, an onneſty; Dhe Ingliſh
pronounce it (left for) manners, and dhe French le morceau
honteux, dhe ſhamefaced morcel. Dhe Roman
vertue waz emminently vallor; Scottiſh vertue centers
in induſtry. In dhis dialect dhe vertuous woomman iz
preciſely ſhe, hoos price iz far abov rubies; and hoos
picture, drawn at fool length, by a maſterly hand,
ſtil be feen (Prov. 31, 10) in a Colleccion ov (no common)
Curioſſities. Som ſkil in antiquity iz indeed indiſpenſabel
to' dhe ſtuddy ov evvery aincient language, or raddher
wil natturally be conveyed by it. Manny expreſſions
ov Shakſpear, and oddher old Ingliſh writers, ar
now obſolete in Ingland, dho dhey make a reſpectabel
part ov dhe prezzent Scottiſh dialect: az, Hwat iz yoor
(or plezzure)? — Hav widh yoo — an antaggoniſt or compettitor.
Fair befall (Scottiſhly faw) yoo! Fair (and fortunate)
be yoor lot. Aincient Scotch waz figgurative,
az aincient Scots wer annimated. Nor can anny figgure
be ſtronger dhan dhat ov I waz nadher (nedher) to'
haud (hold), nor to' bend (bind): I waz verry mad — ungovvernably
angry. Anoddher expreſſion no les ſpirritted,
waz Caw (from cogner, to' drive) my finguer in
(into') a bore, I cannot tel yoo — I cannot find it — I cannot
doo it, Wer I poot to' (dhe aincient) torture, I cood
not — So Lord, haud (hold) a grep (gripe) o' uz (Lord,
hold us faſt) waz a potent az pious ejacculacion in
emergence; and, az I ſhal anſwer (ſtil at leaſt in Scottiſh
judiſcial form) kept dhe grait day (az doz not dhe prezzent
raging Ingliſh aſſeveracion, Upon my ſoll, grait
object) evver before dhe ſpeakers, and dhe hearers
DHE North and South ov Scotland hav dialects differing,
not more in pronunciacion dhan in phrazzeollogy.
In ſound, dhe former ſtrengthens dhe ſeccond ov dhe
verb ſeccond, and ov dhe ſubſtantive annecdote; ſlenders
becauz into' becaze, not to' mencion Eollic varriacions.
In words dhe Abberdeeniſh (or Abberdeens) chainges a
cartfool into' a cartel, a tea-pot into' a tract-pot, maſks
tea az beer, and occazzionally poots cannel into' dhe
tract-pot; but uzes cannel always for cinnamon ſimpel
or mixt; makes a propine for a prezzent, takes foot and
inment for inſtated pozeſſion, becoms dhe enterprize (for
occazion) ov manny ingenious things, talks no galimachy
for galimathias, and cellebrates dhe harveſt-home, widh
grait propriety, az dhe feaſt ov dhe clioc, or hook. But
to' Old-Abberdeen, muſt we trace dhe blac-ſtone, hwiddher
ſo manny ar called, and hware ſo few ar chozen;
like Ebenezer, doutles dhe ſtone ov help (or help-ſtone),
hwen anſers can be inſtilled or aided by dhe kind ingenuity
ov dhe queſtioner. On dhe blac-ſtone iz evvery
examminee ſuppozed to' ſit, becauz evvery candidate for
degrees iz ſet, during examminacion, on dhe blac marbel
dhat crowns dhe monnument (in Kings College) ov
Biſhop ELPHINSTON, founder ov dhe Univerſity ov Abberdeen.

SCOTTICISM, ſo abounding from dhe miſpronunciacion,
miſapplicacion, exces or defect, ov evvery unvaried
part ov ſpeeeh; may no les appear in dhe irregularrity,
or incongruity, ov evvery poſſibel varriacion.
Propperty and plurallity ar formed in Ingliſh by adding
s; hwich, after a cognate ſibbilacion, muſt inſert a
vowel to' prevent coincidence: az in caſe caſes, grace
graces, cauz cauzes, as aſſes, aſh aſhes, age ages.
Dhe febel vocallity ov old almoaſt equally figgured by
e, i, or y, waz effectively inſerted after anny conſonant,
and ſo encreſed dhe noun by a ſyllabel. Dhus wer
prieſtis and poſtis dhe nattural preddeceſſors ov prieſts
and poaſts. Dhe effective haz even remained in ſom
Ingliſh ſurnarnes, az Wallis and Willis; dho Wils and
Knolls, like Fowls and Charters, be now alike indiſpenſably
dhe proppers and appellatives: for Willes,
Knolles, Foulis or Charteris, doo but aſk dhe onnor ov
perpettuating fammilies in falſehood, dhat wonce wer
diſtinguiſhed by Truith. Dhe ſame Scots, hoo inſert
dhe needles ſibbilant, from Sundays-morning to' Satturdays-night,
drop dhe Ingliſh appropriative ov cows-milk,
aſſes-milk, goats-milk; ov hartſhorn, hairſbredth, ſtoneſthrow
or ſtoneſcaſt; and dhe plural ſibbilacion, in ſpirrits--
ov-wine; ſaying cow-milk, and ſo on; dhey uze
not onely a piece ov monney, for a genteel prezzent in
monney, but monneys for various ſums. Dhe Scots,
like dhe Lattins, pluralize a ſurname common to' various
forenames, hwile dhe Ingliſh hold dhe ſurname invariabel
az an adjective. Dhus ſays won dialect Jon and Tommas
Williamſons; dhe oddher, Jon and Tommas Williamſon.
Dhe rule iz ſurely not new, if ſtil neſceſſary,
dhat, A ſingular muſt not be uzed az a plural, more
dhan a plural az a ſingular. If a poet be ſparingly allowed
dhe elliptic privvilege ov joining to' a collective
noun a plural verb, az in Part curb dheir firy ſteeds;
dhat iz Part (for Som) ov dhem curb — no collective can
be ſubſtituted to' a plural, hware no plural ſupplement
can take place. Ov dhis ſort iz mankind; hwich can no
more be dhe ſubſtitute ov men, dhan men ov mankind.
Truith may ſomtimes be exampelled in dhe falſenes ov
her clodhing. Mankind ar liabel to er. Dhis iz no
new quallity among mankind. Dheir powers ar grait;
dho dhey doo not always exert dhem. Won haz but to'
tranſlate ſo pretty ſentences, az wel az ſentiments, into'
anny oddher tung; dhat iz, into' anny oddher vehikel ov
common-ſenſe, to' be cured ov calling ſolleciſm (or nonſenſe)
grammattic libberty. Nor let even proud London
boaſt dhat
Here polliſht language takes her fav'rite ſtand,
Here dains to' linguer, are ſhe leve dhe land;
hwile even here dhe pubblic ar conſtrued a collective, or
anny equivvalent to' a plural; and til ſuch time az not
onely dhe dear pubblic, but dhe pubblic weal (hwich
alone it can repprezent), le public, le bier public, la
république, reſpublica, πολιτεια (politeia), ſhal hav been
alſo, in dhis lerned age, admitted among dhe number ov
plurallities. Dhe Ingliſh may dherfore be gentel, dho
dhe Scotch muſt not, to' dhe pluralizing ov pottage,
ſpinnage, cabbage, or even broth and broze (from
brewis, raddher dhan βρωσις broſis), az wel az dhe company,
made up like dhe reſt, each ov unqueſtionably
various parts or particculars. But all dheze end alreddy
widh an aſpirate or a ſibbilacion, approaching to' coincidence
widh plurallity; and ſo to' an elizzion like dhat
ov dhe appropriative in Moſes' law, our fahdhers' days,
or in Carthage' towers. No wonder if inch dhen perſonate
its plural (inches), widh Natures ain bairn (own
child) dhe Gentel Shepherd:
Four inch aneath dhe oxter iz dhe mark,
Scarce evver ſeen ſen he firſt wore a ſark.
Foar inches 'neadh dhe armpit, haz he bore
Dhe mark, ſcarce ſeen ſince firſt a ſhirt he wore.
Pox, denoting onely ſmall-pox, in a dialect hware no
oddher waz known, had been a reggular plural in pocs;
hwich wer dherfore deffinitely numbered, az dhe oddher
collectives cood not; dho dhey looſely admitted manny
and few, inſted ov much and littel; and wer currently
repprezented by dhey and dhem, for it. Broth (or cale)
being dhe firſt dinner-diſh in Scotland, az ſoop in France,
became a genneral name for dhe meal it firſt perhaps
conſtituted, and haz ſince introduced: ſo, hwen a toper
had got hiz doſe, he waz joccularly ſaid to' hav ta'en hiz
broth. Dhe Scotch retain folk, az dhe Ingliſh doo pepel,
for a plural collective. But dhe Ingliſh actually render it
a familliar plural in folks, like dhe French gens for gents.
But pepel haz not, like peuple, accepted dhe ſibbilant;
and ſo cannot be deffinitely numbered az perſons, much
les az nacions. We can no more ſay, az ſom Scottiſh
writers hav ſaid, two or three pepel, for two or three
nacions (or pepels), dhan two or three foot, horſe, or
cattel; for two or three foot-ſoldiers, troopers, hed ov
cattel; like two or three foot ov mezzure, and two or
three ſail ov ſhips. But dho dhe colloquial doz ſubſtitute
manny pepel, and few folks, to' manny and few perſons;
it ventures not manny, more dhan two or three
ſhipping, or ſuch (not unexampelled) incongruities. A
collective may doutles be more ſafely pluralized widh a
grait, obviouſly les deffinite dhan a ſmall, number.
Hence can we ſay, widh plauzibel ellipſe, three thouſand
pepel, horſe, foot, or cattel, dho we cannot three. Hoal,
az evvery adjective not a plural, may join a ſubſtantive
ov edher number. Dhus dhe hoal proceding, or (in lawſtile)
dhe hoal procedings: hoal being entire, unmutilated;
or a collective pronomminal, dhe partitive ov dhe underſtood:
dhe hoal ov dhe proceding or procedings.
Hoal, applied to' objects les in human power, muſt be
liabel to' figgurative interpretacion. Dhus dhe hoal
members ov a community, ar not ſo propperly all dhe
members; az dhoze ov dhem, dhat need not a phyziſcian.
A mean iz a middel between extremes: dhe
Scotch uze it for a means, hwich iz Ingliſhly a ſingular
collective, or an indeffinite, yet exhibbitabel, plural: dhis
— dhat — dheze — dhoze — ſom — no — anny — much — littel
— manny — few — means. Pain being az common, az
dhe mean iz rare; pains ar evverihware felt, dho pains
iz not evverihware taken. Dhus iz pains an ezily diſtinguiſhabel
plural, or like news, a collective ſingular:
No news iz good news. Twins muſt be twain. Two
twins ar dherfore compannions for two alternatives,
hware twins and won alternative amply ſuffice. A plural
but taudrily prezents a ſingular: I received yoor
favors — I hav no objeccions — I waz going up ſtreets, and
met a man, hoo iz not to' make ſongs ov — for favor, objeccion,
dhe ſtreet, and a ſong. Dhe Scots alſo ſay: He iz
partners widh ſuch a won — I wiſh he wer friends widh
me; az dhe Ingliſh ſay, I wil go halvs or ſnips widh
yoo; nor plead dhey les authorrity dhan Virgils.
— Remo cum fratre Quirinus,
Jura dabunt.
Quirinus widh hiz broddher ar, won day.
To' guiv dhe laws, dhat Romans ſhal obey.
Oppozite (dhence contigguous) to' a plural for a ſingular,
iz a ſingular for a plural. Dhe Ingliſh doo ſay and ſee
ten pound, accountably az ten foot: ten mile iz colloquial
az ten ſhilling: ten miles, and ten ſhillings, ar dhe
oſtenſibel. But dhey nedher ſay nor ſee ten ſheet, for
ten ſheets ov paper; dho ten ream be az good az ten
pound. Nor doo dhey uze a cloth-bruſh for a cloadhsbruſh:
yet ſom even (ov) London-dealers ar apt to' uze
cloadhs (or clodhes) for clodhs. Wages, like dhe French
gages, iz a plural widhout a ſingular. Az gage iz a mere
pledge, a ſervants wage, or fee, iz equally a ſcotticiſm.
Dhat Scots iz onely a plural or an appropriative, evvery
Scotchman may now know; hweddher from Mary Queen
ov Scots or dhe Scots maggazene, dhe rival ov dhe Gentelmans.
Dhe Scots and Engliſh tongues, dhus loſt in dhe
Scotch and Inglih, muſt emerge like dhe reſpective
nacions, widh blended purity, in dhe Brittiſh tung.
Ingliſh adjective forms no plural, except dhis and dhat,
in dheze and dhoze. Romans dherfore iz a ſubſtantive,
and oddhers a pronoun. Dhe pronomminal ſevveral,
always an adjective, can nevver be ſevverals. Won cannot
ſay, I hav ſeen ſevverals (but ſevveral) for ſevveral
perſons or things. Yet ſevveral and conjunct, like genneral
and particcular, like indeed all elſe, may lodgically
becom ſubſtantives, in ſevverals, and ſo foarth.
Dheze and dhoze appear diſtinct az dhis and dhat. Eze
howevver proovs ſomtimes dhe parent ov Difficulty: for
Eze produces Inattenſion. Dhis or dheze point thing or
things, deffinite az near; dhat or dhoze, thing or things
definitely diſtant, or diſtantly indeffinite. Doo yoo prefer
dhis or dhat? dheze or dhoze? Shal I ſee yoo won ov
dheze days? Dhoze wer perrillous times. Dhen ſhal
dhare be war in dhoze days. Dhis diſcrimminacion haz
been ſo long ſubſtanciated, dhat in dheze enlightened
times, dhoze (perſons) hoo ſhood offer a new light, wood
but bring bac dhe cloud dhat overcaſt former ages, or
create a new cloud in ſuppozing dheze (to' be) dark az
dhoze days. But no Scot can confound dheze exhibbitive
pronomminals, hoo perceivs dheze correſpondent to'
(dhe Scottiſh) dbir, and dhoze to' dhae. Nor can anny
perſon uze dhem for dhoze (az in dhem things), hoo
knows dhat dhem iz no adjective; dho dhey or dhem can
ſubſtitute dhoze, az dhe deffinite pronoun.
To' tel dhe practiſcioners ov edher dialect, dhat dhe
comparrative degree belongs to' two objects, because
onely two can be compared; dhe fuperlative to' more
dhan two, elſe wood it not excede dhe comparrative
wer to' tel hwat iz ſo littel new, dhat dhe obviouſnes ov
dhe principels cood alone render dhem imperceptible.
Dhus hear we (and ſee we!) alike on edher ſide (ov)
Tweed: Hwich ov dhe two iz moaſt elligibel? Ov dhe
two, hwich plezes yoo beſt? I know not hwich (ov dhe
two) iz prefferabel; for, Hweddher ov dhe two iz more
elligibel? Ov dhe two, hweddher plezes yoo better. I
know not hweddher ov dhe two iz preferabel. So, I care
not hwich he prefers, for I care not hweddher he prefer.
POPE, hoo ſeldom violates grammar, dho frequently
rime, iz far oftener a moddel ov boath:
Hwen Rezon doutfool, like dhe Samian letter,
Points him two roads, dhe narrower iz dhe better.
DHAT dhe Scottiſh, and evvery aincient dialect iz apt
alike to' amplify and curtail, dhe conſidderate ar ezily
aware. Be dooing proovs dhus az nattural a ſubſtitucion
for doo, go on, procede; az I am dooing it, dhe expres
rezzolucion ov I doo it. So it iz bleeding, or it iz
raining, ſpeaks continnuance more expreſly, dhan it
bleeds or it rains. Evvery imperſonal verb haz been
litterally or figguratively perſonal. Hware annimate
agents ov edher ſex cannot be ſuppozed to' opperate, a
neutral repprezenting nature, dhe ſky, propriety, dhe
thing, or hwatevver elſe rezon couches under dhe pronoun
it, becoms dhe third perſon ſingular, and dhe
onely perſonal part ov hwat iz called an imperſonal verb,
becauz litteral perſons ar not dhe agents. To' behoov
produced dherfore firſt I behoov, az ſurely az oportet
preſuppozes oporteo. It behoovs howevver particcularly
dhe Scots to' obſerv, dhat dhis verb admits now no perſon
but dhe littel neutral abov-ſhown. Dhus, It behooved
Chriſt to' ſuffer — It behooved him — not He behooved,
or dhe like. To' repent, ſollemnly (and propperly) imperſonal,
haz becom aguen familliarly perſonal: It repenteth
(or repents) me, haz ſhuffelled into' I repent.
Dhe perſonal agent waz dhus reflected:
But ye'l repent ye, if hiz lov grow cauld
Hwat like's a dorty maiden, hwen ſhe'z auld?
But yoo'l repent it; if hiz lov grow cold:
How looks a ſulky maiden, hwen ſhe'z old?
PRIMMITIVE language, like infantine, waz ſimpel and
reggular, are Ellegance or Corrupcion varied it. A dental
(n, s, t, or d) terminates evvery formative part ov
Ingliſh noun or verb. Under n iz comprehended dhe
nazal ng ov dhe particippel prezzent; and under t, its
aſpirate (th). Evvery part ov ſpeech lovved dhe licquid.
Abone or abune (u French) and ſyne, preceded abov and
ſince. Noun plural firſt ended Germanly, in dhe licquid,
hwich it afterwards turned Frenchly into' ſibbilacion.
Dhus houſen, ſhoen, eyen, kyen and ſowen became
houſes and ſhoes, now houzes and ſhoos; ſo eyes (truly
ies or i's), kine (now cows) and ſwine, hwich is alſo
ſingular. Scottiſh ſtile uzed dhe ſamen for dhe ſame
thing or things. Dhe ſibbilant itſelf ſomtimes varied or
vanniſht: pennies, halfpennies (hapennies), mans, foots,
toothy, gooſes and mouſes, became pence, hapence; men,
feet, teeth, gueſe and mice. Furth, further and furtheſt,
varied into' fur, furdher, and furdheſt; hwence
dhe now far, fardher and fardheſt; not farrer or farreſt.
Verbs reggular formations came erly, and long remained.
Know'd, draw' d and heard, continnue dhe infantine
and untutored pretterites, at London; az comm'd and
ga'd, ſe'd and gue'd, at Eddinburrough; in defiance at
wonce ov knew and known, drew and drawn, az wel az
ov dhe ellegant herd; nor les ov came and com, went,
ſaw and gave. But if lower Londoners, interchainging
dhe primmitive came and com, uze ſee for ſaw, and
ſaw for ſeen; Scots ov anny rank may be forguivven, for
prezerving keeped and keept, feeled and feel'd or feelt,
ſeemingly prefferabel, az ſurely prior, to' dhe now Ingliſh
kept and felt: ſo dealt, meant, dreamt and leapt, for
delt, ment, drempt, lept, and dhe reſt. Az bleed forms
bled, a neuter verb not interchaingeabel widh dhe
blud, bludded; az lead ſo forms led, and read red, dhe
Scotch ear and eye hav been equally drawn to' form
from plead, pled; inſted ov pleaded, like kneaded and
needed, from dhe coincident need and knead, hware dhe
idel iniſcial ſervs but to' miſlead. So even treat tret, for
treated, like ſeated. Dhe Scots preferred i or y to' e,
before dhe formative dental ov verb, no les dhan dhe
formative ſibbilant ov noun; and ov dhe dental dhe
direct, to' dhe depreſſive power. Hence dhe motto ov
dhe Right Onnorabel Lord ELPHINSTONE or ELPHINSTON
(az town or ſtone contribbuted to' dhe compoziſcion).
Cauz cauzit: Cauz cauzed.
Hail, nobel Chief! may ſtil diſputeles cauz
Send, on dhy Name, ſucceſſion ov applauz.
Dhe Scots hav hiddherto' maintained dheir dialect, az
if eſſencial to' dheir dignity. Dhey ſay, az dhey ſaid
centuries ago, lockit and boltit; for dhe Ingliſh locked,
or loct, and bolted. Dhe oddher dialect doutles preferred
dhe ſame vowel, hwen decreppit waz dhe pretterite
ov decrepe or decreep. So dhe old clepe formed ycleppit,
perhaps before yclepped or yclept. Dhe particippel paſt ov
dhe aincient conjugation, like dhe plural ov primmitive
noun, ended in en: az been and ſeen, ſo doen and goen now
don (for dun) and gon; like guivven and taken, ſimilliarly
guin and ta'en. So drawen, knowen, ſhewen; now
drawn, known, ſhown; hwich particippel can no more
ſubſtitute dhe pretterite ſhowed, dhan known can knew,
or dhan lain (wonce lien) dhe particippel ov ly, can its
own oddher pretterite lay. Far les can dhe neuter lain
be repprezented by laid, dhe pretterite ov dhe active
lay. Scotch haz dhus az manually retained proven,
ſhaven, ſhapen, baken; az dhe oddher dialect haz turned
dhem into' prooved or proov'd, ſhaved or ſhav'd;
widh ſhaped and baked, ſhap't and bak't, by articculating
combinacion, and no contractives ov dhe Scotch
ſhapet and baket. Widh dignity doo ſhapen and ſhaven
remain in ſollemn ſittuacions. Behold! I waz ſhapen in
wickednes —
Smoodh ſkim dhe truns'lers o'r dhe ſhaven green.
But dhe Scots nevver interchainged (az doo even London--
verſifiers) ran and run, began and begun, drank and
drunk; hwile ſang and ſank ar almoaſt loſt in dhe particippels
ſung and ſunk. Ingliſh verb havving now indeed
ſo gennerally boath pretterites in won, and dhe
particippial terminacion en falling daily more into' defwetude;
we cannot wonder if Ellegance herſelf be apt
to uze az particippes took, fel,roze, ſpoke, wrote or
writ, forgot; and leve to' ſolemnity taken, fallen, rizzen,
ſpoken, written, forgotten, and dhe reſt; dho ſhe muſt
leve to' jargon dhe uze ov came, went, gave, for com,
gon, guivven, and dhe like. Hwen a verb, ending
widh t or d, forms its pretterite in ed, dhe Scotch drop
dhe aſſumpcion, making acquaint (or acquant), met, edducate,
load, ſuffice for acquainted, meted, edducated,
loaded. Dhey may doutles alledge, not onely roaſt
meat and roaſt fowls, but dhe ſcriptural roaſt widh fire;
widh dhe particippials dred, counterfeit and forfeit, az
dred ſovverain, counterfeit coin, forfeit life; beſide dhe
common interchainge ov dhe particippel ſittuated and
dhe primmitive particippial ſittuate, az in a houſe wel
ſittuated or wel ſittuate; like dhe poettic ellevate, devote,
and dheir fellows, prefferabel on ſublime occazions
to' dhe formative, ellevated, devoted, and dhe reſt.
Won ſtile requires dherfore ſites ellevate, anoddher ellevated
ſittuacions. Az MILTON, P. L. IX. 112.
Ov cretures annimate widh graddual life.
XI. 821.
A world devote to' univerſal rac.
So Yong: N. Th. IX. 221.
Minds ellevate, and panting for unſeen;
And defecate from ſenſe, alone obtain
Fool relliſh ov exiſtence undeflow'r'd.
In like manner doo Scotch (or old Ingliſh) and ſublimmity
meet in dhe uſe ov employ for employment: won
ſaying Hwat iz hiz employ? He iz out ov employ; dhe
I com! and 'tiz a bleſt employ,
To' be dhe meſſenger ov joy.
INGLISH verb, havving littel variety ov inflexion,
reſts its chief buties on auxilliaries. Dhe potentials may
and can, howevver near in genneral idea, ar ſo diſtinct
in particcular opperacion, dhat dhey can ſcarce com into'
dainger ov interchainge. Yet dhe futuritive or eventual
ſhal and wil, dho no les ſpeciffically different, ar almoaſt
az conſtantly miſtaken az employed, by dhe remoter
Brittiſh nacions. To' aſcertain dheir reſpective
impoart and propriety, won haz but to' rezolv dhem
into' dheir vertual parts. In dhe futurity reſpecting dhe
prezzent, a contingence conſequent to' prezzent exiſtence,
I ſhal be iz I am to' be; I ſhal doo, I am to doo;
hweddher now, or afterwards. To' compound a
futurity reſpecting a ſuppozzitive paſt, an opperacion
conſequencial or concommitant to' anoddher contingence;
ſhal, hwich implies a prezzent prommiſe, forms
ſhood, hwich involvs a condiſcional preddicacion or performance:
I ſhood be — I waz or wer to' be — I ſhood
doo — I waz or wer to' doo — on ſuch condiſcion or ſuppoziſcion.
Dhe auxilliary wil haz, like ſhal, and for ſimmilar
purpoſe, dhe prezzent and paſt indiccative or indicating
tenſes; ſo compounding widh anny infinnitive (but widhout
dhe artikel to') a voliſcional futurity in dhe firſt perſon,
an eventual in dhe oddher two: I wil be — I wil doo
— I hav dhe inclinacion and tendency to' be — to' doo —
Dhou wilt — Dhou haſt dhe tendency or probbabillity ov
being or dooing, and ſo on. For a futurity or contingence,
dependant on a paſt voliſcion or tendency, real. or
ſuppozed; wil forms wood: I wood be — I wood doo — I
had or ſhood hav dhe inclinacion and tendency to' be —
to' doo — Dhou wooddeſt or woodſt — and dhe reſt. Shal
dherfore indicates a futurity ov opperacion certain az
future exiſtence, or az anoddher paſt prezzent, or future
event. Wil, in dhe firſt perſon, intimates a voliſcional,
in dhe oddher two a natturally contingencial futurity.
Shood induces a conſequence, mediate or immediate,
to' a contingence actual or ſuppozed. Wood, in dhe firſt
perſon, declares an inclinaſcional, in dhe oddher two, a
nattural or mortal ſubſequence, to' a real or ſuppozed,
eventuallity. Shal and wil ar dhus dhe prommiſſory and,
predictive; ſhood and wood, dhe conſequencial, condiſcional
or ſuppozzitive; alike to' be diſtinguithed, nay
contraſted, auxilliaries. I ſhal doo it, if yoo wil be ſattisfied.
I wil doo it, if yoo ſhal be ſatisfied. Dhe former,
makes a pozzitive, dhe latter an inclinaſcional prommiſe,
on a condiſcion or ſuppoziſcion. I ſhood doo it, if yoo
wood be ſattisfied. I wood doo it, if yoo ſhood be ſattisfied.
Dhe former aſſures dhe contingence, on dhe
ſtippulated conſequence. Dhe latter prefixes dhe voliſcional
event, to' dhe abſolute or morral ſtippulacion.
Diſtinct and immutabel iz dhus dhe Anallogy: I aſſure
yoo, dhat I ſhal (or wil) doo it. I hope yoo wil; nay, I
expect, I rezolv, dhat yoo ſhal doo it. Az I waz determined,
dhat he ſhood doo it; he declared at laſt, dhat
he wood doo it. If yoo dezire it, he or I ſhal (or wil)
doo it. Yoo, or he, ſhal (or wil) certainly doo it, if I
pleze. We ſhood (or wood) gladly doo it, if yoo dezired
it. Ye doutles ſhood, perhaps wood, if I did. How
happy ſhood we be, to' obey yoo! I am ſure ye wood.
How glad ſhal (or ſhood) I be to' doo yoor frend a plezzure!
Nor wil (or wood) my frend be ſorry to' doo yoo,
won. If I lern aught wordhy yoor notice, yoo ſhal be
acquainted (ov it, or made acquainted widh it). If yoo
hear annithing dhat intereſts me, yoo wil not grudge dhe
communication. If I doo, yoo ſhal; if yoo doo, yoo wil.
If I did, yoo ſhood; if yoo did, yoo wood. Wil and
wood ſpeak dhus according to' perſon, voliſcion, ſubſequence,
or boath; ſhal and ſhood neceſſity, or eſſencial
conſequence. Wood dherfore implying choice, or nattural
contingence, ſhood came to' infer duty; hwich being
but dhe ſhare each morral agent haz to' pay ov dhe
genneral det, ſhood proovs interchaingeabel, not onely
widh waz or wer to', but widh dhe ſollemn aught to',
dhe old equivvalent ov owed to'. Yoo doo not (doo) hwat
yoo ſhood (doo), or, hwat yoo aught (to' doo). How few
doo hwat dhey ſhood! how fewer, all dhey aught! Alike
Ingliſh ar now obviouſly, dho no more promiſcuous dhan
ſynonnymous, Won ſhood think dhat — and Won wood
think dhat — meaning, Won ſhood raſcionally think dhat
— Won wood natturally think dhat — dhe former didactic,
dhe latter inferencial. We cannot now wonder
dhat did may abbreviate edher ſhood doo or wood doo;
had, ſhood hav or wood hav; or dhat wer may be dhe
no les ellegant ſubſtitute ov ſhood be, or ov wood be. If
all did dheir duty, we had not ſuch cauz ov complaint.
Had all don hwat dhey aught, we had not had ſuch
rezon to' griev, things had not been (or wer not) in dhe
prezzent condiſcion. Foolly and ſollemny: If all wood
doo dheir duty, we ſhood not hav ſuch cauz ov complaint.
If all wood hav don hwat dhey aught (to' hav don), we
ſhood hav had no ſuch rezon to' griev, things wood not
hav been in dheir prezzent ſtate. But, wer all dhis dhe
caſe, man wer not man. Wer he not liabel to' error, he
wer no more capabel dhan neceſſitous ov amendment: he
wer edher inſtinctive or angellic. In dhe ampler ſtile:
If all dhis ſhood (or cood) be dhe caſe, man wood not
(or cood not) be man. If he ſhood not be liabel to'
error, he wood no more be capabel dhan neceſſitous ov
amendment: he wood edher be inſtinctive or angellical.
HOWEVVER few be dhe neſceſſary inflexions or varriacions
in anny dialect, dhe ignorant or dhe liſtles wil alter
or infringe dhem, by diſcontinnuance or interchainge.
But againſt edher conſequence ov edher cauz won wood
hav thaught dhe edducated, in edher dialect, long ſince
ſuffiſciently garded. Dhe Inghliſh moods and tenſes admitting
ſo littel variety, Precizzion muſt ſuffer
Ellegance, from hwatevver wood render it les. Dhe
Indiccative haz almoaſt ſwallowed up (or ſuperſeded) in
Ingland ſtil more dhan in Scotland, all trace ov ſubjunctive
mood. Dhis mood ſpeaks in its name ſubjunccion
to' anoddher, by dhe direct conductive dhat, or more
frequently by dhe ſuppozzitive conjunctions if and dho.
Its diſcriminacion indeed from dhe Indiccative conſiſts
onely in ſuppreſſing dhe formative endings ov dhe ſeccond
and third perſons ſingular ov dhe prezzent, and
dhe ſeccond ſingular ov dhe pretterite (or paſt). Dhe
Ingliſh ſubjunctive made an impoartant acquiziſcion,
hwen dhe firſt and moaſt eſſencial verb ſubſtituted am,
art, iz, ar; and waz, waſt, wer for dhe prezzent and
paſt ov dhe indiccative. Be and wer dhus became happy
diſtinctives ov a firſt (perſon) ſingular alſo in dhe ſubjunctive
mood. Dhus: It behoovs (or iz indiſpenſabel)
dhat I be, dhat dhou be, dhat he, ſhe, or it be; az wel
az dhat we, ye or yoo, and dhey be — dhat I doo, dhat
dhou doo, and ſo on Art dhou he? Hwat, if (or dho) I be,
dhou be, or anoddher be? Ar ye dhey? Hwat, if (or
dho) we be? Waz I, waſt dhou (or wer yoo) dhe perſon?
Wer we, ye, or dhey, dhe perſons? In Hwat, if I waz?
dhe Indiccative aſcertains dhe paſt: for, hwat, if I wer?
iz equivvalent to' hwat, if I ſhood be? and ſo makes a
ſuppozitive prezzent ov dhe ſubjunctive paſt. We
hence perceiv dhat dhe dubitative conjunccions (if or
dho) may join dhe indiccative, hware indicacion iz implied.
If I am yoor frend, hwich yoo doo not deny;
I hope to' be treated az ſuch. But, hware anny dout remains,
dhe prezzent muſt be ſubjunctive. If I be (ſuppozed)
yoor ennemy, I may becom your frend. So: If I
be a Fahdher, hware iz my onnor? if I be a Maſter,
hware iz my fear? Widh equal propriety (nay, neceſſity)
doo we ſay dhen; If dhou dooeſt good, dhou enjoyeſt
it; If dhou doo good, dhou wilt enjoy it. If dhou
didſt good, dhou haſt reaped dhe bennefit; if dhou did
good, dhou woodſt reap dhe bennefit. If dhou waſt happy,
I waz ſo: If dhou wert happy, I wer ſo; dhat iz,
ſhoodſt dhou (be happy), I ſhood (be happy). He knows
not how I am, and cares not how I be. He knew not how
I waz, and cared not how I wer. So, in dhe conductive;
It iz propper dhat I be or doo, dhat he be or doo — I wil
ſtay, til dhou be or doo; dhou wilt ſtay, til I be or doo
— til he be or doo — dhat iz, til ſuch time az — or, til
dhe time dhat — he ſhal be or doo: for, in all dhe conductive,
or dubitative, caſes; ſhal, wil, may, or dheir
pretterites, muſt be underſtood to' turn dho ſubjunctive
into' a reggular future or ſuppozzitive: dhat I be or doo
— dhat I ſhal, wil, or may — ſhood, wood, or might —
be or doo: ſo, If I be or doo — If I ſhal or ſhood be or
doo, and dhe like. Hwat dhen ſhal be ſaid for dhoze?
— hoo tel us: Notthing wil be don til he coms — If he iz
dhare a fortnight hence, it wil doo az wel, az if he waz
here now. — Waz he here at dhis moment, hwat cood he
doo? I wiſh he waz, or dhe like.
DHEY hoo regard not won mood, wil abuze anoddher.
Dhey hoo mind nedher time nor manner, wil not much
reſpect perſons; wil confound no les dheir number,
dhan dheir condiſcion. Dhence all diſcriminacion wil
vanniſh, and evvery diſcord arize. No wonder dhen,
if inattenſion to' edher dialect, and to' all language, interchainge
ſtates in dhe pronouns; az It waz not him, it
waz me; for It waz not he, it waz I. But Scotland
knows no ſuch jargon az Shal us go dhare, and ſee if it
iz true? If it waz, ſomboddy wood hav told we. Dhis
iz indeed low and provincial:
But hoo ſhal fix dhe rank, howehr diſcrete;
Or mark dhe line, hware ſenſe and dulnes meet?
If dhe accuracy or ſacred Verſioniſts cood hazzard,
Hoom (for Hoo) doo men ſay dhat I am? dhe colloquial
may hope ſom indulgence for Hoo doo yoo ſpeak to'? Hoo
doo yoo take me to' be? meaning, To' hoom doo yoo ſpeak?
Hoom doo yoo take me to' be? Hwen moddern curteſy,
multiplying (to' make dhe moaſt' ov) a ſinguel perſon,
ſubſtituted in more diccions dhan won, dhe pronoun ov
dhe ſeccond (perſon) plural, to' dhat ov dhe ſeccond
ſingular; edher ſtate and number became alike forgotten.
If dhou and dhee might becom equally yoo, ye and yoo
cood not long prezerv diſcrimminacion. But, dho yoo,
boath ſingular and plural, cannot diſtinguiſh number in
dhe govverned ſtate; hware perſpicuity muſt dherfore
depend on accompaniment, az I rejoice to' ſee yoo,
Maddam; and I rejoice to' ſee yoo, Ladies: it iz
ſhamefool dhat annihware, much more dhat evverihware,
yoo and ye ſhood be confounded; dhat evver, now almoaſt
always, we ſhood edher hear or ſee (nay boath
hear and ſee), Yoo doo me onnor, Maddam; and Yoo (for
Ye) doo me onnor, Ladies. How different dhe light ov
Scripture! Simon, Simon; Satan hath dezired (to' hav)
yoo, dhat he may fiſt (yoo) az hweat: but I hav prayed
for dhee, dhat dhy faith fail not; and, hwen dhou art
converted, ſtrengthen dhy breddhren. — All ye (Ye all,
or All ov yoo) ſhal be offended becauz ov me dhis night
— If Scotch be apt to' keep ye, az it oridginally waz,
dhe onely leading pronoun ov dhe ſeccond plural, ſaying
equally, Ye (not Yoo) ar welcom, Sir and Gentelmen;
edher dialect often ſuffers dhe falſe ſubſtitucion ov ye for
yoo, in dhe govverned ſtate, hweddher won or more
perſons be addreſt. Hwen ſhal we ſee ye — Sir or Gentelmen?
So dhe Scotch Here'z t' ye, Here iz to' yoo, —
to' yoor helth; and dhe old Ingliſh Good b' w' y, for Good
be widh yoo.
IF, now from Ingliſh moudhs (nay pens!) unimadginabel,
we hear and ſee daily yoo waz for yoo wer, in edher
mood, and edher number; not to' mencion dhe colloquial
ſays I, far les dhe vulgar I or we goes, and dhe
like; we may look bac widh temper, dho we cannot
widh triumph, on dhe unſcrupulous age, hware dhe
ſibbilant waz always a welcom formative: az in Brunt
bairns fire dreads. Burnt children dred dhe fire; a
provverb, hightened in French:
Chat échaudé craint l'eau froide:
A ſcalded cat dreds cold wauter.
But terminaſcional concord waz rezerved for tamer times:
For we, bold Brittons, forrain laws deſpiz'd:
We kept unconker'd, and uncivviliz'd.
If howevver, dhe wize underſtand by half a word, dhe
Scots underſtood almoaſt by half a letter: dho not perhaps
ſaying, like ſom ov dheir Northumbrian neighbors
— I'z caud, for I'm cold; — Yet conſtantly prommiſing
— I'z doo'd, (or, I'z dee't) for I ſhal doo it. So Gent.
He'z guet hez wol: hwy no? its good my pairt,
To' guee hem dhat, an he'l guee me hez hairt.
Hiz wil he ſhal hav, az 'tiz good my part,
To' guiv him dhat; and he'l guiv me hiz hart.
Dhoze happy times dhus knowing no grammattic diſcord;
ſingular and plural, nouns, pronouns or pronomminals;
ſubject in ſhort and verb, cool not diſagree.
Provverbs and poets trezzure dhe language, no les dhan
dhe ſpirrit, ov a pepel. Dhey, dhat guets, forguets;
and dhey, dhat wants, thinks on; now, Dhey, dhat
guet, forguet; and dhey, dhat want, think on.
Ilnature hafts in ſauls, dhat's weak and poor.
In febel ſolls and poor, il-nature dwels.
AGAINST won corrupcion, but lately pervading Ingliſh
ſtile, dhe ſtudious ov Brittiſh purity, cannot be too
(much) garded: dhe appropriacion ov an act or event,
by dropping dhe appropriative ſibbilacion, blended widh
dhe ſeeming concord or connexion ov a noun or pronoun
and particippel. Dhus Accounts ar com ov dhe fleet
being arrived — On dhe Admiral havving written —
obviouſly, az barbarouſly, for — dhe fleets being arrived
— dhe Admirals havving written — It iz dhe fleets pozeſſion
ov its own being arrived, dhat iz, ov its own
arrival — dhe Admirals enjoyment ov hiz own havving
written — not dhe fleet or dhe Admiral — being or havving
— dhat iz here reſpectively in queſtion. Noun and
pronoun, or pronomminal, muſt conſtrue alike. We
hav but to' exchainge, boath to' hear and ſee. Accounts
ar com ov its (not it) being arrived — ov hiz (not him)
havving written — Yoo undeſtand ſomboddy's being or
dooing ſo or ſo? Yoo dhence underſtand my being or
dooing ſo or ſo. Somboddy or me wood edher make anoddher
meaning, or no meaning at all. But dhe
ſolleciſm iz even extending to' dhe pronoun, inſted ov
dhe appropriating pronomminal. Dhus advizes a late
Newſpaper. Dhe extreme length ov dhe trial prevented
him (for hiz) making anny obzervacions on dhe evvidence.
So anoddher London-paper: Yeſterday morning ſome
diſpatches were received from St. Lucia; which contain
an account of every thing remaining quiet; and of two
Spaniſh frigates putting in there from the Havannah,
diſmaſted. Hwich accurately wood run dhus:
day-morning wer received from St. Lucia ſom diſpatches;
hwich contain an account ov evverithings remaining
quiet; and ov two Spanniſh friggates' pootting in dhare
from dhe Havannah, diſmaſted. An account ov evvery
thing (or even ov evverithing) remaining quiet iz an
account ov evvery thing (or evverithing) dhat remained
quiet, not ſurely ov evverithings remaining quiet; dho
friggates' may (we know) abbreviate friggateſes. Dhat
perſpicuity depends much on arraingement, we must
evverihware hav occazion to' ſee. Inaccuracy (or Inattenſion)
becoms a ſpecies ov ſtubbornnes, hwich iz az
dhe ſin ov witchcraft. Dhe ſame reſpectabel ſtile ſaid
dherfore, a year or two after: This morning ſome
patches were received from General Elliot at Gibraltar;
which were brought over in the Experiment cutter,
arrived off Plymouth. They contain an account ov the
General continuing in good health, and that two French
men of war had put in there diſmaſted. Not to' exammine
dhe eze, widh hwich our kind Intelligencers
diſimaſt French and Spanniſh ſhips, or dhe hoſpitallity
widh hwich dhey open poarts for dhe diſtreſt; we hav
but to' reduce dhe artikel to' Orthoggraphy, Arraingement,
and Conſiſtence. Dhis morning wer received,
from Genneral Elliot at Gibraltar, ſom diſpatches,
(hwich wer) braught over in dhe Experriment-cutter,
arrived of Plymmouth. Dhey contain an account ov
dhe Gennerals continnuing in good helth, and (mencion)
dhat two French men ov war had poot in dhare diſmaſted.
Dhus, and dhus onely, can it be underſtood or boren.
And dhus doo we ſee dhe propriety ov dhe queſtions
being poot; az, dhe queſtion being poot, we may ſcan
its propriety. News-writers, infine, may be pardoned
for not knowing dhat nedher he nor ſhe can reprezent
titel in dhe abſtract, hwich muſt dherefore be repeated,
or varied by equivalence; dhat dherfore hiz or her
Madjeſty, Highnes, Grace; hiz Lordſhip, or her Ladiſhip,
can no more be repeated by he or ſhe, dhan yoor
Madjeſty, by yoo; dhat name ſpeaks more reſpect dhan
proname, and dhat, hware reppetiſcion might cloy,
varriacion iz ezily found. But no writer iz likely to'
rize into' a moddel, or to' continnue ſuch, hoo iz apt to'
hazzard edher dheze-ſort ov ſolleciſms, or anny oddher
ſort ov incongruity.
MANNY terms hav we found in Scotland livving
appellatives, dhat in Ingland remain mere ſurnames:
Tod, Wilks, Yates, and dhe reſt. More muſt
we occazzionally meet, az bairn and ſcadhe, daft and
wod, gar and greet (child and dammage, wanton and
wild, make and cry), hwich, howevver ſtil viggorous
at Eddinburrough, not SPENCER, SHAKSPEAR, and
MILTON, hay been abel to' keep alive at London. Far
more copious, dho now verry ſmall, muſt hav been dhe
clas totally diſtinct, az wer dhe kingdoms, in dhe innocent
ſcene ſequeſtered from urbannity; and even in ſuch,
ranks ov dhe Scottiſh Cappital, az wer too much
watched to' local duty, to' minguel in ſoddhern correſpondence.
From intercoarſe, near or remote, muſt man
acquire hiz language. Widh dhe Anglo-Saxons had
dhe lowland Scots dheir erlieſt and cloſeſt connexion.
Dheir native talk proovs dhus Old Ingliſh, dhat iz, half
Dutch or Daniſh; and dheir polliſht (language), French.
Hence, ov orrigin chiefly Teutonnic, often high
German, oftener low Dutch, wer ſuch Scottiſh primmitives
az byre, cowhouſe or ſtall; low (widh dhe dipthong),
flame; meadh, direccion; hwaup, curlew;
loon, rogue: has, throat; neaf, neav or nev, fiſt
roze, rizing or ſwelling; yeuk, itch; much, mob
or cap; cogue, noggin: ſnel, keen, ſharp; ſweir,
lazy, loth; ſib, akin; to' dough (to' be abel) hwence
dhe pretterite ducht; and oppozitely, dho widh dhe
ſame dipthong, to' dow, to' pall, to' grow vappid;
to' keek, to' peep; to' clunk, to ſwallow; to' dight, to'
wipe; to' threap, to' aver; to' thole, to' endure; to'
coup, to' ſwop or deal, alſo, to' tumbel; to' roup, to'
(ſel by) auccion.
Jag, hwence jagged, iz old Ingliſh; but brod, pric
or ſting, iz Gaulic; az iz to ſpeir or aſk, if akin (az
correſpondent) to' ſiram. Frends and foes interchainge
language. Gaulic may wel be dhe dres and arms ov
Gauls: dhe kelt or fillabeg, littel ſkirt, and claimore,
braud-ſoard; a ſeeming compound ov dhe French glaive,
ſuch cozzen ov dhe Lattin gladius, az (iz) dhe Gaulic
fear ov vir, a man. Ov like orrigin muſt be manny
lowland terms: Oy (from ocha) grandchild, droich
dwarf, lith joint, (if not related to' limb, az kith to'
kin, or the old Ingliſh ſith to' ſyne and ſince); lin
cattaract, from leim leap (or fall) ov wauter; fud ſcut,
from bod tail; ſcult ſpank, from ſcoiltam to' cleve
widh partan crab, bartizan, from bar battelment (if
not from dhe French pertuis and pertuiſane; carn (in
Scotch alſo rickel), heap ov ſtones; ſpail chip ov wood;
dud, rag; dad and blad, large or brand piece, particcularly
ov greens in a ſoop; from lus erb, dulſe or delſe,
ſeaweed; from leaghan liccor, laiglan pail; from
brachan fermentation, brochan gruel; from tocha
choice, tochar poarcion; ſo ferly, wonder, ov feart
mirrakel (perhaps parent ov dhe Scotch fret, omen),
and liach, bad news; az randy, aſſailant (eſpeſcially
widh dhe tung), from randach partizan. Nor les
Gaulic iz fey boding (hwence feidom) from faig or faid,
a propphet; dhan crine ſhrink, ſpeil climb, ſcriech
ſhriek, alſo ſcreech; and a ſcreving inguel, a fierce
or blazing fire. Dhat aincient Scottiſh names ſhood be
Gaulic, ſhal we wonder? all ezily annalyzabel, az
Torphichen Lord ov dhe caſtel, or Cantyre Hed-land.
Dho, to' evvery ſoddhern az wel az nordhern. tung,
Scotch, no les dhan Ingliſh, may hav been endetted;
widh dhe aincient Brittons, dhe true remnant ov Celts
or Gauls, muſt dhe Celtic or Gaulic remain, Dhus
continnues it, varying name and dialect widh ſittuacion,
in dhe Iriſh, Erſe, Welſh, Bas-Breton Low-Brittiſh, or
Gaulois Gauliſh, and Biſcayan or Cantabrian, to' diſtinguiſh
dhe gennuine Hibernians, Calledonians, Cambrians,
Cantabrians, and Armoricans. Found on dhe
iſthmus ov Darien, dhat hwieh joins North and South
Amerrica; found dherfore probbably (by hwatevver
conveyance) in dhe remoteſt corners ov dhe erth; az it iz
ſtil dhe moaſt expanded (dho evverihware circumſcribed)
and perhaps dhe moaſt aincient, ſo iz it not unlikely to'
becom dhe laſt ov livving languages.
To' dhe Greek Language evvery moddern tung muſt
hav mainly mediate, ſom immediate, obligacions. Ov
dheze, howevver, more ar apparent dhan demonſtrative.
From φαγειν (fagein) to' eat, may be formed fadge, roll
ov bred. βρωσις (broſis) food, looks dhe parent ov broze,
otmeal-poodding; hwich probbably doz but vary dhe
Ingliſh brewis. To' βρογχος (bronchos) dhe throat or jaws
may branks doutles be applied, hwile it juſt abbreviates
dhe Gaulic brancas, a halter. Dho ραϰος (racos) may
produce rag, dhe Eollic, βραϰος (bracos) ſeems not ov brat
in anny ſenſe, dhe ſo nattural parent, az beray. Smad,
ſpot, iz fool az near to' ſmut, az to' σμαω (ſmao) I
clenz, or wipe of; and ſkinguy or ſkinyie, lay-cord, to'
ſcain: az to' σχσινος (ſchoinos) ruſh, or cord dhence
made. Sark lies indeed next dhe σαρξ (ſarks) fleſh, hwile
it boldly varies an Ingliſh ſhirt. Dhe weary guit, suite,
or guet, howevver varied dhe vocallity, iz ſtil dhe
(plaguy brat!) nattural child ov guet, raddher dhan
dhe chum ov γειτων (geiton) kinſman, neighbor, frend or
fellow; dho σομφος (ſomphos), empty or ſoft, may diſpute
edher widh ſunk or ſullen, dhe progennitorſhip ov
ſumph. Nor les aſſuredly, dhan ράινω (rhaino, truly
raino) ſprinkels dhe Ingliſh rain; from ϰρυος (cryos or
cruos, u French) dhe cold, ſhrinks dhe Scottiſh verb to'
grue or ſhivver. Βομβος (bombos), happy parent ov dhe
French bombe and ov dhe Ingliſh boomb, hwich (recoiling
into' nature) gennerates dhe Ingliſh bombaſt, and
dhe Scottiſh bum-bee; ſo ſlenders dhe Scotch (az Greek)
bum, to' dhe Ingliſh hum. But no tung, tied to' endings,
can be ſo convenient, az a bridge widhout
abutments, for ſenſe to' fly over. φυσαω, (fuſao) or φυσσαω
(fuſſao, boath u French) cannot be expreſſive az dhe
Scottiſh fiz, or even dhe Ingliſh hwiz. From σπανος
(ſpanos) ſcarce, μαντις (mantis) a raging bard, nay δερειν
(derein) to' excoriate, may Ettymollogy bring dhe Scotch
verbs to' ſpane or wean, to' mant or ſtammer, and to'
tir or ſtrip; dho dhe laſt may onely lop dhe French
tirer, hwich iz boath to' pool and pool of. But αίρεω
(haireo) I ravviſh or take away, wil be allowed dhe
parent ov harry, by dhoze hoo gues dhat a harrier
had won. To' propine, iz Lattin and Greek; az may
be ſaid ov dhe iddiom, il ate (evil cuſtom), from cacoethes,
Greek on boath ſides (ov) dhe houſe. Two iddioms beg
alſo to' be deſcended ov dhe Greek, or at leaſt to' be ſib
(allied) to' her; won in ſom (not over-cloſe) rezemblance
ov boath boddy and ſoll, dhe oddher in dhe transference
ov at leaſt dhe latter. To' thole a gleph (or bide a wee),
to' bair (or ſtay) a littel, certainly rezembels dhe principal
parts ov ταλα̃λν γλεφαρον (talân glepharon), to' endure a
twinkling. Az to' ſtay, in dhe ſenſe ov to' liv or to'
dwel, iz Greek, Lattin, French, and Scotch, widhout
being Ingliſh; won iddiom iz Greek, French, and
Scotch, widhout being edher Ingliſh or Lattin:ειδεναι
χαριν (eidenai charin), ſavoir gré, to' cun thank; hwich
Latinnity renders acceptum referre, or boni conſulere;
and Angliciſm, to' take in good part, to' take kind, to'
thank; or, figguratively and familliarly, to' guiv creddit
for. Cun or ken (from connaître) widh cunning and
kenning, preceded know and knowing. Dhe cognate
Scotticiſm, to' bear dhe gree, waz to' bair dhe palm; to'
receiv dhe thanks, not to' pay dhem.
DUE lerned part ov evvery European language iz
mediately, or immediately, Lattin; hwich dhence, in
French and Scotch, gains dhe name ov humannity. Law
muſt be Lattin; ſo mannv common terms: arls, erneſt;
cavy, hencoop; inguel, fire; cinguel, bunch ov gleaning;
flan, blaſt; and ſtrath, ſtretch ov plain, related
alſo doutles to' dhe Teutonnic parent ov ſtreet; reſpectivelv
ſpring from arrha, cavea, ignis, cingulum,
flamen, ſtratum. So excerpt extract, tore arm ov a
couch or chair, and dhe old cunzie (truly cunyie, u
French) monney; from excerptum, torus, and pecunia.
Sutor, dhe old Scotch ſhoomaker, iz dhe nattural compannion
ov tonſor, dhe Ingliſh barber. Domine in Scotland
addreſt a maſter, az domino in Ingland dreft a
maſkerader. Doctor and doctrix became, at leaſt az
propperly, dhe (male and female) teachers in a ſcool.
Ov like extraction ar doutles, ſom adjectives and verbs:
ſcaury (herd Romanly ſcoury) awkward, il-looking;
perqueer, expert, clear; and perjink, trim, prim,
prinkt; from ſcaurus (Hor. Sat. I. 3, 47), and perhaps
percinctus, if not perjunctus, or perjucundus. So to'
perſtringe, to' pinch or hamper, and to' pang, to' crowd
(much on dhe low levvel widh dhe Ingliſh ſcrouge); from
perſtringere and pangere; to' bleddher, or ſtutter, from
blaterare, dhe parent confeſt ov blatter. Nor les expreſſive
iz crune (u French) dhan dhe Ingliſh pur, or
dhan can be grunnire, az proud ov dhe oddher prodgeny
grunt. Rift, belch, if not dhe vernaccular child ov
rive, muſt claim ructare its parent. To' narrate, propall,
compete, reſile, perturb, extrude; meaning to' relate,
proclaim, cope or conteſt, ſtart bac, diſturb, expel;
ar terms ov Scottiſh law, hwich raddher makes a ſiſt
(ſtop) ov procedings, dhan ſiſts (ſtops) dhem. Az decreppit
iz dhe particippial remnant ov decrepe; dementit iz
dhat ov dement, dhe ſtump (or ſtunt) ov dementare,
hwatevver dhat verb may hay been. To' look like a
dementit boddy waz dhus, to' look like a perſon
Dementare iz plainly active in dhe ſentencious

Quem Jupiter vult perdere, dementat
Grait Jove diſtracts dhe man, he wil deſtroy.
To' dhe French, ſtil more dhan to' dhe Lattin; or,
to' dhe Lattin, gennerally thro' (dhe medium ov) dhe
French, iz dhe ellegance az wel az lerning, ov boath
dialects, eſpeſcially dhe Scottiſh, endetted. Dhe Scotch
employing onely dhe French vowels, mainly nouns ar
equally French and Scotch; oddhers, widh littel varriacion:
trait feture, nez noze, accès ſit or parroxyſm,
vacance vacacion, gigot (giggot), leg (ov meat), jupe
petticoat, coupon tatter, orloge cloc, montre watch,
ſyllabe ſyllabel, remede remmedy; drogue drug, pratique
practice, porte gate, carte card, dames drafts, toupie peg--
top: laideron ladheron, dirty ſlut; trompe trump, Jews--
harp; virole virl, ferrel; valiſe walees, ſaddel-bags;
carvi carvy, carway, or carraway; merle merl, blacbird;
mauvis mavis, thruſh; corbeau (ou corbin) carby,
raven; goute gut, drop (alſo gout); tache taſh, ſtain;
ſerviette ſervit, napkin; cannelle cannel, cinnamon;
guigne gueen, ſmall blac-cherry; groſeille grozert,
gooſeberry; écrouelles cruels, kings-evil. If words
com to' vary at home dheir idea's and applicacions,
much more doo dhey boath in transfuzion.
Courtine, remaining French but in Fortification, continnues
in boath Brittiſh dialects evvrry ſort ov curtain;
retaining alſo, in Scotch, dhe primmitive ſound. Chopine
iz a Scotch muchkin, and an Ingliſh pint; hwile pint iz
a choppin, or an Ingliſh quart; juſt half dhe Scotch, and
dubbel dhe Ingliſh pint. Aſſiette retains its idea in dhe
Inghliſh plate, and its appearance in dhe Scottiſh aſſiet,
ſide-diſh; hwich holds about half dhe French plat, or
Ingliſh diſh. Victuaille, food, produces dhe Scotch
vittel, grain in genneral, hwich dhe tennant iz ſaid to'
pay in farm, haven in kind; hwile victuailles proovs az
nattural a parent ov dhe fantom victuals, az dhis ov dhe
real vittels. Dhe gennerous Scots aſſure: Ye ſanna dee
for faut, Yoo ſhal not dy for want. Faut ov evvery
kind iz doutles want — ov ſomthing won ſhood hav.
Veal wonce ſignified (az its parent véel, afterwards
veau) calf, ſlain or unſlain. Dhe Scotch continnued
veals-head, like nec ov veal, and dhe reſt; hwile dhe
Ingliſh prezerved Anallogy, in her verry excluzion;
and ſaid calfs (or calvs) hed and feet, ox-cheek and cow-heel:
not veals-hed, more dhan muttons hed, beevs hed,
or cows feet. E'toudeau, yong capon, dhe obvious
oridginal, extends dhe idea in dhe Scotch houtoudy,
yong fowl. From quignon, came queſtionles dhe Scottiſh
hwong ſhive ov bred. Potage, bred-ſoop, varies into'
dhe Scotch pottage, haſty (otmeal) poodding; oftener
indeed named porridge, az if leek-ſoop. Raifort (rave-forte)
iz horſe-raddiſh; yet dhe Scotch refort (az if
racine-forte) iz raddiſb, dhe Ingliſh correſpondent ov
rave. Oranger, dhe orrange-tree, iz dhe Scottiſh
orrange: dhe fruit for dhe tree wer more dezirabel.
Pép, cherry-ſtone, iz but part ov pepin, dhe ſeed ov
ſtoneles fruit. Foiſon haz been adopted by dhe Scots,
az poiſon by dhe Ingliſh. Dhe former ſay, rank
puzzion or poozion; ſo, Dher nae fuzzion or foozion
(ſubſtance) in't. How proud ar potio and fuſio ov dheir
ofspring! Cuiſine lends kitchen in Scotland, a ſenſe it
knows not in Ingland: Hunger iz good kitchen— Hunger
iz dhe beſt fahce: Il n'eſt ſauce que d'appétit. Engin
waz doutles (like its parent ingenium) ingenuity, are
emboddied into' engine, maſhene. In dhis ſenſe ſaid
Scotch: he haz grait ingyne, az ſays French: Mieux
vaut engin que force— Pollicy goes beyond ſtrength. If
engin alone produced dhe addage, dhe addage haz alone
prezerved engin. Armoire (raddher dhan aum, alm, or
almonry) appears to' hav guivven aumry, for cupboard.
Bain, bath, haz varied littel into' boin, waſhing-tub.
Bacquet, pail, iz dhe Scottiſh coal-tub. Chantier, wood-yard,
haz dwindelled into' dhe Scottiſh gantry, a treſtel,
or carridge for a caſk. Hence, by variety ov licence,
dhe caſk itſelf became dhe tree; if dhis be not indeed
(az ſom not unnatturally think it) an abbreviacion ov
gallon-tree. Galant, gouine, and grille (grate) invert
dhe power ov dhe iniſcial in callant, quean, and creel
(pannier). Edher joie, or her daughter joy, haz been
abbreviated in dhe Scottiſh ſweethart Jo or Joe, hoo iz
alſo littel Ingliſh Joſeph. From quille iſſued not only
kile ninepin or ſkittel, but keel Scottiſh and Ingliſh.
From dhe former (in dhe ſenſe ov brown-red erth), quille
de vin, may hay compounded dhe Scotch killevine, led-pencil;
az haz pas-vif pauvee, dhe ſtately ſtep or ſtrut.
Pet, in edher dialect, childiſh umbrage, iz French ov
low idea: pet, dhe Scotch minnion or darling, iz dhe
ſhrimp ov petit. Dhe Scottiſh ſpall or ſpald, ſholder,
and dhe ſpool-bane, blade-bone (ov meat) ſpring alike
from épaule, wonce eſpaule; az dhis from dhe Lattin
ſpala. Art, in dhe old French, from artus dhe Lattin
limb or joint, ſignified quarter, eſpeſcially ov an annimal.
Dhus French ſtil ſays, ſaigner un cheval des
quatre arts (ou ars): to' blud a horſe in dhe foar
quarters. Hence hay dhe Scotch transferred dheir arts
(herd airts), dhe quarters ov hevven, or cardinal points.
Dhe Scotch law-phraze, art and part, acceſſary, ſeems
here to' hav its orrigin. Tranſe (from tranſitus) remains
in dhe Scottiſh trance, a litteral paſſage between
apartments; in dhe Ingliſh vizzion it ſpeaks an ideal, az
in dhe French fit or pang, a real tranſiſcion into' dhe
world ov ſpirrits. Pierrée, ſtretch ov ſtone, ſends not
onely dhe Ingliſh pier, dhe piece ov bilding between
windows; but dhe Scotch pier, mole, key, or ſtone-ſtructure
dhat runs into' dhe ſea, to' conſtitute dhe harbor.
Dhe Scotch pend, arch or vaut, and dhe
penthouſe, ar equally children ov pente, ſlope, inclinacion.
Since dhe Ingliſh take dheir mat from dhe
French natte, dhe Scotch chooz for dheir mat, dhe
adjective baſſe; elliptically, for la natte baſſe (la natte
qui ſe couche au bas de l'eſcalier) dhe mat dhat lies at
dhe bottom ov dhe ſtairs. Dhe Scotch old biggonet,
plain linnen-hed-dres, but varies and extends dhe beguin,
French cap ov a child. A bonnegrace waz a Scotch ſtraw-bonnet;
a wangrace made a compound, az if ungraiſſe
or ungreſe; wauter-gruel widhout butter, for a cold.
Dhe Scotch mittens prczerved dhe idea ov mitaines,
coarſe woollen glovs, hwile dhe Ingliſh mittens (or mits)
became finguerles glovs. Dhe chaumer o' deice waz
la chanzbre du dais: dhe chaimber ov ſtate, ov dhe cannopy.
Hence to' deice out waz to' tric out, to' prink
up. Deuil ſpoke real moarning, hwen it lent duil or
dole (u French) to' Scotland, retained in dhe ingliſh
dolefool. Ingland haz kept dollorous (like douloureux),
dho dollor be dropt; hwile France, leving deuil but dhe
garb ov woe; haz transferred dhe reallity to' douleur.
Légataire gave dhe Scotch leggatar, hoo became dhe
Ingliſh leggatee. Beltain or beltine haz obviouſly combined
bel (afterwards beau) temps, fine weddher. Ye
may guet war bodes or Beltain: Yoo may guet worſe
offers are May-day. Az manny French words muſt be
Gaulic, ſom Gaulic words ar French: dhis perhaps,
widh terms ov Chriſtiannity; like Nollag, Chriſtmas,
from Noel, az dhis (probbably) from Zoel, a preddeceſſor
or picture ov Yule (p. 30). So cargus or carghus from
carême or quadrageſima, Lent; like eglais from. égliſe
(and eccleſia) Church. Pâques woncc Paſques (from
Paſcha) produced dhe old Scottiſh Paſchf. Eaſter; but
dhe Gaulic Pais, Paſſion, appears to' hav ended in
Pece. French iz ezily found dhe Chriſtmas-carrol:
Hogmenay! Trollilay! Homme eſt né! Trois rois il eſt!
— Man iz born! three kings adorn! dhus duly commencing
dhe hollidays widh Chriſtmas-day, and concluding
dhem widh hwat dhe French name la féte des
rois, dhe feſtival ov dhe kings, hoo came from Arabia
and Saba to' bring guiſts. Α'για μηνη (Hagia mene)
Holy moon, iz no comparabel ettymollogy. Ommenay
remains a ſurname in Ingland.
FRENCH ar manny Scottiſh nouns (and Ingliſh too),
ov hwich dhe parents can be traced but by Anallogy.
Ov dheze ar. benniſon and malliſon (herd maliſon),
bennediccion and mallediccion. Dhe Mains, perhaps a
remnant ov demeſnes (truly déménes), ar ſtil dhe grannaries
widhin dhe precincts ov a territorial Manſion.
Gobbe, dho now a mouthfool or ſop (and but a bad won),
haz probbably wonce been a mouth, az gob or gab ſtil iz
in Scotland; ſo prooving a more nattural parent ov dhe
Ingliſh gobbel and gabbel, dhan can be dhc French gober.
Hweddher aiſſelle, armpit, firſt queſtionles aixelle (if not
axelle) from axilla, formed not for ſom collatteral purpoſe
aixetier, and dhence auxetier, muſt be left widh
annalodgic ſagaſcity; yet auxetier, if it nevver did exiſt
but in dhe eye ov Anallogy, looks at leaſt an oftenſibel
parent ov dhe Scottiſh oaxter. Clique, ſtll a knot or
junto, had been like its Gaulic anceſtor clioc, a hook, arc
it produced dhe Scotch clic ov dhat meaning; hwence
doutles dhe Ingliſh clicker, a jurneyman-cutter ov ſhoos.
Hargneux ruf, rude, rugged, carries us to' an unqueſtionabel
parent; but Hargne, if expelled France,
certainly impoarted into' Scotland, Harn, dhe coarſeſt
linnen-mannufacture dhare. Tent ſeems dhe child ov
attente, hwich may wonce hay included attenſion, dhe
ſole poſſibel parent ov expectacion. Tac tent came dhus
to' ſignify take heed, take notice, take care; guiv attenſion,
mind. But, if tent may dhus be an ofset ov attente;
dhe Scottiſh verb ſpeir may ſimmilarly ſprout from
eſpérer, hope (ov knowing) being dhe parent ov enquiry.
From guiſe aroze natturallv guiſard, or guizart, hoo
grooved dhe Scotch (low) maſkerader. Jointée now
handfool, or dhe fil ov joint hands; havving been
oridginally a joining, may hay guivven riſe to' dhe
Scottiſh jundy, joſtel, or noc by collizzion. Som Scottiſh
ſubſtantives remain ov French iddioms or compounds,
no longuer known in France: ſuch az bonailay (bonaller
dhe glas ov good-jurney; hwich dhe foy (from foi
or voie), in a cup ov thanks, returns. Clanjamfray iz
obviouſly clan de gens frais, pac ov upſtarts, hwile
canaille continnues dhe Scotch canallia, rif-raf.
FROM dhe French, widh ſo manny ſubſtantives, muſt
flow not a few boath adjectives and verbs; widh hwat-evver
ſamenes, or varriacion, ov idea. Dhus, dur hard,
hard-harted, ſends door, dul, ſtubborn: doux douce,
meek, gentel; dooce ſollid, ſedate: courroucé wrauthfool,
crooce fierce; loyal loyal, leal untainted; fait,
fitted, feat neat, trim: brave brave, bras fine, ſhowy:
bonnet gooddiſh, bonny butifool; penſif penſive, penſy
dapper, gimmy. Bien lends dhe adjective bin, wel to'
pas. Mc ſubſtantive bien ſeems alſo (raddher dhan dhe
Ingliſh being) to' impart hwat dhe Scotch call a being, a
ſuſtenance evver ſo ſmall. Ident, aſſidduous, looks dhe
minniature ov identique or identic; dho eidant littel
varies aidant aiding. Obeiſant chainges exactly az
much ov obléiſſant, az dhe Ingliſh obeiſance ov obéiſſance.
baſſen'd cow iz une vache baſanée, a dun cow. Buffed
or buft, ar ſtuffed or ſtuft, chairs; ſo un hareng
bouffi, a buft herring. Dhe Ingliſh turns dhe depreſſive
into' dhe direct in puf; az in poodding, poot, and pout,
from boudin, bouter and bouder. Aiſlar may be traced
by Anallogy (like oaxter) thro' dhe loft, if evver found,
aiſlaire, aiſſelaire, aixilaire; to' axillaris and axilla,
contracted ala (a wing); hwence alaris, dhe nattural
parent ov ailaire, hwich had becom aiſlaire; az had
aile aiſte in falſe compliment to' axilla and axillaris.
Aile haz veered into' ile, dhe wing ov a church. Annalodgically
appears dherfore aiſlar-work wing-work;
dhe hewn-ſtone, for dhe wings; and dhence for anny (or
all ov dhe) nobler parts ov a billing: Yet aiſlar-work may
(after all) be a mere varriacion ov teſſelar (teſſelated)
work. Dhe Scotch antran, od or accidental, differs not
much from entrant. Antran things may be wanted at
antran times.
NUMEROUS, if not numberles, ar dhe Scottiſh, from
French, verbs; from débourſer to' diſburſe, déranger to'
diſrange or diſarrange, diſorder or diſturb; devaler,
to' let or go (or run) down, dhe Scotch deburſe,
derange, devaul: from fâcher to' vex, maltraiter, to'
treat (or uze) il, and even from dhe ſubſtantive marguillier
church-warden, to' faſh, maltreat, margoolyie
or bunguel. If Ingliſh be now (fondly) adopting among
oddher forrain, ſom Scottiſh barbariſms; particcularly,
dhis much— to' derange; Scotch haz long proſcribed dhe
French formatives preſcrive, deſcrive and ſubſcrive; and
joined her ſiſters reapproach to' Latinnity in preſcribe,
and dhe reſt. Reſter to' remain, produced dhe Scottiſh
to' reſt, remain unpaid; and, even actively, to' ow.
Briſer to' cruſh or crumbel, iz dhe parent ov to' briz,
tranſpozzitively birz, to' ſqueze or ſquaſh, az ov dhe Ingliſh
bruiz, hwich correſponds widh froiſſer. Cogner to'
wedge, became to' drive, and dhence dhe Scotch verb
to' caw. From ſe buſquer to' buſk wons-ſelf, to' put in
wons buſk (or ſtay-prop), coms dhe Scotch verb to' buſk,
to' dres. So buſquer (not pouſſer) fortune, iz to' pooſh
(try or ſeek) wons fortune. Taper, to' friz or frizzel, to'
tutch dellicately, opens into' dhe figgurative idea ov
uzing annithing ſparingly, in dhe Scotch verb to' tape.
Japper, now onely to' yelp (dhe ſpawn ov glapir) ſeems
parent ov jap or jaup, ſplaſh. But yelpers ar ſomtimes.
littoral, no les dhan figgurative, ſplaſhers. Mêler gennerates
dhe verb to' male or ſtain: for ſtaining iz blending.
If écurer (wonce eſcurer) hay tranſmitted dhe
Ingliſh ſcour; Anallogy brings az fairly from a now-invizzibel
eſcourre (hwence alſo eſcouſſe, run before a leap)
dhe Scottiſh verb to' ſcour or ſcamper. To' ſcuf (ſpoil),
abuze or bruſh away) wons cloadhs, may hay ezily paſſed
(over) from eſcouver afterwards, écouver; ſcarce ſurviving
in its two branches, écouvette a bruſh, and écouvillon
an ovven-ſweep, or a gun-cleaner. To' meiz, demize,
tranſmits dhe miſe ov mettre; and to' ſtravague cuts of
but hed and tail ov extravaguer. Préjudicier haz
guivven (hwat itſelf no more pozeſſes) dhe idea ov
venir, to' dhe Scottiſh predjudice, hwich dherfore implies
prepozes. Dhus dhe candid Scots: Won ſhood not
be predjudiced (for prepozeſſed) in anny caſe, hweddher
for or againſt anny object; dho dhey doo but join dhe
Ingliſh in ſaying Won muſt nevver guiv way to' predjudice,
meaning prepozeſſion. Premature judgement iz in
deed lo injurious and dettrimental, chat dhe noun predjudice
conveys equatly in Ingland injury and prepozeſſion,
dho préjudice mean but injury. Dhe Scotch forejudg'd
haggard, az if foredoom'd, iz too litteral a verſion ov
préjugé. Sweal being dhe older verb, hweddher from
ſouiller, ſouler, or hwencevver; dhe Scotch hav retained
it prefferably to' flair, hwich (from flairer) dhe Ingliſh
hav com to' prefer. Dhe Scotch frequentatives canguel
and channer, wranguel and ſnarl, ſeem boath oridginally
French: won from dhe old cang, dhe oddher from dhe
prezzent chien, ſucceſſively ſignifying dog. Old Ingliſh
adopted cvverithing French. French wer its verry
formations. Hence dhe Scotch particippel prezzent in
ant or and; widhout dhe nazal ſound, hwich Ingliſh haz
prezerved in ing, dho it varied dhe vowel. T or D
final after N, waz notthing more in Scotch, dhan in
French. So dhe French danſant and roulant became
dhe Scotch danſan and rowan; dhe Ingliſh dancing and
SUCH bias hav dhe Scots to' hwat iz French, dhat
dhey often retain French idea's or iddioms, even in
words not derived from dhat language; no les dhan in
words, hwich, oridginally French, hav chainged dheir
idea or expreffion in Ingland. Ov dhe latter, dhe
Ingliſh ſot iz now merely a tippler or toper; hwile dhe
Scottiſh (like dhe French) ſot continnues a fool or dunce
at large. In dhe former clas, dhe French call dhe
merry-thaught ov a fowl la lunette; dhe Scotch, dhe
ſpectakels. So dhe venzon-bit, being in France le
morceau de la ſouris, becoms dhe mouſe-piece in Scotland.
From like ſoarce draw dhe Scots dheir colloquial
foar ours, foar o'cloc or afternooning, widh ſuch oddher
time-phrazes we hav ſeen. Fer-blanc and fer-blantier
ar ſtil (and propperly) hwite-iron, and hwite-iron-ſmith,
at Eddinburrough; dho now tinplate (or mere tin), and
tinman at London. Dhe Scotch turns litterally, ſi vos
beſoins vous y appelaient— if yoor occazions ſhood call
yoo dhiddher— hwich Ingliſh renders, ſhood anny occazion
call yoo dhat way, or dhe like. So, vous vous.en
repentirez quelque jour: yoo wil repent it ſom day, for
won day. Les ſots-s'étonnent de tout: Fools wonder at
aw theng for evverithing. Green figguring freſh, in
evvery language; to' dhe familliar queſtion, Hwat ar
yoo dooing norv-a-days? a Scotch umbel anſer iz, Ony
theng to kip dhe banes grin; dhe Ingliſh, Annithing to'
keep ſoll and boddy togueddher. But dhe Scotch, in ſuch
caſe, ar apt to' anſer more conciſelc, widh dhe French:
Peu de choſe, Lettel theng; for Not much, or No grait
matter. Thous voilà tout défait! I thenk ye' r aw defeat,
yoo ſeem quite overcom, or, out ov order. Je'n'en puis,
plus, I canna play pu. I can (doo) no more, I'm quite
ſpent. Dhe French aad Scotch ſay, Hâtez-vous— haſte
ye; dhe Ingliſb, Make haſte. Dhe two former, Je vous
demande pardon— I aſk yoo pardon; dhe latter, I aſk
yoor pardon. Dhe, Scotch verb to' dree, az if to' dry,
correſponds widh eſſuyer, to' wipe of; dhence figguratively,
to' undergo. Dhus widh eſſuyer un mal correſponds
to' dree (or undergo) a hardſhip. Az defendre iz
boath to' defend and to' forbid, we ſaw dhe Scotch uze
diſcharge, not onely for clear, but for prohibbit.
les littoral waz dhe tranſlacion ov ſuch az— Qu'eſt-ce
qu'il y en a? Hwat's dhat o'd? .Hwat iz dhe matter?
On ne le dit preſque jamais— It iz almoaſt nevver ſaid:
It iz ſeldom or nevver ſaid. Voilà l'afaire! Dhare dhe
thing! Dhare iz dhe thing! or, dhare'z dhe matter.
Le voilà! Dhare him! Dhare 'd! Dhare he iz! Dhare
it iz! Il y a and Il y a eu— hav occazioned dhe Ingliſh
indeffinite Dhare iz— Dhare ar— Dhare haz— Dhare
hav been— But hware ſittuacion iz deffinite, dhe indeffinite
dhare becoms redundant; particcularly, in dhe
cacopphonous hware dhare: Hware (dhare) iz anny ear,
dhis wil be underſtood. Dhis angliciſm, raddher dhan
ſcotticiſm, precludes not dhe deſſinite and ſollemn oppoziſcion:
Hware yoor trezzure iz, dhare wil yoor hart
be alſo. So juſtly admire we dhe Iſraelite indeed, in
hoom iz no guile!— in hoom dhare— wer az ſhocking az
hware dhare— or az dhe moaſt vulgar ov vulgariſms,
(hwich nevver cood enter Scotland) dhis here, and dhat
dbare; az conſtant widh low Londoners, az ceci and
cela, widh Parizzians. But hooevver knows boath
languages muſt know dhat dhe French ceci, cela, ce
livre-ci, and ce livre-là, or dhe like, ar neſceſſary boath
to' perſpicuity and precizzion; hwaraz dhis here and
dhat dhare (for dhis and dhat, hwich hav here and,
dhare in dhemſelvs), dhis-here book, and dhat-dhare
book, or ſuch, muſt be pleonaſtic. It iz howevver but
ſeldom dhat Ingliſh admits, and Scotch excludes (hweddher
propper or impropper) galliciſms. Dho dhe Ingliſh
hav tranſlated ci-çà into' dhe equivalent ſee-ſaw;
and boath dialects tranſpoze hola! into' halo! (az cacao
into' cocoa); Scottiſh iz more Gallic dhan Ingliſh interjeccion.
Hence hear we dhe puerile Eh, gauche! in dhe
Scottiſh Eh, goaſh! and ſom harmoniſts hav gallicizcd
dhe verry nurſes lullaby baloo, by expanſion, into' Bas!
le loup— Huſh! dhe woolf—
BOATH Scotch and Ingliſh licquid mezzures hav we
ſeen oridginally French; az iz plainly dhe Scotch lippy,
(lippée), dhe quarter ov a pec; dho firlot, dhe quarter
ov a boll, hav a Teutonnic aſpect; hweddher az a diminnutive
ov fier (foar), or compound ov foarth-lot.
French ſeem alſo (not untraceably) dhe names ov dhe
ſmall copper-coins ov Scotland: doit, bodel, plac and
baubee. Dhe bodel and baubee wer dhe propper coins,
ſtampt widh dhe ſignifficant Thiſtel, and its no les
appozite motto: Nemo me impunè laceſſet— No won
ſhal provoke me widh impunity. 2 doits or 2 pennies,
made dhe bodel; 2 bodels dhe plac, or 4 pennies; and
3 bodels dhe baubee, or 6 pennies Scotch, equal to'
won hapenny ſterling. Dhus wer 12, 18, and 3o pennies—
1 penny, three hapence, and tuppence-hapeny.
So 12 pennies wer dhe twelth part ov I2 pence, or a
ſhilling Scotch ov a ſhilling Sterling. Az a ſhilling, ſo
a mark, and a pound (herd pund), ov won dialect, wer
reſpectively dhe twelth ov dhe oddher. Such antiquaries
az anallogiſts muſt dhey hay been, hoo braught dhe
term ſterling from dhe town ov Stirling, formerly
Striveling. Anallogy can trace it onely, like pecunia
from pecus; ſterling, az if ſteerling: dhe nattural mark
ov dhe firſt Brittiſh, az ov dhe firſt Roman coin; or dhe
repprezentacion ov dhe firſt nattural object ov public
barter. But, ſince nedher dialect uzes livres, ſous,
deniers and quarts or quartiers, more dhan librae,
ſolidi, denarii and quadrantes; nedher can raſcionally
continnue dhe ſuperſcribed ſymbols l. ſ. d. and q or qrs;
for p. or pds. ſ. or ſh, p. or pce, and f. or fgs. hwich can
alone abbreviate pounds, ſhillings, pence, and fardhings;
hware abbreviacion muſt find place. Az infine dhe
French aggregate dhe ſums, by dhe hundred and thouand
livers; fo dhe Scotch by dhe hundred and thouzand
marks; ſomtimes, like dhe Ingliſh, by pounds;
dhe vallue keeping always (in) duodeſcimal propoarcion.
Nor need dhe Arithmetiſcian be reminded, dhat 3000
marks make 2000 pounds; or even, dhat 1000 marks.
Scotch ar equivvalent to' 55 pounds, 11 ſhillings,
1 penny and won third ov a penny ſterling.
1. Diminnutive and Augmentative.
SEEK we not abraud, hwat may be found at home.
Dhe old dialect muſt hav retained dhe ſame powers ov
forming and compounding, and dhence produced manny
ſimmilar formatives and compounds, yet unknown to'
her ellegant ſiſter. In evvery dialect noun ſubſtantive
gennerates dhe claſſes ov diminnutives, augmentatives,
collectives, abſtracts, accions, and agents. Ov noun
ſubſtantive dhe diminniſhing terminations ar various;
but non ſo ainciently Ingliſh, and dherfore ſo conſtantly
Scottiſh iz ie, now y; an ending almoaſt obſolete in Ingland,
unles in dhe endearment (or contempt) ov familliar
appellation. If dhus dhare ſurvive Jacky, Jonny and
Jemmy; Polly, Molly and Peggy; widh dheir reſpective
compannions, az well az Natures own ſweet formatives,
pappy, daddy, mammy, babby; ſuch kindly appellations,
az Pooſſy and Venny; or contemptuous, az Cocky and
Boolly; in Scotlands familliar diction evvery littel thing
iz a thinly, annimate or inannimate: manny, wify,
lucky (dhe Ingliſh gooddy); much more bairny, laddy,
laſſy, yoothy or yonker, dhe Ingliſh yongſter. So horſy,
ſhelty (Shetland-pony), doggy, catty, beaſty, birdy, fiſhy;
booky, penny, wordy, and dhe reſt. Dhus grooved
luggy, not onely a littel lug, but by extenſion a lugged
or eared cogue or noggin; in dhe Weſt ov Scotland, a
milkpot from pouring became a poury; and evvery
perſon or thing doated on, waz evverihware a dauty; az
in Ingland, hwatevver iz dear, in dhe endearing ſenſe,
iz a darling. Bucky, az if buccina, iz dhe Scottifh
conk: ſhal not a brawler becom a bucky? Dhe Scots continnue
Cate, in Caty; hoom dhe Ingliſh mettamorphoze
into' Kitty, dho coincident widh littel Chriſtopher. Az
thingy iz (in Scotland) littel thing; thingamy iz (in
Ingland) evvery ſurname dhat hurry cannot, or haughtines
wil not, reccollect. If won dialect hav turned Wil
into' Bil hwece Bilſon; boath hav acknolleged Wilkins,
and Wilkinſon; az wel az Wilſon and Williamſon.
Won haz Williſon dhe oddher not Billiſon. Ploy,
merry bout, ſeems ſuch child ov play, az play ov ply,
lay ov ly; drain, rain, praiz, ov dry, rite, prize; and
dheze az ſedare and fugare, ov ſedere and fugere.
Palmy (litteral or rellative, petty palm, or ſpank on dhe
palm) iz now accountabel az pammy, ſweety az furloffy,
hwich iz but a littel furlof, dho underſtood a forfeit.
Cutty, no formative ov cute, claims cutag, her parent,
hweddher littel ſlut, or littel ſpoon Gully, chopping
knife, but inverts dhe iniſcial ov culter;. and diminniſhes
or augments (coincident oppozites) dhe idea. Powney
iz a Scotch turkey, perhaps from dhe Indian (contry)
Poonah; hwiſky but varies uſky (petty wauter); pliſky
and fliſky may ſpring from ply (or play) and fly, ſhavy
(ſly tric) joccularly from ſhave; and bonny-wally (pretty
plaything) French on won ſide, diminniſhes ware on dhe
oddher. Dhe ſame oc, dhat ends boolloc, ended ſteeroc,
dhe now Scottiſh ſtirk; and laveroc, dhe now Ingliſh
lark. After word coms weird, ſays dhe Scotch provverb:
from weird (fatal word) may hay ſprung a frequentative
weirdel, and dhence weirdeloc, afterwards
warloc, wizzard. From hang ſwings hammoc; ſo from
drake (drench) drammoc, az from bake bannoc (if not from
bun bunnoc). Kebboc dhus, from cap, cab or cake,
proovs a littel Scottiſh cheze. Dhe ſame lingo dhat prefers
limpoc to' limpet, prefers (joccularly) Jemmoc to'
Jemmy, and bittoc to' bitty, alike to' dhe Ingliſh unknown.
Yet bittoc iz az fair a formative az buttoc.
Dhe Scottifh Joc, hwence dhe Ingliſh Jocky, can be
but a varriacion ov Jac, dhe contractive ov Jannoc (az
if Jeannot or Jannot). Dhe coarſe oc cood be no female
ending. So from Jeanne and Jeannette, dhe Scotch
Jean and Jannet; liker dhan dhe Ingliſh Jane, Jin
and:Jinny. Dhe old dialect retains Rich, Rob and Wil,
hwich dhe new haz chainged into' Dic, Bob and Bil.
Littel Allexander and Elizzabeth keep in Scotland dhe
latter and former, in Ingland dhe former and latter part;
dhare Sandy (or Sander) and Lizzy, here Allec and
Bet. Pahtric and Martha. remaining Scottiſhlv Pate.
or Paty and Matty; hav Ingliſhly and ellegantly familliarized
dhemſelvs into' Paddy and Patty. To' hint
dhat Peter (widh Perkin) and Pahtric (widh Paddy) ar
different names, wer to' offer an unment indignity to'
dhe practiſcioners ov edher dialect. Not to' dwel on dhe
difference between Tib and Bel, Nanz and Nance, or
Anny and (Nan) Nanny, or oddher long ſince ſettelled
diminnutive names; certain leſſening terminacions belong
to' higher, az oddhers to' lower idea. Ov dhe latter
clas hav we ſeen oc, and may wel ſuppoze og; widh
et and ot, hwich like moaſt Ingliſh formacions, ar ov
Gallic orrigin. Paddoc, in Ingland, dhe litteral diminnutive
ov park, iz in Scotland, dhe petty inhabbitant
frog; if dhe Scottiſh name ov dhis annimal be not raddher
(az often herd) puddoc, an ofspring ov puddel.
Hair, in dhe newer dialect, produces haſſoc knee-cooſſion;
in dhe oddher, it waz alſo a coarſe augmentative, implying
a frouzy heap (or az dhe Scotch ſay, head) ov hair.
Such formatives az bog and ſcrog, from bow and ſcrew,
we hav (I. 330.) ſeen. Harriet and Harriet contend
widh dhe Scottiſh Henny, hoo ſhal be Henry's or Harry's
fair darling; az doo dhe French Margot, and Scotch
Marguet, widh Peg and Peggy, hoo ſhal endear
Margaret. But Scotch and Ingliſh ar verry antipodes.
Dhe former holds dhe ſnac (alſo for latch), dhe latter
forms dhe ſnacket: from dhe Ingliſh ſmac arizes dhe
Scottiſh ſmatchet (littel rogue); az from py (magpy) dhe
Scotch piet, and tale-piet, teltale. From dhe expreſſive
hwid and frequentative hwidder or hwitter, ſprings
dhe moaſt expreſſive hwitteret, wezel. Dhe old delv,
retained for dig, ſeems to' form dhe Scotch devvet, turf;
az doz bow bend, (from dhe ſhape) bowet, dhe paper--
lantern carried by dhe Caudies (from cadets) dhe errand--
runners and ſtreet-Mercuries ov Eddinburrough. If
firlot (from fier) rezembel harlot (from hare), dhe Ingliſh
firkin (alſo from fier, foar) and bodkin (from bore)
affociate dhe Scottiſh cutikin, half-ſpatterdaſh, dhat juſt
rizes over dhe cute or ankel. Az Tom forms Tompkin,
ſo Tommy dhe Scotch Tommikin; and az lamb lambkin,
fo dhe Scotch lammy lammikin, and dhe like. Throttel
and rumpel ar Ingliſh frequentatives; throppel, rumpel
and rickel ar Scottiſh diminnutives, ov throat, rump and
ric: rumpal iz dhe Gaulic term.
Y and ry ar Scottiſhly, az Ingliſhly, collective endings.
Az Kennet formed littel Ken and Kenzie (Kenyie), ſo
men became collective in menzie (menyie) a band. Like
pirate pirracy, rogue roguery; fire (or fierce) fiercy
(burning fever), cheat, cheatry. Hoo wood ad fire to' a
fiercy? Cheatry ay caidhs; Cheating always ſhows (itself).
But dhe particippial ing iz in edher dialect dhe moaſt
nattural collective or abſtractive ov accion. Like being,
dooing, livving, lining, and dhe reſt; dhe Scottiſh lawing,
mealing. (or farm-room), plenniſhing, laboring, mudding,
goading, wintering: reckoning, littel farm, furniture,
plough-land, dunghil, manure, winter-ſtore; and
ſo on. Foggage iz dhe aftermath; and afterings, dhe
laſt drawings ov dhe milk from dhe cow. A roan iz a
running, ov ice. Az docking (or doccan) for doc, and
bracking (from brake) fern; ſo kindelling collects dhe
fewel, dhat kindels or lights dhe fire; boxing, wainſcotting,
and ſhavings chips. Carlings wer carrollings
(roaſted peas!) dhe umbel collacion ov carrol-times, az
won way or oddher connected widh carême and carghus
Lent. It may be remarked (by dhe by) dhat dhe car--
hand waz disc Scottiſh left hand; hweddher from Greek,
(Lattin) or French, dhe hand next dhe hart. From dhe
French morgue, dhe Scotch murging grimace. Daffing
for doffing wantonnes, and daft for doft, hav been no
oddher dhan dhe particippels ov dhe old verb to' dof,
to' poot of wons garb, or wons gravvity. Certain it iz
dhat ſom ettymollogies (perhaps dhe prezzent) wood
tempt dhe grave reader to' becom at leaſt figguratively
doft. Nor wil it (probbably) be allowed by dhoze, hoo
hay diſcovvered dhe Scotch fried chicken to' be Friars
chicken; or dhe Ingliſh bumper (dhat bumps) to' be a
bon-pere! Az wel may a bunker, or window-ſeat, be a
bon-coeur raddher dhan a banker or bencher, bank or
bench, bannocker or bannoc-holder. Use ſame ſpirrit
dhat finds Ingliſh or Scotch to' be French, wil find
French to be Scotch or Ingliſh; wil intuitively own a
commonty (or common) to be a common ty, not anny abbreviacion
ov communauté, community. Links indeed,
ov anallogous acceptacion, wil be confeſſed dhe obvious
ofspring ow liens; az conſtituting dhe verry bonds ov
ſociety. To' aſſail ſuch anallyſis or orrigin az a SWIFT
wood hav admired, might ſeem, to' guiv up all claim
to' dhe common ty, and to' brandiſh no gof on dhe links.
From dhe Gaulic or Erſe goth, az an adjective ſtraight,
and ſubſtantive ſpear (dhence club), may wel be traced
dhe nobel game ov dhe Gof. Dhe ſucceſſive tranſiſcion
ow dhe dental aſpirate into' dhe guttural, and ov dhis
into' dhe labial (I. 100), wit not ſurprize anny hoo hav
purſued dhe anallogy ov human articulacion; and dhence
lernt dhe alliance ow dhe aſpirates, dhe los ov dhe
dental (aſpirate) in (perhaps) evvery language but our
own, ov dhe guttural in Ingliſh az in French, and dhe
difficulty even ow dhe labial to' ſom Indian organs.
Goth ſo became gosh or gough, hwich, in dhe Ingliſh ſurname
and Scottiſh game, haz becom goph or gof. Dhe
French hav ſimmilarly adopted, from dhe ſame root,
dhe ſibbilating aſpirate in won adjective, and dhe labial
in its cognate, az if dhe verry parent ov dhe now Ingliſh
ſound; but equally (yet nedher unaccountably nor unpreſcedentedly)
inverted dhe oridginal idea, in gauche
aukward, dhence left; and in goffe, its familliar
ſynnonymy. Forrain gof dhus deduced, may lead us
to' native links, by anallogous (no les dhan annalodgic)
tranſmutacion. Dhe pallatals (or gutturals) k and g
(hard) differing onely az direct and depreſſive, ar indeed
ſo nearly coincident, dhat n before edher (k or g) repprezents
dhe hoal nazal ſound (ng); and ng, terminating
before a cloſely-connected iniſcial vowel, iz apt ſomtimes
in Ingliſh, az wel az in French, to' run into' dhe ſound
ov nk (dhat iz, ngk). Az dhe French dhus pronounce
long iver, ſang aduſte, ſuer ſang et eau — lonc iver, ſanc
aduſte, ſué ſanc é o; a common Londoner talks ov anny
think elſe, or anny thing kelſe; inſted ov dhe ſollemn
anny thingue elſe (or annithing guelſe), and dhe familliar
anny thing (or annithing) elſe (I. 107). Nay, Ingliſh
vulgarrity wil utter anny think (dhat iz, thingk) for
anny thing. Hence may be inferred, dhat lee, lea, leigh
or ley, (howevver painted) being dhe old word, are fulvus
and fauve produced fallow; leings hav, like annithing
annithink, rizzen into' leinks, and fool az natturally
ſhrunk into' links, vertually leingks and lingks.
So near akin ar collectives and abſtracts to' each
oddher, az to' proov even interchaingeabel. Dhus collect
dhe Scots milk in milknes, for dhe dairy. In edher
dialect, eth or ith, raddher dhe mere dental aſpirate, iz
next to' nes, dhe abſtractive termination. Graith, from
hwatevver concrete, Scottiſhly gaddhers horſe-guears,
ſope-ſuds, and ſmall ſhot. More French iz povverty
dhan poortith, hwich doz indeed littel elſe dhan contract
it, az yoodith expanded hwat yooth contracts. Ov cognate
ſound and idea wer fouth, routh, and ſcouth; foolnes,
rollingnes (ſo to' ſay), and ſcope. Breadeth remained
bread, for bredth; ſo greedeth remained greed,
dhat gave way to' her grandchild greedines.
NOTTHING being ſo near az (oppozite) extremes,
Diminnutives and Augmentatives in all tungs coincide:
for Propriety, augmented or diminniſhed, muſt be alike
impaired. Collectives abſtract things, and Abſtracts
collect quallity; Accions equally collect and abſtract opperacion:
no wonder dhe three terms proov almoaſt interchaingeabel.
Like dhe Ingliſh enquire enquiry, iz dhe
Scotch expire expiry; from conſumptus came dhe Scottiſh
conſumpt, az from conſompcion thro' conſumptio, dhe
Ingliſh conſumpcion. Particcular accions run into' effects.
Behoov left in Scotland behoof, varied (ſtraingely) in
Ingland to' behalf; weav produces dhe Ingliſh woof az
wel az dhe Scottiſh waft (or weft) and web, ſubſtituted
in Scotch to' piece. Differ and hinder, for difference
and hindrance, Scottiſhly aſſert verbs power ov ſpeaking
its own accion, az doz dhe Ingliſh ſtand, hware dhe
Scotch dialect gennerates ſtance. Bow wonce bough (az
ſtil dhe noun) formed bucht, for dhe bough or wattel.
Bode a bidding, waz perhaps dhe parent ov dhe Ingliſh
verb. Bake, by ſubſtitucion or formation, produces two
o v dhe manny) ſorts ov Scotch bred, bake and bap;
widh dhe general accion or collective, batch, common
to' dhe dialects. Swadhe and ſwag may innocently diſpute
dhe procreation ov ſwatch, dhe Scottiſh ſampel or
pattern; but brew, ſwelled into' brow, iz dhe undouted
parent ov brouſt, brewing. Hweddher blobe be an expreſſive
tranſpoziſſcion ov bubbel, or compound ov blow
up; honney-blobes proov a pictureſk term for dhe Scottiſh
yellow grozerts, gooſeberries. Jiſp, ſmall gap,
ſlit, or opening, may be a varriacion ov gaſp; at may
braſh ov bruſh, if not an exertion ov braik. Bike, hive,
ſeems dhe ſtructure ov big, bild. Stook, ſhoc ov corn,
or coc ov hay, like ſtac, ric ov edher, or ov chimneys;
iz a child ov ſtand. Yet dhe former may vary ſtoc, az
ſtoop ſtop, hwich boath may abbreviate, ſtay up: ſtoop
and roop (evvery bit or dhe hoal) may hav been poaſt
and rope, dhe hoal ov dhe barrier; hwile ſtoup (flaggon)
may be but dhe container ov ſtoop from ſteep. Stollum,
a taking (or penfool) particcularly ov ink, looks a formative
ov ſtole; at doz indeed ſtank ov ſtand; really dho
it be dhe tranſmiſſive ov eſtang (now étang) dhe at
nattural parent ov dhe Ingliſh and Indian tank, az offpring
ov ſtagnum and ſtare. Stoor, duſt raized, may
be dhe child ov ſtir, or dhe varriacion ov ſtewer; az cloor
ſeems dhe contractive ov clewer. Rung, bludgeon, may
vary but dhe look (not reallity) ov wrung, az doo ring
and rac ov wring and wrac. Bent iz dhe bending ſhore
or land, kent a coarſe cane or cudgel, guird (hoop) a
varriacion ov guirth or guirder; at bawk ov brake,
hwence it paints alſo a rafter. Dhe briery (herd breery)
bawk proovs dhus dhe verdant brake. If delv for dig,
be rellegated to' Scotland; delf, for dhe (place) dug,
ſeems drivven to' Abberdeenſhere. To' dhe vulgar Ingliſh
maſſacry for maſſaker, might hav been contraſted
dhe Scottiſh treatiſy for treatiſe.
DHAT Agents may be annimate or inannimate, muſt
be obvious. Dhe Ingliſh heath iz boath producer and
prodduce; dhe Scotch heddher makes dhe prodgeny
ſpring diſtinct from dhe parent. Dhe Ingliſh hunks and
Scottiſh hunkers ar boath umbel cozzens alike ov hunger
and hung. Dhou Hunks!
— congeſtis undique ſaccis
Indormis inhians —
Hoo o'er dhy bags, from erths foar corners pil'd,
Hang'ſt brooding —
Or, hoo to' ſwallow dhe expiring ſpunk,
Cow'r'ſt low on dhy vile hunkers! —
On bags or marrow-bones foredoom'd to' hang!
If wimpel (from wind) waz a curl, wimpler waz doutles
a ringlet.
Doon hiz braid bac, frae hiz hweit head,
Dhe ſilver wimpler grew.
G. Sh. Vizzion, V. 9.
From marry, if not mate, ſprings at leaſt dhe ſynonnymous
marrow. Dhe old Scottiſh verb haver (hweddher
French or Spanniſh, from beaver. or from hablar)
guivs butifoolly to' a diminnutive agent, a diminnutive
ending, in haverel, female babbler. Dhe Scotch
apply dhe ſtoppel, dhe Ingliſh dhe ſtopper, to' dhe bottel.
Dhe chief termination ov an agent iz in edher
dialect er. Alreddy hav we ſeen orranger for orrange,
and may ſtil hear (from vomitoire) vommitter for vommit;
but may we not hear, in Ingland, dhe muziſcianer
(for dhe muziſician)? hoo plays upon dhe muzic! hoo
cuts perhaps dhe loweſt figgure in dhe loweſt Ingliſh
dialect? Dhe old verb boiſt, varied Scottiſhly into' boaſt,
produced boiſter, Scottiſhly boaſtet; az oiſter, oaſter.
From ſhark or ſharg deſcended dhe hwinging (hwining)
il-tempered, ſharguer; from burg or burgh (now burrough,
truly burrow) burgher, az dhe Ingliſh burges,
from bourgeois; from cot cotter (or cottar), az from
cottage cottager. Cart and carter ar at London les
known (but in dhe ſurnames) dhan car and carman:
cart indeed ſtil diſtinguiſhes dhe ſmaller (or les capacious)
vehikel. Ingliſh familliarrity, dho ſcarce uzing
carter more dhan coacher, calls howevver dhe coachman
coachy, doutles from dhe French cocher. A carrier waz
ov old a cadger (or cadzer, for cadyer) az may wel be
ſuppozed, from cadge. Ship became Dutchly ſkip, and
dhence formed az ezily ſkipper for ſhipmaſter, az dhe
adjective ſhril engendered dhe verb ſkirl. By dialectic
interchainge, dhe Ingliſh banker proovs dhe Scotch
bankeer (ſtil nearer to' dhe parent banquier); and dhe
Ingliſh auccioneer, dhe Scottiſh auccioner. Dhe ſtooer
and clooer we ſaw in anoddher clas, may doutles be
numbered widh inannimate agents; and dhe cardooer
(fammily-botcher) hweddher formative or compound, az
variouſly traced, waz queſtionles a uſefool, and often a
plezing Scottiſh inmate. Agents aſſumed ov old, and
ſtil often diminnutivelv doo, ſter for dheir terminacion;
az maltſter and tapſter, ſo punſter, gameſter, tricſter.
In Scotland dherfore continnue dhe beaver and webſter,
now mere ſurnames in Ingland, hware dhe artizans ar
becom baker and weaver. So dhe dyſter and litſter,
from lyt or lit, and (lyo or luo, u French) united in dier.
Thrower and throſter, ſpinner and ſpinſter, differ az
genneral and particcular. Yonker we ſaw dhe Scottiſh,
and yongſter dhe Ingliſh commic agent. A maſons
hodman or laborer waz dhe Scottiſh cowan, hwenceſoevver;
and nonjurant (French) remained dhe Scottiſh
nonjuror. Pladgiariſt iz infine dhe Scotch, and
pladgiary dhe Ingliſh wit-thief.
DHE copious ending ov adjective Scotch or Ingliſh, iz
y or ey. Ov obvious formation ar dherfore manny Scottiſh
adjectives, even hware dhe roots ar les oſtenſibel:
az ſtoucy, ſtout, chubby; ſoncy, luſty, jolly; canty,
and cadgy, merry, cherfool; coothy, cordial, ſociabel;
furthy (from furth now foarth), frank, open; dorty, in
dhe dorts or pouts; dowy, dul, hevvy; flory, airy,
ſhowy; corky, light az a cork; voguy, vain, az if
fool ov vogue, fool ov glee. Like Ingliſh boozy from
booz, dhe Scotch drouthy from drouth, dhe tranſpozzitive
ov draught, drines; and from trubbel (not drown)
drumly, trubbled, muddy, thic; if not a varriacion ov
dhe nordhern grumly, from dhe Lattin grumus or dhe
Ingliſh crumb; clarty, dirty, from dhe Scottiſh verb
clart, az dhis from dhe noun glar, dirt or mud, and
dhis (perhaps) from glarea gritty ſand. Yet may it but
vary clot. Cozy (warm) infantinely tozy (or tovy), and
ſozy flimzy, unſubſtancial, may boath be Gallic; but
eiry (eery) chilly, trembling, from eir (eer) ice or ſnow;
and feary (ſtrong) from fear good, ar Gaulic. Dhus ar
hale and fear, ſtout and ſtrong, ſafe and ſound. Tidy,
in weſtern Scotch, iz pregnant, in a thriving way; and
canny ſpeaks Scottiſh caution, dhe parent ov abillity.
Az Ingliſh from ſlip, through ſlipper, forms ſlippery;
Scotch, from ſlide and ſlid, claims dhe ſnonnymous
ſliddery. Won dialect ſays wordy, friſky, ſpirrited;
ſo dhe oddher, tungy, ſpirrity, thoughty (from dhe old
thought); fool ov tung, ſpirrit, thought, and dhe like.
Az Ingliſh forms helthy, no les dhan compounds helthfool;
Scotch uzes cheary, more dhan cherfool. From
dhe old fend, remains fendy; and gentelmanny is Scotch
for gentelmanlike. Widh dhe Ingliſh kindly or ſprightly,
may be claſſed dhe Scotch workly, inclinabel to'
work; evenly, equal, equabel, and oddhers. Overly
iz ſtil Ingliſh for dhe Scottiſh halfling, perfunctory, or
by halvs. But halfling ſeems dhe ſubſtitute ov halflong,
in ſuch phraze az a haling laſſy, a growing guirl. Dhe
adjective ſpirly (az if from ſpare or ſpire) signifies ſlender,
ſmall. Spirly ſhanks ar dhus ſpindel-ſhanks. Az
Ingliſh forms from pale, paly; ſo Scotch, from ſmall,
ſmally: a ſmally laudy iz dhus a ſhrimp ov a boy. Az
boiſt prooved Scottiſhly boaſt or bouſt, boiſterous or
boiſtrous became not onely bouſt'rous, but bouſteous or
FROM iſh dhe Ingliſh termination ov diminnutive tendency,
ſh terminates a few Scottiſh contractives wairſh, az
if wauteriſh, taſteles; toſh, trim; ſoſh, ſociabel; coſh (from
chaud) ſociably warm, az cozy iz ſnugly ſo. Like flee fluſh,
iz free fruſh: dhus wood iz ſaid to' be fruſh, hwen free,
open, apt to' crumbel. Jim or gim produces dhe Scottiſh
jimp or gimp, ſcanty, tight; ſhrink, widh dhe Ingliſh
gennerates dhc Scottiſh ſcrimp, crampt,
ſtinted. Thin haz (been) varied into' dhe Scottiſh
thain, rere, littel don, in cookery. Douf, dul, iz
parent, child, or collatteral, ov doof (u French) dullard.
To' douf, to doo (or drive) of, doz but vary to' dof.
Cnif (all ſounded) briſk, iz a Gauliſh primmitive. From
dhe French ſubſtantives boſſe and eſtaye (now étaie), dhe
Scotch adjectives bos and ſtey (widh dhe dipthong);
hwich may indeed ezily vary dhe Ingliſh ſubſtantives
bos and ſtay, into' dhe idea ov hollow and ſteep. Ye'r
no bos: Yoo ar not empty. Set a ſtoot hairt til a ſtey
Tu ne cede malis: ſed contrà audentior ito.
Let not hardſhip lay dhee low:
Stouter 'gainſt dhe mountain go.
From dhe French adjective fou fol folle, fool became an
adjective in Scotch. Dhe old ſnac (now ſnacket and
latch) iz alſo a Scottiſh adjective, expreſſing in dhe
ſound, dhe ſenſe ov ſharp, ſmart. Snac howevver iz
pert, dhe verry reverſe ov dhe Scottiſh ſmart, hwich
means clevver, capabel. Dhe Ingliſh verb trig proovs
dhe Scotch diminnutive quallifier, for trim. Throng,
an Ingliſh ſubſtantive and verb, iz no les a Scottiſh
adjective, az we ſaw (p. 125). Ettymollogy, hwen
impoartant, may gennerally be found; hwen hard to'
find, it may be held unimpoartant. Hwy ſide (or ſeid)
ſhood Scottiſhly imply long or deep, need not be deeply
ſeyed (dipthong) ſifted, ſerched, or eſſayed. But ſey,
dhe Scottiſh ſerce, or ſercher, cannot be unallied to' dhe
Gaulic ſegh, dhe milk. Ov ſimmilar orrigin may be
dhe fore-ſey, and dhe bac-ſey, for dhe fore-ribs and ſurloin
ov beef.
DHE particippel prezzent (ov verb) proovs, in all
language, dhe opperating or active quallifier, az wel az
dhe collective ov accion or opperacion. Dhe particippel
paſt becoms conſequently dhe opperated, or paſſive,
quallifier ov noun (ſubſtantive). Like dhe Ingliſh particippials
lerned, famed, aged, naked, decreppit; ar
dhe Scotch daz'd for doz'd, doting, ſynonnymous to'
doitet from doit, dotard; cappet capcious, cankert crabbed;
blacket, dirty, dirty-looking; blaet, contracted
into' blate (from blae bluiſh) looking blue, ſhamefaced,
baſhfool; daft (we know) for doft, wanton; halluckit,
harum-ſcarum, half-witted, az if through halluc, dhe
grandchild ov hallucinari; glaiket guiddy, from glaik,
tos about, like dhe Gaulic gleicein and Scotch clackin,
ſhittelcoc; hwence alſo dhe glaiks, dancing ſhaddows,
reflected on dhe wall. So ſlid waz ſmoodh; az in a ſlid
tung. Such az fatted, clotted, collar'd, rivvell'd, ar dhe
Scottiſh particippials blaz'd (from blae), turned az milk,
and lappert, coaggulated, clotted. Eir or Ear, are, before,
preceded (in dhe ſame ſenſe) its formative early,
now erly. Firſt iz a ſuperlative boath adjective and
adverb: chiefeſt and extremeſt, for chief and extreme,
ar barbarous, az evvery degree beyond dhe ſuperlative.
SCOTTISH doutles formed, az Ingliſh verbs hav evver
don, dheir diminnutives and frequentatives in el and er,
az wel az dheir inceptives in en. Cog and touz hav lent
or left dhe Scotch coggel (totter) and touzel. Dhe
Gaulic tod (clod) ſeems to' form dhe Scotch toddel,
trip or waddel; dhe Ingliſh pine forms dhe Scotch
pinguel, drudge piningly; az dhe old and Scotch
dwine, dhe Ingliſh dwindel. Dhe Scottiſh dindel may
be a formative ov din or ding, or a mere varriacion ov
tinguel. Tric, becom trink, haz created dhe Scotch
trinkel for trickel. Souiller and cueuiller (afterwards
cueuillir) produce widh dhe Ingliſh ſully and cul, dhe
Scotch ſuddel (ſoil), and cuddel (clap cloſe). Hweddher
herpel vary crippel, be formed from ερπω (herpo I creep)
or from hwatevver primmitive, it iz at leaſt az expreſſive
az harl from trail, hare, hardel, fardel, burdel, or
hwencevver. Harceler, to' harras or teze, may wel
claim dhe Scottiſh hercel, rub or drag along. Like
warp warbel, muſt be work (or worm) worbel, wriggel.
Wrinkel varied into' runkel; crook ſhrivvelled into'
crunkel. Dhe Scotch pet, fondling, iz dhe object ov
pettel fondel. Hwat may hav formed ettel (archly aim),
iz not ſo obvious: étaler to' diſplay, atteler to' yoke or
poot to', dhe native at, or aim itſelf? Dhe Gaulic
burach, (like dhe Lattin corona) implied a cirkel, particcularly
ov men; dhence producing bourg, burg or
burgh and burrough. Dhis may hav produced bourre
and bourreler, ov hwich dhe firſt idea muſt hav been
to' encirkel ov encloze; and hence dhe Scotch burl (or
birl), club or join (in drinking), becoms an ezy
DHE Scotch expreſſive ſtot (bound) varied into' ſtoit,
became frequent in ſtoiter, hwich might wel proov
ſynonnymous to' ſtammer (ſuppozing ſynnonymies poſſibel),
hwen dhe latter (az Scottiſhly) prezented dhe
idea ov ſtagger, and ſtutter had not yet ſupplanted
ſtoiter. Stammer ſtaggers (or ſtands) now onely in
ſpeech, az doz to' mant in Scotland. Dhare dhe figgurative
clac (or chat) haz varied dhe licquid, not dhe
meaning, in crac; yet clatter iz dhe equivvalent, not
ov crackel, but ov chatter. Dote makes a Scottiſh frequentative
in dotter, if dhis doo not vary totter. Az
ſtoiter transferred dhe reel, ſtic or ſtop, from dhe toes
to' dhe tung in ſtutter; ſo flutter iz but dhe Ingliſh ov
dhe Scottiſh flighter. Neav or nev iz dhe nattural parent
ov niffer, ſwop from dhe cloz'd fiſt. From dhe Inglish
ſnif or ſnift, dhe Scotch chainge dhe diminnutive
into' dhe haples frequentative ſnifter. Az dhe Spanniſh
palabra (word) lends dhe Brittiſh palaber (babbel), dhe
no les innocent hablar (to' ſpeak), if not (the French
baver (to' drivvel), may hav given rize to' dhe pitteous
haver, az clac to' claver; and az dhe horſes neigh, to'
dhe expreſſive nicker. Loc, dhat curls, forms az ſairly
dhe frequentative; az loc, dhat locs, dhe agent — locker.
Hwon yer head'z hweit, ye wod ha'd lokeran. — Hwen
yoor hed iz hwite, yoo wood hav it lockering — curling,
or in ringlets. Hoo hav much, wood hav more. Dhe
Scotch ſtil prefer ſing to' ſimmer, for dhe muzic ov hot
wauter; az dhey doo ſmudge, to' ſimper; ſo mould or
moold, to' dhe Ingliſh molder; az, for dhe verb moddher,
dhey ſubſtitute ſummer ſcale. Sweir (loth) makes dhe
pictureſk ſwiddher, and ſcald dhe Scottiſh ſcoudher. To'
lair (ſink in mire) may be transferred from a ſwines
lair; and dover (drop aſleep) may be compounded
like dof and don, ov doo (or tip) over. Haſter iz littel
known but in dhe particippial haſtert (az if haſten'd)
haſty. Low ſeems firſt to' form lown and loun (like
lower and lour); and dhence lounder, maul widh levvelling
To' loun or lown proovs dhus Scottiſhly diſtinguiſhed
(by dhe dipthong) from to' lower, dhe Ingliſh frequentative
verb. Oddher Scottiſh inceptives, hweddher active
or neuter, ar: gazen, or gahp, az a woodden veſſel, active
hwen dhe ſtaves open or ſhrink by heat (gahph opening
onely dhe jaws into' lafter); dozen numb, or grow
numbed; ſlocken, ſlake or quench; and barken, cruſt,
or take on a bark. Az dhe Ingliſh brood over, dhe
Scotch ar broadened upon, an object. To' lippen to', iz
to' rely or lean upon, to' ly in expectacion ov a thing
Ly i' yer bed, and lippen til't — Ly a-bed, and look for it;
like Attendex-le ſous l'orme — Stay for him or it, under
dhe elm; and yoo may ſtay long enuf. Borrowed or lent,
lippen iz claimed by dhe Gaulic, hwich diſputes alſo
dhe mezzure, lippy, widh her Gallic daughter. Primmitives
no les Gaulic ar laidh and caidh (herd loidh and
coidh) to' lay down and ſtain; but padhe, dhe formative
ov path, iz a Scottiſh ſubſtitute ov pave. Dhe way iz
padhed. Dhe broth iz laidhed (or thickened). Dhe
ſpot wil com out, hwen it iz dry; it wit not caidh (or
ſtain). From dhe ſame quarter, tar or tair (contempt)
produces tarrow pule or piddel, az if tired widh eating:
Like dauted wean, dhat tarrows at its meat;
Dhat, for ſom fecles hwim, wit orp and greet.
Gen. Shep.
Like dhe ſpoil'd child, dhat ſpurns its vittels by;
And, for ſom ſilly hwim, wil throb and cry.
Formatives like padhe, ar deav for deffen, and miſchiev
doo miſchief to'. Az dhe Ingliſh critticize and annalyze,
ar dhe Scotch verbs appetite, create an appetite, and
hyppocrize, play dhe hyppocrite. Bombaze may
ludicrouſly vary amaze, az bamboozel may play widh
amuse, widh bam and bamboo. Drake and drook vary
dhe Ingliſh drench; and prig Scottiſhly higguels down
dhe price, az rummage ſhrinks into' roonge. Pine, hwine,
ſcreen, bec and ſmug, form dhe Scottiſh diminnutives
pinge, hwinge, ſcringe (thwac), binge (cringe), and
ſmudge (ſmuggel a ſmile). Dhe Scotch uze los for
looz, brain for daſh out dhe brains, lightly for treat
lightly, or ſlight; and file (dhe parent ov filth), now
loſt in its compound defile. Dhe verbs ſtot bound, thud
thump hevvily, ſpang ſpring, jink bilk or baffel, toot
(blow) a horn, and bum hum, ar Scotch expreſſives, coined
in dhe mint ov Nature. Hweddher ϰαμπτο (campto)
I bend, or kemb dhe preddeceſſor comb, be dhe parent
ov kemp, ſtrive (or emmulate) in reaping; pithy iz dhe
addage: All dhe corn ov dhe contry iz not cut down by
kempers. Dhe tortoiſe may (by perſeverance) outſtrip
dhe hare; or, Sure and ſteddy wins dhe race. Evvery
ſpecies ov annimal haz its own ſet ov nattural ſounds:
hence hear we Interjeccion at leaſt common to' man,
hoo imperceptibly forms dhe reſt ov hiz language. Inſtinctive
annimals howevver, dho all in each clas underſtand
won anoddher, lern dheir names, and duties to'
man, from dhe various ſounds, to' which he reſpectively
accuſtoms dhem. Dhe interjeccion dhus hiſk! hiſky!
calls a dog, and chit! chit! a cat in Scotland; hwile
Pooſe knows dhis hiz (or her) name in all dhe Brittiſh
nacions; but wil anſer to' no oddher dhan minet, minette
or minon in France.
IF ſo manny ſimpel terms, ov ſimmilar formacion, ſo
widely differ in cognate dialects; we cannot wonder
dhat manny compounds, caſt alſo in won common mold,
ſhould remain ov peculiar acceptacion. Dhus fernier or
fernyear, former (or laſt) year; heddipeer compeer, ov
like ſtatture; halfhed, ſide ov dhe hed; hartſcald
(melted into' hartſſcaud) hartburn, alſo abhorrence from
ſatiety; beeſcape, bee-hive; cale-blade, cabbage-leaf;
caſtoc, cabbage-ſtoc, meaning but dhe ſtalk or ſtem:
for dhe Scotch cabbage-ſtoc iz dhe cabbage itſelf. So a
chainge-houſe iz a pubblic-houſe, as dhe chaingekeeper iz
dhe pubblican; a ſugar-box, a ſugar-diſh; a ſhakedown,
a floar-bed, occazzionally thrown; a ſutty-man, a chimney-ſweeper;
a cinder-gaddherer, a cinder-wench.
Hwile, for borrowſtown, officehouſe, loch-leech; dhe Ingliſh
make burrough, office, leech, to' ſuffice; dhey
ſpeſcify ſmall-pox, ſealing-wax, and ſugar-ſops; hwich
dhe Scotch continnue to' underſtand in dhe genneral
terms pox, wax, and ſops; as in raſp and nip, dhe raſpberry
(or raſberry) and turnip. Lezing-making iz a
crimminal compound in Scotch Law. Worſe (if poſſibel)
iz hawking and ſwauking, il and wel; moitié guerre,
moitié marchandiſe; dhat nedher il nor wel, hwich iz
dhe worſt ov evils. Akin to' dhis, jookery-paukery
(tours de paſſe-paſſe) jugglery, ſhuffling, compounds
reggular collectives from jooker and pauker, dhe reggular
agents ov jook, dhe Scotch utterance ov duc bow or
bend; and pauk, dhe hwatevver parent ov pauky ſly.
Dhe Scotch compounds pictooth and ofcom doo but tranſpoze
dhe Ingliſh toothpic and com-of. Hware dhe verb
takes dhe lead, it turns dhe action into' agent; in picpocket
and picthank, az in teltale. Yet an outcaſt iz a
perſon caft out, a caſt-away; hwaraz dhe Scottiſh outcaſt
iz a falling out. Dhe inverſion reggularly prefixes
dhe ſpeſcifier in toothpic and toothpicker, az in toothake
and toothdrawer. Dhe Scotch playfair iz a play-affair
or plaything; and dhe uptake might az natturally intimate
comprehenſion or capaſcity, az upſhot intimates
event. Incom and ofspring ar ſettelled compounds; a
good com-of iz but occazzional. Az dhe Ingliſh hav
overplus and ſurplus, not ſuperplus; ſo hav dhey, overthrow
and o'rlay (hwence dhe French, ourlet hem), . dho
not o'rcom. Dhus dhe ſage ALLAN RAMSAY:
Dhey, dhat hev juſt enough, may ſoundly ſleep:
Dhe o'rcom onely faſhes folk to' keep.
Dhey, dhat hay juſt enuf, may ſoundly ſleep
Hwatehr iz o'r, embarraſſes to' keep.
Az fortune compounds misfortune, ſo fortunate Scottiſhly
compounds misfortunate, for unfortunate. But,
dho dhe Scotch vary dhe formacion, dhey prezerv dhe
compoziſcion, ov timely and untimely, in timous and untimous.
If dhe verry vulgar ov dhe Ingliſh ar ferfool
(for affraid) ov a thing, or ov dooing it; dhe Scotch,
even ov higher rank, ar hopefool (hwen in hopes) ov a
thing, or ov dooing it. Ferfool and hopefool ar impoartant
eppithets; but, not in ſuch connexion. Rife
haz been an interchaingeabel component widh fool, in
wakerife for wakefool; and caldrife, dhe figgurative
cold, az in a caldrife preacher. A Scotch compound iz
mendsfool, uttered mensfoo, fool ov amends, abel alike
to' make and to' command it. Dhe Scotch thievles implies
ſuch implauzibillity, az ſhood be hopeles ov ſtealing
into' creddit. Dhus a thievles errand — pretence — excuſe;
howevver thieviſh be dhe deſign, poartends no
grait dainger in dhe conſequence. Littel-worth iz not
abſolutely worthies or unwordhy; but haz a wofool
tendency. Dhe ſubjunctive ſom compounds manny Scottiſh
adjectives in dhe Ingliſh manner: like loneſom,
lodheſom, tireſom, gameſom; dhe Scotch lightſom and
ſhortſom plezzant; longſom and even tédiſom tedious.
Winſom, fearſom, frightſom or dhe like, ſpeak dheir
meaning; looſom (u French) or leeſom (nordherly) perſonates
lovly, az ugſom ugly; and hartſom, compounding
edher hart, implies harty or cherfool, az wel az
buxom. Dhe Scotch lov (and may chooz) lonely, raddher
dhan loneſom; and blidhe, dhan its moddifier blidheſom.
Auld-farrant, old-faring, ſpeaks dhe prematurity
ov a chills talk, from habbit widh its elders. Oddher
particippial compounds, Ingliſh-like, dho not Ingliſh, ar
ſuch az upſetting, fair-faſcioned, ſweet-bludded, wel--
natured, wel-aired; for uppiſh, aſpiring or aſſuming;
fairſpoken, ſweet-tempered, good-natured, airy, in good
air. Yet hwatevver iz duly aired, muſt be allowed
wel-aired. Edher dialect dherfore talks ov wel-aired
linnen, dho won onely ov a wel-aired houſe, unles dhe
air hav alſo been taken of by fire. Shortſighted figgurative
belongs to' boath dialects, nearſighted iz dhe litteral
Ingliſh compound; az iz purblind, named in Scotland
ſandblind. Shily-mowed or ſhavel-gabbet, paints
Scottiſhly dhe projeccion ov dhe under-lip or jaw;
thrawn-gabbet, wry-moudh'd; good-wolly or (az
if good-willed or il-willed) willing or unwilling to' part
widh annithing. A ſimmilar compound waz gamſtary,
hweddher game-ſtirring, or gum-ſtirring, turbulent:
gum ſpoke umbrage. Light-hedded, Ingliſhly raving,
delirrious, iz Scottiſhly guiddy, wanton. Paly-footted iz
in ſom parts ov Scottland, hwat dhe Ingliſh call ſplay--
footted. Dhe Scotch bedfaſt iz dhe Ingliſh bedridden or
bedrid; forfoughten or forfaughten, quite ſpent; forfaren,
overboren; manſworen, forſworen; carwompelled,
crumpelled into' a bunch. Dhe ſame French prepoziſcion
fors, hwich compounds various verbs and particippials
in boath dialects, muſt hav been dhe compounder
ov dhe Scotch forhamed, are dhis natturally
ſhrank into' framed and framm'd. A ſpilt bairn lairns
maners baſt among dhe framm'd. A ſpoil'd child lerns
manners beſt among ſtraingers. A due compannion for
dhe Ingliſh aukward, iz dhe Scottiſh landward, ruſticated,
az if rellegated from urbannity; nor les thrawward
or thrawart, hweddher throward or froward, cros.
Dho paſt by and gon by continnue dhe preterritive
particippials bypaſt and bygon, ar long ſince paſt
and gon. Dhe Scottiſh adjective oraw iz an obvious
compound ov o'r ow, over all. Hey ye wry oraw bodels?
Hav yoo anny ſpare pence, over and ahoy all yoor
wants. Avez-vous de l'argent de reſte?
SCOTTISH differs littel from Ingliſh compoziſcion ov
verb. Yet dhe former diſcommodes, and dhe latter incommodes;
dhe former (like dhe French) deranges, dhe
latter diſrainges: diſaccommodate howevver and diſarrainge
ar equally Ingliſh. Won forguets, duets out ov
remembering, dhe oddher forgaddhers, gaddhers out
(or meets) a frend. To' glour iz to' glee (ſquint) o'r.
Gleg o' dhe glour — Quic ov dhe glance. To' lout (loot)
or ſtoop, combines to low it; to' hain to' ha (hav) in,
to' tape, ſave, or uze ſparingly; ſo to' hap (covver up)
may be to' ha up, if not (az haz been ſurmized) a varriacion
ov heap. To' o'rpet waz to' overpoot, or guet
over anny diſeze or difficulty. Dhe Scotch oft prefer
ſimpels: az deed and file to' indeed and defile, ſo dite to'
endite. A compound ov ramp and rage appears dhe
Scotch rampage rage or ſtorm. Scotch, eſpeſcially nordhern,
often denies dhe particippel paſt for dhe particippel
prezzent, az: 'Tiz ſtrainge yoo cannot be unſpoken,
for unſpeaking, or widhout ſpeaking. Dhe ellegant
denier ov adjectives, particippels and particippials, from
concretes procedes to' dhe denial, even ov abſtracts.
Az untrue, ſo untruith; and az unwordhy, not onely
dhe unwordhines, but dhe Scotch wanworth, for
unworth, or underworth. To' ſel a thing at a wanworth,
az if an unworth, an under-price.
DHAT unwel iz barbarous need no more be evinced,
dhan dhat whare we hear wize (dho we knew notthing
ov dhe French guiſe) we can be in littel dainger ov ſubſtituting
ways, az in likeways for likewize. By parrity
ov rezon, we can no more ſay or ſee alwiſe dhan alwy
for always and alway. Dho poor Uſe and Wont muſt
proov powerles in favor ov dhe incongruous compounds
ov here, dhare, and hware, even in hereby, dharon or
hwarov; for by dhis or dheze, on dhat or dhoze, on it or
dhem; ov hwich or hwat; hwaraz, hwerfore and dherfore
ar az fairly incorporated in boath dialects, az dhe
ſollemn heretofore and hereafter. Stile did ſay, but can
no more, Yoo know dhe caſe, or dhe circumſtances: act
dharafter, for act accordingly. Curious az various ar
dhe compoziſcions. Hwile Abberdeen
tranſlates litterally là-haut, là-bas, into' dhare-up,
dhare-down, and dhe like; by ſubjunctive in ſoddhern
Scotland iz dhe grait pointer ov place: in-by, out-by, up-by,
down-by, o'r-by, dhare-by. Com in-by — Com in
(forward, dhis way); Go out-by — Go out (yonder, dhat
way). I am going up-by — I am going up dhe way, up
dhe ſtreet. He may be dhat far by dhis, or dbare-by —
He may be ſo far (advanced) by dhis time, or dharabouts.
Dhus hwarabouts, dharabouts, and herabouts
remain familliar Ingliſh: nor can dhe ſibbilacion be
omitted, hwich diſtinguiſhes dhe local adverbs from dhe
preppoziſcional exploded compounds, hwarabout? what
about? and dhe like.
Spae-men! dhe truith ov aw dheir ſaws I dout:
For graiter liars nevver ran dharout.
Gent. Shep.
Sooth-ſayers! all dhe ſooth dhey ſay, I dout:
For graiter liars nevver went about.
So dhe compounds ov ward ſubjunctive admit dhe ſibbilacion,
to' cloze an indeffinite adverb. Dhus dhe
adjectives bacward and forward becom bacwards and
forwards, in dhe indefinite adverbs; not in dhe
deffinite, az in go forward: and dhus an outward--
bound ſhip, a ſhip bound outward, not outwards.
Dhe preppoziſcion towards requires dhe ſibbilant:
for it points figguratively or indefinitely — towards
God, towards men; towards anny object. Boath dialects
compound manny adverbs ov a prepoziſcion and
hand. Like dhe Ingliſh ofhand or underhand; dhe
Scotch pleonaſtic nearhand for near, byhand, for paſt
and over. Contraſted to' beforehand iz behindhand, and
dhe Scottiſh colloquial after-hand. Dhe Scots take a
perſon thro' hand, hwen to' taſk; and a thing thro'
hand, hwen into' conſideracion. Smarts wil not wonder
dhat a preceded be, in prepoziſcional combinacion.
Afore, ahint, ayont, ar dherfore Scotch for before, behind,
beyond. So ajee and awol (awil) for awry and
volluntarily. Tiz good corn dhat grows awol — ov itſelf,
ov its own accord. Yet, if dhe Ingliſh retain won,
Scotch wil aſſume dhe oddher; witnes adown and bedown.
So dhe Scots uze be for by, in benorth and its
three fellows: beſouth or benorth dhe Foarth; for ſouth or
North ov Foarth. Az dhe old Ingliſh belike, perhaps or
probbablv; ſo dhe Scotch belive, by and by: and bedeen,
by dhe e'n, dhis evening, to'-night. Dhe Ingliſh uze
adoo for ſtir, buſted, or turmoil; az in Much adoo about
notthing dhe Scotch ſtil employ adoo for dhe litteral
to' doo; He haz not much adoo, for He haz not much to'
doo — much biznes. Dhe French old fors, dhat compounds
ſevveral Ingliſh verbs beſide forgo, wel ſevvered
from fores compound forego; compounds dhe Scotch forby,
almoaſt ſynonnymous to' dhe law-iddiom by ana
atour (out o'r) over and ahoy, beſide; az wel az forgainſt
and fornent, over againſt. Anent iz alſo dhe legal
preppoziſcion intimating, reſpect to', or concerning.
Ov all by's Scottiſh compounds dhe moaſt frequent, az
dhe moat nattural directives; dhe moaſt chainged dherfore,
and ſo ſuppozed dhe leaſt annalyzabel, ar but and
ben, mere ſhrimps ov by-out and by-in, widhout and
widhin. But and ben pointed dhus dhe outer and inner
parts ov dhe dwelling. Gae (or Gang) but — Go to' dhe
outer part ov dhe houſe. Com ben — Com in, to' dhe
interior part, perhaps dhe. chaumer o'deis, hwich we alreddy
ſaw (165, in penetralibus) far ben; dhe inmoaſt
reces ov onnor or ov favor. But dhe houſe and ben dhe
houſe, ar now dherfore clear, az dhe motto ov Mackintoſh:
dhe Clan, widhout a targuet.
To' Scottiſh Compoziſcion belong certain (inſepparabel)
iddioms, affecting relation, eating, ailment, diverſion,
apparrel, and ſo foarth. Hwen dhe beſt-man and
beſt-maiden hav performed dhe duties ov brideman and
bridemaid; dhe bridegroom and bride commence good--
man and good-wife, huſband and wife. Good dhen becoms
in Scotch az beau in French, evvery new ally, or
acquired relation good-fahdher, hweddher fahdher-in--
law or ſtepfahdher, good-moddher, and dhe reſt. Hwile
dhe forrain currans and raizins, eſpeſcially dhe former,
ar dhe fruits or plumbs ov dhe Ingiſh plumb-poodding;
dhe Scotch rezzars (red or hwite) and Scotch blacberries,
ar all currans, diſtinguiſhed onely by dheir cullor in Ingland:
for dhare dhe blacberry iz dhe brambel-berry,
or dhe hedge-mulberry. At tabel, dhe dividing
ſpoon, or (az dhe Scotch ſomtimes call it) dhe partingſpoon,
iz dhe Ingliſh ſoop-ladel. Dhe Scotch ſweet--
butter iz freſh-butter; beat-butter, melted butter;
ſhort-bred, buttered cake; old bred, ſtale bred; dow'd
drink, ded beer; hard-fiſh, ſalt fiſh; rumbell'd egs,
butter'd egs; (in dhe Weſtern parts), O'dhem upo' dhem,
Sowings or Flummery, boil'd and unboil'd; ſo evverihware
cocky-leeky, coc-broth widh leeks; veals head,
calvs hed; lambs head and harrigals, lambs hed, widh
lights, livver, and dhe reſt. Ov ſuch ingredients,
nicely mixt and minc't, iz dhe Scotch tripebag-poodding
(haggues, from haſh or hagguel) conſtituted. From dhe
time ov diſpenſing, dhe eleven-oors (elevven-ours) or
twal-oors (twelv-ours) after dhe French iddiom for 11
and 12 o'cloc, iz named dhe Scottiſh luncheon; ſo dhe
four-oors (foar-ours) dhe afternooning or bever dhe
former and latter collacion or refreſhment. Ov ailments,
dhe Scotch ſwell'd-cheek iz more preciſe dhan dhe Ingliſh
ſwell'd-face; dhe ſare-head (fore-hed) iz dhe hed-ake;
hacket-hands ar chapt hands; moolly-heels, kib'd heels.
Dhe kink-cough (from dhe French quinte) became in
Ingland dhe chincof; hwich, les expreſſive dhan dhe old
compound, haz guivven way to' dhe ſuffiſciently forcibel
hooping-cof. Scottiſh juvenile paſtimes ar Blind--
Harry, blindmans-buf; diſhy-loof, hot-cockels; handball,
fives. Wairing compounds ar trot-cozy, leddher--
cap and cape; big-coat, grait-coat; ſtrippet (ſtrip't)
ſtockings, ribb'd hoze; riding-claes, riding-habbit;
dead-claes (ded-cloadhs), a ſhroud; and dhe mort-cloth,
dhe pall. Manny ar dhe Scottiſh compounds formed ov
Ingliſh ſimpels; beſide a half-dore, hatch; and freſh--
weddher, thaw: cantrip ſpel, and worricow bugbair, ar
eddifying exampels. Like dhe Ingliſh rifraf (dho not
quite ſo low) iz dhe Scottiſh guifgaf. Guifgaf makes
good frends: By guiv and take, we frendſhip make.
Mongrels may arize, az elſehware; hallon-ſhaker, tatterdemallion,
raggamuffin; ov dhe French haillon rag,
and ſhaker, dhe Ingliſh agent. Saxon and Ingliſh iz
dhe Scotch like-wake, watching ov dhe ded; Leech being
ded in dhat German dialect. Gaulic on dhe contrary
(from goin ſean, old cunning) iz dhe latter
and principal (indeed ſufficient) part ov rumbel-gumſhan
ſhrewdnes, brains. Gaulic and Ingliſh (from French)
make dhe Scotch coomcieled (or coom'd) ſhelving-rooft,
garret-crown'd. Ov dhis clas iz ſuch adjective az blacavi'ſt
(from aviſé) dark-complexioned. Somtimes a
name, entirely compounded abraud, becoms a new domeſtic
compound ov Inattenſion. If dhus in Ingland
Aſparagus (herd Aſparragus) and (dhe propper) Godalming
be vulgarized into' Sparrow-gras, and Godliman;
nedher ſhame nor wonder need attend dhe Gaulic Ardſaighad
(dhe hight ov arrows) dhe mountain at Eddinburrough,
mettamorphoz'd into' Arthurs ſeat.
LOCAL az law, muſt be her terms, in dheir reſpective
claſſes. Dhe genneral agents dooer, writer, lawyer,
advocate, ar ov peculiar applicacion in dhe Scotiſh dialect.
Dooer iz dhare ſpeſcialized for dhe agent at law.
Writer varies idea widh ſittuacion. In evvery place
and time, hiz united or alternate object muſt be to'
trezzure or to' communicate informacion or entertainment.
Hiz firſt (mecannical) office iz doutles dhat ov
penman. Hence hiz French correſpondent (écrivain)
iz not onely author, but clark ov evvery kind; coppier,
in Scotch law, copiator; purſer by ſea, and writing--
maſter by land. No wonder if an India-company's
clark abraud be a writer, or if a Scotch attorney be yet
ſcarce known by anny oddher name. Procurator indeed
ſhrinking into' Proccutor (az Cirenceſter into' Ciſceſter)
dho not quite contracted into' dhe Ingliſh proctor, iz like
dhe French procureur; a verry ſignifficant, az wel az
Roman, name for ſollicitor; dhe term affected ov late
years widh az much propriety by ſom Procurators, az
dhe Writers, duly quallified, ar now often ſtiled Clarks
to' dhe Signet. In Scotland, no perſon iz termed a
lawyer, but an advocate; hoom dhe Romans called
patron, az protector and pleader, ov dhe cauz; and hoom
dhe Ingliſh ſtile, at dhe bar, barriſter; elſehware counſellor,
or collectively counſel; leving dhe genneral name
ov lawyer, to' dhe attorney. Widh dhe verry propper
titel, France tranſmitted dhe nattural iddiom ov a perſons
paſſing (or catering) advocate; hwen called to dhe
bar, or admitted to' practice.
IN Scottiſh ſtile, gardians ar (named) tutors and
curators: dhe Ingliſh tutor iz govvernor or preceptor;
and dhe Ingliſh govvernes, dhe ſcoolmiſtres or tutores.
Scotch form prefers Praeſes (or even Preſes) to' Prezzident
ov a meeting; debitor (Ingliſhly debbiter) to' dhe
barbarous debtor, even humanized dettor; dhat iz,
Lattin to' dhe Ingliſh ower; and cedent to' rezigner,
aſſigner or transferent. Yet dhe ſame form prefers, on
dhe oddher hand, dhe genneral Ingliſh agents purſuer,
complainer, defender, to' dhe Ingliſh adoptives proſecutor
and proſecutrix, hwich muſt be herd (and conſequently
ſeen) proſſecutor and proſeccutrix; widh dhe
plaintif, hoo in plantif confronts dhe defendant. An
erritor iz dhe Scotch inherritor, proprietor or freeholder;
dhe herriot being dhe inherritance, property, or freehold.
Dhe Scotch fiar (herd fear) iz dhe Ingliſh feffee.
Dhe price ov grain in Scotland depends on dhe fiars, or
confidenciary refferees. Dhe French député and Ingliſh
depputy, hav been equally curtailed into' dhe députe, in
Scottiſh law; hware dhe juſtiſciary or judge, iz ſomtimes
contracted into' juſtiſciar, almoaſt coincident widh
dhe French juſticier; az dhe Ingliſh auxilliary into'
auxilliar, in dhe ſtile ov ellevacion. Dhe Ingliſh empannel
or encloze a jury; dhe Scotch term dhe prizzoner
dhe pannel, az peculiarly empannelled. He iz
ſomtimes deſigned (az Law Scottiſhly figgures defined,
deſcribcd, or ſtiled) indweller, inhabbitant or rezzident
in ſuch) a place; ſomtimes arrained az a ſorner, or
burglarious vagrant; perhaps onely az dhe recet, dhe
receiver, hoo iz at leaſt az bad az dhe thief.
A lawſuit iz in Scotland a law-plea; dhe coſts dherfore
ov ſuit, dhe expences ov plea. Dhe indictment
(hwich picture haz hiddherto' falſified enditement) correſponds
widh dhe Scottiſh libel. Dhe accion, including
dhe hoal procedings, keeps in Scotland dhe French
name ov proces (or proſces). Dhe writ, dhat ſtops dhem,
takes dhe Lattin appellation ov ſiſt. An eſtate or oddher
propperty iz a good ſubject in Scotland; hware wons
own conqueſt means wons acqueſt or acquiziſcion.
Thro' (French or) hwatevver channel, liege pouſty barbarizes
legalis poteſtas, lawfool power. Security or
warranty ſo becoms dhe Scottiſh warrandiſe; bail and
ſuretiſhip cacion and cacionry, til now daring to' appear
caution and cautionry! Lezion may wel be juriſprudencial
injury or infringement; and circumduccion, more
crimminal dhan circumvention. Tinſel waz dhe tining
or los, az ganſel, dhe gain (ſomtimes dear!) by a bargain.
He got it widh, a ganſel — a ſarcaſm. Fortalice
came to' be a mans fortres or caſtel; becauz perhaps he
dhare waz fort à l'aiſe, much at eze. Forfaulture waz
dhe Scottiſh preddeceſſor ov forfeiture. Declinnature
iz renunciation or proteſt. Declarrator and interloccutor
or declarratory, or intermediate, opinnions or ſentences.
A decreet iz obviouſly (az Frenchly) a decree. An adjudicacion
iz, in Scottiſh coarts, a ſollemn award, or
authorritative aſſignment.
VARIOUS ar dhe ſubjects ov ſuit, perhaps dhe hoal
ſubject or propperty; dhe ces (from cede or aſſes, if not
from cens and cenſus) dhe land-tax or genneral aſſeſment;
dhe tiend, tenth or tithe; dhe terce (from tierce) or
third ov annithing. Dhe Scotch deſhort, for defiſcience
or dettriment, ſeems raddher a term ov familliarrity
dhan form. Rental iz az good a formative, az rentroll
iz a compound. Precept iz, in boath ſtiles, peculiarly
uzed for order. Dhe Scotch tailzie (tailyie) correſponds
widh dhe Ingliſh entail; az doz a wadſet, widh a
mortgage: for a wad waz a pledge. Hence dhe Scotch
game ov wads, iz dhe Ingliſh game ov forfeits. A tac
being a leſe, dhe tacſman iz dhe leſor. Rent paid in
farm, iz paid in grain, hwich ſom hold dhe Teutonnic
equivvalent; dho farm, Ingliſh and Scotch, he dhe unqueſtionabel
coincident, raddher dhan varriacion, ov dhe
French ferme; hwich iz indeed propperly a diſſyllabel,
and primmarily ſignifies a leſe. Yet let .nedher France,
nor Germany, appropriate dhe Scottiſh farm; hwich may
in dhis ſenſe proov propinquity (nay proximmity) to'
frumentum, corn in genneral, raddher dhan to' froment,
hwich iz but hweat; or ſtil raddher perhaps to' fordeum,
Eollically interchainged widh hordeum, barley. If dhe
genneral term corn waz dhus natturally interchaingeabel
widh dhe principal grain, no wonder it waz in Scotland
widh oats. Hwen dhe guttural paſt in Ingland into'
dhe labial aſpirate, draught became draft, hwence dhe
provverb: Stil ſow eats up dhe draft. Dho Scotland
prezerved dhe guttural power, ſhe ſeems dhence to' hav
impoarted dhe labial in draft (herd Scottiſhly draft for
grains, dhe food ov ſwine. Dhe Scotch graſſom haz
been a graſholm, gras-hading, or gras-farm: hence it
paſt into' a gras-fine, at dhe renewal ov a leſe. Socom
or multure (herd mooter) iz dhe griſt or grinding-fee;
thirlage, dhe being thirled (tranſpozzitive from thrilled)
to' grind at a particcular mil. Ov mails and duties, dhe
former, if not a varriacion ov meals, may be variouſly
an ofspring ov (dhe French) mailles, hweddher meſhes,
or oddher conſtittuent parts: az Maille à maille ſe fait
le haubergeon — Manny littels make a mickel. Dhe
parent may indeed be maille, dhe half-denier, or loweſt
French coin; hwich, at length paſſing from real into'
imadginary, iz named onely in dhe miuuteſt computacion.
Un pince-maille became a nattural penny-fahdher, a
hunks, a ſkin-flint; and pince-maille tranſmitted dhe
Ingliſh adverb piecemeal. Mails and duties ſeem in
dhis manner to' hav been dhe ſmalleſt, and hardly computabel
Ov jurisprudencial adjectives, timous iz timely;
wrongous, injurious; iniquous, inicquitous; onnerous,
weighty; major, ov age, no longer minor (alſo Ingliſh)
under age; notour notorious; rellevant, inferencial, concluſive;
erritabel (vulgarly ſeen heritable) heredditary;
udal, allodial: all (but dhe two firſt, and perhaps dhe
laſt) French. To' dheze may be added, curt, brief;
inept, frivolous, inaddequate; clamant, bawling.
Verſant haz been denied to' be Ingliſh, becauz perhaps
not found in dhe diccionary. Numberles ar dhe adoptives
(formatives and compounds) in evvery livving
language, and even in evvery copious ded won; dhat
no lexicoggrapher can pretend to' trezzure. Manny
words ar warrantabel, dho hiddherto' unwanted; nay
prefferabel (reſpectively) to' anny yet ſeen; nor, conſequently,
les entitelled to' dhe ſtamp ov Anallogy; hoo iz
alike dhe pattrones ov Improovment, and dhe ennemy
ov Innovacion. Verſed iz doutles Ingliſh, ov obvious
(but familliar) idea. Won may be wel verſed in common
matters, nay, converſant widh litterary ſubjects;
and yet not at all verſant in deep inveſtigacion. Dhe
ſtile ov law, like evvery oddher, may combine Ingliſh
words into' Scotticiſm: dhus annual-rent, or life-rent
(rente viagere) annuity, life-annuity. Erritabel ſecurity
iz land-ſecurity; and holding blanch, (Frenchly) free--
Scottiſh littigacion, ſom littigants waken a plea,
revive or commence a ſuit; purſue, proſſecute or ſue;
and ſummons, ſummon; oddhers obtemperate or obtemper,
comply; compear (comparaiſſent) appear; narrate,
relate; condeſcend upon, ſpeſcify; inſtruct, evince; by
taking inſtruments, guivving doccuments; implement,
foolfil; recognoſce, reccognize; homollogate, confirm;
perhaps by hollograph, or hand-writing; infeft, enfef;
brook, enjoy; extinguiſh a det, annul a det; and mortify
a ſum, guiv it in mortmain, or bequeadh it to' pious
uſes. Alternately doo dhey propel, repel; rebute, deter;
perturb, diſturb; compete, diſpute in competiſcion; contravene,
controvert; villify; detract or deduce,
deduct. Dhe Scotch uze deduce alſo for infer, and dhe
Ingliſh detract onely from carracter or merrit. Dhoze
reduce an illegal deed, dheze annul or cancel it; dhoze
reſtrict, and dheze reſtrain; hwile boath own reſtraint
and reſtriccion. Dhe Scotch howevver onely excamb,
exchainge; exerce, exercize; exeem, exempt; deſidderate,
want, or regret; reſile (rezele), retract or go
back; evite or eſkew (from éviter and eſquiver) avoid,
ſhun; exonner, diſburden or clear; ſuccumb, ſink; convaleſce,
recovver; demit, rezign; intromit, intermeddel;
by viſcious intromiſſion, or undue interference;
ſpoolzie and deſpoolzie (u French and z licquid) ſpoil and
deſpoil; point (poond, u French) pound; prejudge prepozes;
aſſydhe, amerce; incarcerate, emprizzon; libberate,
ſet at libberty; aſſoilzie (z licquid) abſolv. Dhe
Scotch depone, propone, diſpone, repent; depoze, propoze,
diſpoze, reſtore or reinſtate; nor onely reply, but
duply, triply, quadruply; rejoin, reenter, ſurrejoin, rebut;
or make rejoinder, and ſo on: az effeirs, az need
may be. Dho dhe Ingliſh depoze, dhey retain deponent
widh opponent! To' doo dilligence, iz to' take dhe law,
to' bring an accion, or intent a ſuit. Oddher legal nouns
and verbs we hav ſeen occazzionally (p p. 160, 164, and
DHE adverb alennarly, ſolely, ſingly, remains but in
Scottiſh law; and Law, evverihware iz (unblamably,
nay, laudably) dhe laſt to' guiv up aincient form. Hwatevver
um (or om) hav been, if not dhe mutilacion ov
ſom (for ſum); dhe dialects hav ſpoke, in won compound
adverb, dheir wonted oppoziſcion. Scotch Law prefixed
it in umquhyle for umhwile; and Ingliſh Law, now les
frequently dhan Ingliſh Poetry, ſubjoins it in hwilom for
ſomtime, heretofore. Hwilom howevver remains onely
in dhe familliar, ſublimmity choozing erſt or arehwile.
Ov littigant preppoziſcions we hav alreddy (among domeſtic
compounds) ſcanned dhe litteral fornent, dhe
figgurative anent, widh dhe iddiom by and atour (out
WIDH juriſprudencial iz eccleſiaſtic ſtile intimately
connected. Not to' debate dhe ſubject widh fanattical
terms, az ordinance (or even occazion) for ſaccrament,
or action-ſermon for dhe ſermon before it; to' diſpenſe
dhe ſaccraments means, in prezzent Scotch, to' cellebrate
or adminniſter dhem; az to' modderate a call to' a
minniſter, iz to' guiv him invitacion and induccion. Ov
dhis impoartant verb dhe agent iz dhe Moderator (Ingliſhly
Modderator); dhe Speaker or Prezzident in
Synnods, or convocations ov dhe Clergy; az wel az in
dhe (annual) Genneral Aſſembly ov dhe dellegates ov
dhe Preſbyterian Church.
LAW finds dignity in tranſpoziſcion; hweddher ov
ſinguel terms, or ov complex members. Evvery form
ov edher dialect wil exemplify dhis. Dhe rezon indeed
iz obvious. Upon materials impoartant, or arraingement
peculiar, like Poetry, doth Juriſprudence endevvor
a regard propoarcionate in dhe reader, az wel az (in
dhe) hearer, to' draw. Provverbs, couching in ſmall
compas dhe laws ov Wizdom, hav drawn, in all languages,
addiſcional attenſion; not onely from peculiarrity
ov order, but even from dhe external graces, ov alliteracion
or chime. Superior waz dhis harmony to' dhe
laws ov PRISCIAN, az we ſaw in
Brunt bairns foir (or feir) dreads.
Burnt children dred dhe fire.
Guin ye benna el, benna el-leik:
Guin ye ſtil na ma cale, brac na ma deik.
If it yoo be not, be not evil like
Too ſteal no cabbage? no enclozure ſtrike.
SCOTTICISM dhus traced to' its evvery poſſibel
ſoarce; and a delinneacion made ov its evvery departure
or difference from dhe language ov London; hweddher
in dhe utterance, uſe, arraingement, number, or oddher
varriacion, ov words; in dhe adopcion ov forrain, or
genneracion ov domeſtic terms; dhe dialects ar at wonce
parted by dhe peculiarrities ov each, and united by dhat
Orthoggraphy, hwich can alone aſcertain dhem. Dhe
ſyſtem ov Ingliſh ſounds and ſymbols havving been ſettelled,
previous to' its anny depravacion; it becoms expedient
to' exammine dhe prezzent ſtate ov Ingliſh phrazzeollogy;
or dhe conſtittuent parts ov dhat dialect, hwich,
raized to' dhe ſummit ov refinement, notthing but dhe
juſt Picture can prezerv. Az we cannot be too dellicate
in dhe thaughts we picture, we cannot be too accurate
in dhe words (herd or ſeen) dhat reprezent dhem.
Dheze dhen muſt be (in hwatevver language) nattural,
perſpiccuous, conſiſtent, and ſuffiſcient. To' be 'natural,
dhey muſt be formed, or impoarted, by Anallogy. Hwatevver
bairs her nedher ſtamp, muſt be held no part ov
language. Ov ſuch clas, uncountenanced alike by
Ettymollogy and Anallogy, alike dherfore deſtitute ov
parental and perſonal merrit, ar certain late intruders,
hoo hav attempted to' ſupplant dhe moſt legittimate
members ov dhe litterary commonwelth. Ov dheze, if
dhe lateſt, not dhe leaſt onnored, haz been Reciprocity;
hoo may indeed flatter us, widh hopes ov next hailing
Equivocity; az dheze dred Siſters can fairly boaſt dhe
powerfool introduction ov, dheir elder Siſter Audacity,
hoo cannot be much longer unaccompanied by dhe.
common (dho yet unſeen) frend Fallacity! Fallacy
might indeed az wel hav claimed (dhe company ov)
Audacy: nor wood edher Fallacia or Audacia, or even
Audace, hav exclaimed againſt it. But Audaciouſnes
ſaid to' her truborn ſiſter (Fallaciouſnes), "Yoo may
hav yoor particcular rezons for indulging littel Fallacy;
but I can no more admit Audacy, dhan fear anny oddher
rival." Rapaſcity, atroſcity, and oddhers, urge at leaſt
two onnorabel deſcents, in favor ov dhat prefference
widh hwich manny (even ov dhe ellegant) ar apt to'
onnor forrainers; hoom ingenious Politenes finds often
a neceſſity ov natturalizing, widhout edher injury or indignity
to' dhe native branches. Dhus ar neſceſſarily
diſtinguiſhed, az equally uſefool, capaciouſnes and
capaſcity; nor les diſtinguiſhabel from edher, iz dhe
colloquial and joccular capabillity. If equivocity hav
here her firſt (and perhaps laſt) opportunity ov preferring
her unequivvocal titel to' accompany reciprocity, hweddher
into' natturalizement, or excluzion; anoddher
polittical term, hwich commenced dhe war dhey jointly
concluded, might wel find inimical and unnatural
powers powerfoolly oppozed by dhe unfrendly, hoſtile,
adverſe and inammicabel; but hoo wood ezily admit
dhe independance ov amical, az much az ov inimical,
reciprocity, on anny human ſyſtem, hweddher ov concord
or govvernment.
Yet cries dhe candid Hudibraſtic,
Hoo clinches fiſt, inſted ov a ſtic;
And, by dhe might ov bold Hypallage,
Blunts evv'ry ſhaft ov arch Anallogy;
To' me iz notthing inimical:
Yoo hate ſom ſtraingers; but I like all.
So can I find no equivocity,
In dhe amical reciprocity.
Dho French diccion be too truly a ſyſtemattic moddel,
needleſly to' admit or to' retain anny forrain members;
Gallic Law adopted réviſion, az more preciſe dhan dhe
genneral revue. But Ingliſh diccion pozeſſing revize and
revizal, az wel az revew, haz nevverdheles affected
reviſion (dhat iz revizzion); hwich, obviouſly uſeles, if
it lead at all, muſt mislead, dhe mere Ingliſh reader:
appearing ſuch a compound ov vizzion, az reordinacion
ov ordination.
PERSPICUITY (or clearnes) being dhe firſt quallity ov
evvery dialect; widhout hwich (quallity), words ar mere
ſounds or tinkelling cymbals; polliſhed Nature, hoos
alone iz true taſte, muſt az much prefer domeſtic to'
forrain expreſſion, az delight to' ſee Truith in her naked
charms, raddher dhan briſtelling in anny far-fetched habilliments.
If all ſtile muſt be adapted to' ſubject and object;
nedher familliar uzed on ſollemn, nor ſollemn on familliar
occazions; if lerned terms ar nevver to' be chozen,
hware nattural (alike ellegant) ar to' be found; Taſte
and Tallent muſt ally dheir force to' repel dhat extraneous
exuberance, hwich haz threttened ſom years paſt
to' overhwelm dhe Ingliſh language, hwen juſt arrived
at perfection ov polliſh, and panting for perpetuity. Az
limmit and oblege, dho no longer (hwat dhey nevver
wer) limit and oblige; ſo deviate, and even crown, may
lead dhe oddherwize unled, into' dhe meaning ov limmitacion
and obligation, deviation and corronacion.
Pronounce renders pronunciation almoaſt Ingliſh: enunciacion
iz now dhe darling term, becauz enounce nevver
waz known. Nedher er nor error can lend much light
to' dear aberracion; and hwat can throw anny on ſuch
az cremacion, coruſcacion, addulacion, exacerbation,
raciocination; or even on dhe gregarious, ovipparous,
teſtaceous, papillionaceous, on edher dhe faſtiddious or
dhe nugatory kinds? Dheze hav doutles evvery won, in
dhe ſollemn, or ſcientiffic, its place; but not in familliar
language, or hware depth in oddher diccions iz not to'
be expected. Az wel might dhe inviolate and undiſguized
Greek and Lattin inſult dhe mere Ingliſh reader;
az dheir tortured tranſmutacions offered (at all ventures)
for Ingliſh, by dhoze, hoo fancying it ellegant to' ſtifel
nature, and ſublime to' wrap up rezon, can communicate
notthing but pomp ov ſound. Dhus may Leming
wel hide her bluſhing countenance, and thretten to'
leve a land, hware her ezily accompliſhed Mimmic iz
ſtraining ſo ſuccesfoolly in evvery clas to' diffuze her
ſhaddow. Nor can we hav a ſtronger inſtance ov dhis
dhan in dhe late rage for population! hwich rezembling
in hed and ſholders populouſneſs (dhe pretty
picture ov poppulouſnes!) and terminating ſo roundly
widh ation (ſuppozed acion!) cannot but dignify dhe
notion ov peopling (for pepelling or pepling), from dhe
pompous pen ov dhoze hoo littel dream dhat it can onely
convey dhe oppozite idea; being intrinſically no oddher
dhan. (ravvage) a neſceſſary degree ov depoppulacion.
If ation (or even acion) cannot be a domeſtic ending, ov
terminate anny Ingliſh, formative (termination being a
collatteral root, and ſo no branch, ov terminate); hwat
ſhal be ſaid for dhe ſollemn natturalizacion ov collonizacion,
humanizacion, or dhe like? Dhat,
dho dhey nevver cood make part ov anny human
language; dhey, far from belying, muſt be owned to'
bair dheir meaning in dheir face; az much az dhe verry
ellevated flirtacion, ſtarvacion, ruinacion, and dheir
fellows! But, dho dhe rotundity ov Anglican Lattin caſt
ſuch coruſcacion, and conſequent glimmeracion or glitteracion,
on moddern Ingliſh; ſcarce aught, dhat ſounds
not Greek, wil now go down widh dhoze, hoo feliſcitouſly
az faſtidiouſly diſdain dhe peddantry ov knowing
dhe principels ov anny, abov all, ov dheir native language.
Dhe ſame cauz dhat made poppulacion appear
population, and ſignify pepelling, inſted ov diſpepling;
haz rendered gentillity, under dhe maſk ov gentility,
dhe ſupplanter ov genteelnes; inſted ov collecting, az it
muſt, dhe Gentile world, or abſtracting Gentilenes, dhe
quallity ov a Gentile.
DHE potent Chrononhotonthologos, and ſtil more
terribillitudinous, Aldiborontiphoſcophornio, laid queſtionles
dhe foundacions ov our prezzent ſeſquipedalian
Helleniſm. A metropollitan haz hence becom a ſyllabel
graiter, in a metropolittical See! Evvery ſcience haz
becom more ſcientiffic, evvery art more tecnic. A meddical
haz been conjured into' a phyzzical carracter. A
toothmonger or tungmonger waz formerly glad to' be
clodhed in French or Lattin, a mere dentiſt or linguiſt!
A dubbel dealer, compounding dhe care ov hands and
feet, takes now dhe degree ov chiropodiſt, Ingliſhly herd
(dherfore to' be ſeen) kiroppodiſt; dho dhe titel wer
more ſonorous, and ſo (according to' new ſtile) more
monſtrouſly plezing in dhe ſemblance ov chiropodurgeon,
for dhe ſubſtance ov kiropodurgeon. But nedher titel nor
degree can he take, widhout previouſly pubbliſhing dhe
Theſis; ſo aptly (az ſo awfooly intituled or) entitelled,
Chiropodologia, in umbel Ingliſh guize, a kiropodollogy.
Hwen indeed dhe kiropodurgeon becoms (az dhare iz ſo
much rezon to' hope) dhe all-ſubduing opperator; dim
conſequencial ſcience muſt proov dhe charming kiropodurgery.
Non but a fleerer at dhe Facculty, and an
ignorant ov dhe Greek, cood hav decompounded apottecary,
a pot he carry, and phyſic, fy ſic! or phu (few)
ſic; dho dhe latter Orthoggraphy ſo recconciles dhe
ſentiment widh dhe new Ingliſh-Greek. Az dhe mere
Lattin-French-Ingliſh occuliſt muſt ſoon guiv away to'
dhe Greek ophthalmiſt, if not (raddher) ophthalmurgeon;
ſo phyzzic (or fizzic) iz no more dhe ſtuddy, dhan phyzziſcian
(or fiziſcian) dhe ſtudent, ov Nature; ſince be
knows no more himſelf, dhan hiz object; elſe wood he
write phuſic and phuſiſcian, in umbel emmulacion ov
dhe far-famed Holophuſicon, ov dhe next enchanting
Eidophuſicon, and univerſal Phuſicomimeſis. Hware
dheze becom ſo formidably rivalled by Eidouranion,
Pollaplaſiaſmos, and dhe reſt; hware dhe hair can no
more be cut dhan dhe corns, but in Greek; dhe laſt
tremendous term proovs dhe due coeval ov dhe Program
ΟΥΔΕΙΣ ΑΜΟΥΣΟΣ ΕΙΣΙΤΩ; hwich prohibiſcion evinces
dhe univerſallity ov Brittiſh Lerning; az, far from deterring,
it obviouſly attracts dhe multitudes, dhat yearly
croud dhe Royal Acaddemy's Exhibiſcion. Hwile dhus
Art and Science becom equally profound, and all domeſtic
informacion dhe more luminous, dhat it iz clodhed
widh a forrain, eſpeſcially a Greek (or Greek-like) vail;
the progreſs of knowledge may be ſublimely promoted
by a Neologic Metaphraſe, az Anglo-Greek, or GreekIngliſh,
wood name (or ſeem to' name) a New Verſion;
raddher indeed, New-language Verſion; hwich muſt
draw all eyes wonce more upon ſacred Anticquity, and
open dhem foolly az much to' admiracion az to obedience.
Dhat Lerning attends but dhe ſignal to commence
dhe high emprize, may be fairly judged from
won ultroneous paradigm.
To philanthrapiſe one's approximate as one's perſonality;
is a more thuriferous immolation, than multifarious
holocauſts and hecatombs.
How magnifficent an amalganzacion; in comparrizon
ov dhe umbel homeſpun thredbare text!
To' lov wons neighbor az worn ſelf, iz better dhan all
hoal-burnt offerings and ſaccrifices.
But dhe inumbracion, az in anny-oddher eclipſe, may
be total or parſial. It iz total, hwen dhe hoal idea iz
ſhaded (or cowered) by dhe diſk: az enchiridion
(enkiriddion), criterion, catholicon (cathollicon), phenomenon
(phenommenon), phlogiſton; not to' mencion
pathos, mania, hydrophobia, more dhan materia medica
or tinctura ſacra; and dhis far les dhan hiera picra.
Yet dhe acme ov dhe Greek muſt not throw anny
odium, on dhe acumen ov dhe Lattin. Law wil enter
(not onely her Niſi prius, her Noli proſequi, and her
Certiorari; but) her caveat dhat no dogma ſhal preclude
anny tenet; and, hwen ſhe haz had her audit, wil hav
her plaudit and exit. Various communities muſt hav
ſeniors and juniors; ſom ſeats ov Lerning hav a Caput;
but hold waz dhe bard, and bolder dhe rime, dhat gave
Hed ov anny Houſe, to' nod widhout a νους. Nor
les bold dhe enquirer, Hwy Joves Satellites ar les dhan
Jove? hware he might ſo natively hay aſked, Hwy Joves
own Sattellites ar les dhan Jove. So dhe tetraſyllabel
antipodes haz a more lerned aſpect dhan dhe Ingliſh
triſſyllabel; and dherfore begs leve to' clas widh dhe
forrain proppers Orcades, Andes, Pleiades, Alcides,
Hercules; widh Omphale, Hebe, and dhe reſt. But
ſurely ſimile wil fear les dhe dainger hwich SWIFT apprehended
(ov being red a ſmile!) hwen painted, in
onneſt Ingliſh, ſimmily; and, if even Pyllades, Penellope,
or Rhoddope, be allowed all elſe forrain; dhey cannot
be red az Ingliſh, widhout dhe duplicacion.
Evvery ſcience, evvery art haz her various vail: else
ſhood we glimmer widh native light, not beam widh
forrain ſplendor. Hence dhe ſcientiffic prefference ov
radii to' rays, and ov ratio to plain rezon or propoarcion;
and hence dhe pompous apparatus, ov
poſtulata, deſiderata, data, or oddher ata; hwich, like
dhe atums, muſt remain errata or arcana, if not erratums
and arcanums, to' evvery won unacquainted widh
Lattin diccion. Dhe natturaliſt knows intuitively dhe
crater to be dhe cup ov dhe Volcano, hwence Vulcan
emits hiz tremendous glories. Evvery ſon ov Mars muſt
vindicate hiz vice, dhe neſceſſary ſtep to' promotion.
Dhus dhe enſign rizes liftennant, vice hiz preddeceſſor;
hoo becoms captain, but in room ov dhe terribel Major
Vis. Dhe ſailor finds Aries, Taurns, and Gemini
(Gemmini), much brighter conſtellacions dhan dhe Ram,
dhe Bool, or dhe Twins; dho Urſa major or Urſa
minor be no more hiz polar ſtar, dhan dhe graiter or
dhe les Beir (or Bair); nor doo hiz moaſt darkened
luminacions render always viâ Scilly, dhe road ov ſafety.
Evvery dealer haz items and per-cents, if not per annums;
and evvery laborer haz at leaſt ſo much per day.
Nor onely iz half a word az good az a howl, in divining.
Dhe marriner haz juſt confidence in dhe benevvolent
Q. D. C. and keeps hiz reckoning az raſcionally A. M.
or P. M. az doo boath ſeamen and landmen (or landſmen)
count dheir Ingliſh monney by l. s. d. and q.
But onely land-conjuracion avers prices by à: az, in dhe
corn-market, Hweat 34 à 45. Ingliſh books boaſt no
more Lattin or Greek titels; Ingliſh ſermons ar no
more illuſtrated by Lattin, dhan by Greek quotations;
Ingliſh ſcollars cannot now be branded widh affecting
litterary toppics: yet hav dhey not entirely ceſed to'
adorn dheir native talk widh ſuch phrazes, az pro forma,
pro re nata, ex officio, ex parte, in toto, ipſo facto, vice
verſa, &c.
Few pure Itallian terms, az cantata, ridotto, ditto
wil dhe neolodgic Lexicon hav to' trezzure. Yet dhe
iz widh Ingliſh accountants perhaps dhe moaſt
favorite forrainer, indeed dhe reverſe ov alien; (like No
for Numero) ov dubbel vallue, hwen reduced to' dhe
iniſcial and final in do; az precluding, except its own,
evvery nauſeous reppetiſcion.
IT muſt be owned, dhat evvery diction haz been apt
to' adopt, az wel az gennerate, from a preceding. Lattin
cood not compound ſo happily az her parent; nor can
Lattins anny deſcendant, ſo happily az dhe Ingliſh,
hoo no les juſtly boaſts Teutonnic parrentage. It
dherfore cannot ſurprize, dhat TERRENCE ſhood hav
named won ov hiz Commedies, Heautontimerumenos,
more dhan dhat dhe Ingliſh ſhood tranſlate it Self-tormenter.
But, dhat Terrence alſo preferred Adelphi to'
Fratres, iz no les certain, dhan dhat Yong had dhe ſpirrit
to' prefer dhe Broddhers to' boath. So now, dhat Greek
taſte iz reviving, we muſt not wonder dhat Adelphi
lately named (hware Broddhers cood not) dhat wonderfool
ſuburb ov London, hwich onely ſuch Broddhers
cood rear. Philadelphia grooved az butifool a moddern
adoptive, az it made an aincient compoziſcion. Dhe
Orrery had its name from dhe Nobelman, hoo gave its
ſpheres to' moov, hweddher by ingenuity or pattronage;
til a Brittiſh Exhibbitor announced hiz Eidouranion. So,
wer fair Urania now to' be named, ſhe wood ſwel into'
Ourania! Former plannetary ſyſtems contented dhemſelvs
widh a Lattin termination: az planetarium or
lunarium; hwich umbler (dho no les uſefool) erections
hav gloried to' immitate in Aſylum, Lyceum, Forum,
Rhedarium, Lactarium, and dhe reſt. But, hwen
Lattin terms hav not had enuf Greek, how ezv iz it
(az juſt ſhown) to' throw in a littel! Dhus dhe bold
eulogium and eulogy hay fondly improoved elogium, and
éloge; hwich cood produce no more dhan dhe (formerly)
Ingliſh ellogy, az Greek knew but ευλογια. Are yet indeed
ſuch ballooning had becom dhe rage at Room, a
poet wel proppheſied
Graeculus eſuriens ad coelum, juſſeris, ibit.
A wind-ſwol'n Greekling wil explore dhe ſky,
For trezzures erth cood copiouſly ſupply.
Hwile ſuch multitudes ov Ingliſh words ar fairly
formed or adopted from dhe French; dhe rage ov impoartacion,
turns totally dhe ballance againſt us. Az
a French-horn ſounds Ingliſh in a Cor de chaſſe (and
Scotch, in a Cor de ſache); ſo a boddy ov hunters, iz
(Ingliſhly!) a corps de chaſſeurs. Dhat ſorties ar dhe
ſallies in evvery ſiege, and maneuvres dhe moovments
by ſea and land, a Britton muſt make a ſortie from
raiſon to' queſtion. Dhe land indeed haz loſt all her
walks; dhey all ar becom (or becomming) promenades;
and dhe gardens, we may umbly hope, wil ſpeedily
return to' jardins. Be dhis az it may, dhe breſt-plate
being tranſmuted into' dhe gorget, dhe ſholder-knot
muſt be dhe épaulette, az ſurely az dhe ſpatterdaſhes dhe
guêtres, or a polite ſummons ov mutual aſſaſſinacion
un (cartel de) défi. Dhe champions appoint dhe place ov
rendez-vous, and dhen reconnaître dhe bed ov onnor!
Ingliſh Law ſtil marks dhe Eſſoin-days; and Ingliſh ar
dhe coarts ov Over and terminer; hware dhe Crier ſtil
awfoolly exclaims O-yes (for Oyez)! Brittiſh Commerce,
dho ſhe knows no emporium, haz lernt dhat entrepôt iz
ellegance for a ſtapel; and even ſhows ſhe haz not quite
loſt her Lattin, hwen ſhe can barter ad valorem. Nor
iz ſhe ſuſpected ov annithing ſo wicked az a pun, hwen
for enſurance ſhe announces aſſurance, dho ſhe nevver
aſſures for enſures. Liturgic lerning retains a few
Lattin commencements, hwich hav indeed run into'
ſubſtitucional titels dhe Te Deum, for dhe ſong ov
S. Ambroſe; dhe Magniſicat, for dhe hymn ov dhe
Bleſſed Virgin; and dhe reſt. Anattomy, and Medcine,
claim an undiſputed right, ov clodhing certain idea's and
preſcripcions widh a forrain vail. Yet nedher choozes
to' contract anny needles obligacion to' dhe common
frend dhe French; hoo doz indeed throw a decent vail
over certain cullors, az rouge, boue de Paris, crapaud,
and puce: ſo poudeſoie ſhrinks happily into' our poddeſoy.
To' dhis frend howevver evvery connaiſſeur or amateur or
(dho not dhe cognoſcenti or dilettanti) from dhe verry
premier down, ows dhe dénoument, az wel az; dhe
début ov evvery beau (not to' ſay unique) morceau; nay
dhe burden ov an Ingliſh ſong, az in Ma chere amie!
hware dhe fort and dhe faible ov each crittic may be
aſcertained, by hiz critique ov anny chédeuvre. But
dhe clair-obſeur (fool az bright az chiaro-oſcuro, and far
brighter dhan dhe common glimmer ov light and ſhade)
may be ſuffiſciently exemplified in an epiſtel, hware dhe
author trubbels not hiz hed widh objecting to' dhe French
Orthoggraphv he finds; nor douts but ſhe clodhed from
dhe beguinning dhe Speech ſhe pictures. So ſeems he
won ov dhe conjurers hoo diſcovver dhat our language
muſt hav don dhe like; and infers conſequencially dhat;
til ſuch time az dhe new Ingliſh Propriety be alſo univerſally
eſtabbliſhed, no prudent pen wil venture to' introduce
To JOHN .BULL Eſquire.
As I boaſt not the étiquette of the beau-monde, and
ſcarce know the routine of politeſſe; your bonté naïve
will excuſe my every faux-pas, nor will make any ſevere
critique on my mal-adroite or à la, volée-manner ov expreſſing
my ardeur de vous baiſer les mains. If I do
not ſet things dans leur dernier jour, I hope at leaſt
mettre en euvre ſom ſmall ſavoir-vivre, without affecting
great éclat; and, though without making any fracas,
or promiſing a ſingle bon mot, not to appear abſolutely
ignorantiſſime of the belles-lettres. A propos (to the ſubject
on the tapis), this country s'eſt indeed emparé of a little
fineſſe, and much bagatelle; if it have neither emporté
nor importé the police of a kingdom limitrophe. We
now pourtant enjoy les plaiſirs de in paix; by the hot balls
and the cold balls of an ELLIOT and a RODNEY; by the
maneuvres of the one, and the ſorties of the other. We
reapproach the dehors of les humanités, if we ſhould
never enter the dedans. Not mal-à-propos therefore do
we celebrate our feux de joie, and our fêtes champêtres.
Every court is brillante with ambaſſadours and their ſuites,
paſſing through each ſweet ſuite of apartements; and
every country ouvre les bras, if not le coeur, to
ſtrangers. No wonder we begin once more to parler
Francais; eſpecially as we have, depuis long-temps,
ceaſed Latinè loqui; and, though no longer Graecas
calleamus literas, our dernier reſſort is to honour the ton,
the os rotundum; and to make Greek, if we cannot read
it. Our goût for the beaux arts thus improves de jour
en jour, whatever become of the ſciences, or of the
langue maternelle. This acquires indeed ſuch a copia
verborum, or rather ſonorum; ſo multifarious a je ne
ſais quoi from ſo multiform foreign, ſurtout French
agréments; that without them it were a mere empty
bottle, which a bel-eſprit of the dernier ſiecle facetiouſly

ſtiles un corps ſans ame, and which a freluquet of this
age would call a bald plain-coat, le pauvre drap ſans
You will by dhis tune, mon cher ami, allow me ſome
penchant for la philoſophie éclairée, as well as l' éloquence
illuminée; nor will you wonder at my vol au ballon,
though I dérange not le ſyſteme Copernique. Thus
I attrappe the bon ton of the day; and, to exhibit en un
mot, my talent, no les than avidity, for the modern
(Britiſh) learning, dont je ſens toute l'utilité; I ſcruple
not to own myſelf (pour jouer de mon reſte) αυτοδιδαϰτος.
Was I not afraid of ſeeming outré, or of throwing you
into a mortal ennui; I would give you a larger
échantillon of my ſavoir-faire, if not of my bel-eſprit.
I hope you will honour me with a viſit en paſſant; and
that you will ſans façon take part of a petit-ſouper;
where you may indulge au moins a free tête-à-tête with,
a friend, qui a l'honneur d' être, not only
your moſt obliged,
but, Signor,
your très-obéiſſant ſerviteur,
DHIS taſte hwen France ſhal hav happily adopted,
among dhe improovments ov commercial correſpondence;
dhe letter may foar into' equally high neolodgic
French. A Monſieur. Mr. John Bull:
Comme je ne vante pas, Monſieur, le ceremonial du
polite world, et qu'à peine ſais-je moi la rote de good--
breeding; votre native goodneſs excuſera tous mes falſe
ſteps; et vous ne ferez point de ſevere criticiſm ſur mon
aukward ou flighty maniere d' exprimer mon ardour to
kiſs your hands. Si je ne préſente les choſes in their
moſt ſhining colours; j'eſpere du moins to toſs up
quelque petit ſkill, ſans affecter le moindre ſhow; &,
quoique ſans faire aucun fuſs, ni promettre un ſeul
witticiſm; ne paraître pas abſolument ignoramus dans
le polite learning, &c. mutatis mutandis.
Contraſted to' patch-work may be a plain letter,
hwich plain taſte may be ſimpel enuf to' prefer.
To' JON BOOL, Eſquire.
Az I boaſt not dhe ceremonial ov dhe ellegant world,
and am a ſtrainger to' dhe forms ov good-breeding;
yoor candor wil make allowance for my evvery littel
overſight; far from being extreme to' mark dhe aukwardnes
ov dhe manner, in hwich I prezent my reſpects.
Dho I affect not ſhow, and abomminate buſtel; I hope
not to' be found quite unacquainted widh dhe duties ov
ſocial life, anny more dhan widh dhe principels ov polite
lerning. Dhis contry, by mimmicking oddhers, may
hav acquired ſom ſhaddow ov addres; and improoved
her taſte for dhe trifling; hwile ſhe haz not ſo much az
immitated, far les imparted, dhe pollity ov a neighboring
kingdom. We now howevver enjoy dhe return
ov pece, by dhe hot balls and dhe cold balls ov an
ELLIOT and a RODNEY; by dhe glorious moovments
ov dhe won, and dhe tremendous ſallies ov dhe oddher.
Dhe rival nations may now, like a CURTIS, contend for
dhe hights ov humannity: happy, hoo firſt ſhal ſcale
dhem! Meantime all duly cellebrate dheir fireworks
and dheir feaſts: hoſpitallity reigns in town and contry.
Evvery coart ſhines widh ambaſſadors and dheir trains,
mooving thro' dhe rich rainges ov ſuperb apartments.
Each region opens her hart az wel az arms, to' dhoze
ſhe ſo lately held her ennemics. Widh dhe Graces dhe
Muzes dance hand in hand: dialects partake dhe dignity
ov dheir ſpeakers. Hwile tungs and climes dhe moaſt
remote from each oddher, proov recipprocally bleſt widh
gennerous cultivation; dhe prime patriottic object muſt
evverihware be dhe native land, and dhe native language.
Az evvery raſcional creture pants after raſcional fredom;
and evvery mature pepel, after independance; ſo evvery
language, hwenceſoevver ſprung, or howevver allied;
to' be pure, muſt be independant; and, to' be independant,
muſt be pure.
Hwen yoo doo me dhe onnor ov a call, I may explain
myſelf more foolly; hwen I can annihware avail
myſelf ov yoor enlightened converſacion, I am too
much intereſted to' looz dhe opportunity ov ſo richly
yoor moaſt obleged
and moaſt obedient ſervant,
April 29, 1784.
But, dho from interſperſed (not amalgamated) ſcraps
or ſhreds, ov Lattin and Greek, French, Spanniſh and
Itallian; dhe moddern bubbel (yclepped ſtile) acquires
az much opakenes (nay opaſcity), az levvity: ſuffiſciently
umbrageous deſcends dhe claſſic vail, dhat diſdains
not to' aſſume domeſtic fringes. If ſom terms be preferred,
az by dhe bards, for dheir verry oddity;
oddhers ar chozen by orrators, according to mezzure;
and held, az ſhort or long (eſpeſcially ov extraneous
longitude), cacopphonous or harmonious. Stil primogenniture
(if not protogeneſis) aſſerting her prefferabel
right, anommaly and anommalous ar happily expelling
all irreggular and irregularrity, dhe very thaught widh
dhe expreſſion. Nefarious and deleterious ar gaining
ſimmilar ground, ov evvery thing wicked or perniſcious.
Yet dhe prefference iz now due, onely to' forrain primogenniture;
and (ſo much wizer ar we dhan our fahdhers
dhe right ov alien, evver ſo novvel, extinguiſhes
at wonce evvery native claim. Az hatred or diſlike haz
long fallen into' odium; and good-wil, after rizing into'
benevvolence, now ſoars into' philanthropy; widhout
edher interreign or interregnum, hav all uſe and uſefoolnes,
eze and ezines, eaguernes and greedines, weaknes
or febelnes (ov boddy or mind), raſhnes and baſenes,
foulnes and filthines, widh dheir fellow-formatives, been
abſorbed (not ſwallowed up) in utillity, facillity, avidaity,
debillity and imbecillity, temerrity and turpitude,
widh dheir fellow-forrainers. Mannines waz erly wel
loſt in multitude, and fewnes lately in paucity. If dhe
magnitude hav almoaſt annihilated dhe graitnes ov our
idea's, dheir littelnes muſt ſoon diſappear in dheir parvitude
or parvity. Dho perſpicaſcity and perſpicuity be
az clear az perſpicaciouſnes and perſpiccuouſnes; ingeniouſnes
and ingennuouſnes ar certainly more diſtinct, dhan
hwen equally involved in ingenuity; hoos French and
Lattin parents conveyed onely dhe latter meaning.
Hwen audacity (audaſcity) invaded Ingliſh az we ſaw,
hwat compannions might ſhe not bring? nor need we
wonder, hware we may object, dhat adveſity and diverſity
(boath indiſpenſabel) ſhood tempt fom neollogiſts to'
perverſity for perverſenes, and reverſity for dhe verry reverſe
ov rezon. Dhe mongrel vicinage (viſcinage) pertends
to' joſtel even dhe new favorite vicinity (vicinnity),
for dhe glory ov exterminating all old Ingliſh neighborhood
(naborhood); hwile affray, perhaps affecting effroi,
poots an end indeed to' all fray; yet widhout beguinning
anny feaſt. Dho dhe neolodgic rage be dhus
laboring to' ſuppres or ſuperſede, widh domeſtic proppagacion,
all forrain anallogy; ov certain (vernaccular)
formatives we grow propoarcionably fond, az dhey ar
alſo new, hweddher by offiſciouſnes or abſurdity. To'
won or dhe oddher clas belong ſuch upſtarts, az ſtatement
for ſtate or ſtating (like concernment, for concern),
relacionſhip for relation, contribucionſhip for contribution,
and lectureſhip for lecturerſhip or lecture. Nor
can much aſtonniſhment arize, at hearing dhe prebbend
or bennefice interchainged widh dhe prebbendary hoo
enjoys it; in days hwen celebbrity itſelf iz undiſtinguiſhed
from cellebracion. Yet ſo brightly-dark aliens muſt
hav condign ofspring. Az anommaly haz produced
anommalous, feliſcity feliſcitous, and bitumen dhe
ſcientiffic bituminous; may we not hope to' ſee facillity
facillitous, utillity utillitous, acumen acuminous, widh
like ezy prodgeny?
1. IN T E R M.
BUT dhe dazzel ov perſpicuity may be dimmed widhout
a forrain vail. Domeſtic ſubſtitucion, if les
oſtentacious, iz no les truly effective. Nor can dhe
ſtile be deſtitute ov ſplendor, dhat iz conſtantly ſurprizing
by intcrchainge. Ov dhis dhe firſt luſter arizes
from dhe adopcion ov ſollemn on familliar, and familliar
on ſollemn occazions; az ov ſavior and ſalvacion, for
prezerver and prezzervacion, or even ſalvage. If awfool
ſtile deſcend dhus into' awles; common terms make
ſomtimes dheir haples way into' dhe poolpit, hwen not
dhence precluded by Liturgic dignity. Dho Moaſt--
higheſt be vindicabel az a ſuperlative beyond ſuperlatives,
or higheſt beyond compare; moaſt-good iz a moddern
contraſt (if not coincident) ov moaſt-bad; az dhe
abſolutely good or bad, can nedher be more nor les ſo.
To' uze in prayer we entreat Thee, we conjure Thee, or
dhe like (familliarrities), iz almoaſt petty blaſphemy.
Such iz indeed evvery unweighed word in caſes ov
ſolemnity. But ſollemn terms hay loſt, reſpectively,
dheir idea or dheir employment. Saccraments ſink dhus
into' cerremonies, in dhat libberal ſtile, hwich titels relidgion
ſuperſtiſcion, faith credulity, hope enthuſiaſm,
and charrity blindnes; revvelacion and demmonſtracion
az much increddibillities, az impoſſibillity likelihood.
On dhe oddher hand, az dhe eſprit faible proovs
now dhe French eſprit fort, dhe ſpirrit free from
thaught becoms dhe Ingliſh free-thinker, licencioumes
libberty, rebellion pattriotiſm, ſediſcion aſſiduity, cunning
wiſdom, impudence wit, and inſenſibillity (or
irrelidgion) philoſſophy: in like manner, blaſphemy
ſpirrit, herreſy candor; hypoccriſy prudence, purity
prudery; virtue weaknes, principel predjudice; lerning
peddantry, and peddantry lerning. Dhoze, dhat dhus
call light darknes, and darknes light; good evil, and
evil good; cannot but hold ſuicide currage, and ſinguel
combat onnor; ſo muſt be fond ov dhe new flurriſh,
hwich makes edher ſelf-deſtruccion or mutual murder,
poot a period to' dhe exiſtence ov won, or boath dhe
But, pomp being dhe prezzent rage, poor Nature
muſt be won way or oddher extinguiſhed. Refinement,
indeed, muſt cruſh her in dhe cradel; by denying at
wonce infants infantine ſtile, and parents (or oddher
fondellers) dhe ſpontaneous appellacions ov endearment.
Dhe ſweet Pappah! and Mammah! ſtifled in dhe firſt
accents, muſt aſpire (before teeth, into' dentallity) even
into' Fahdher! and Moddher! or dhe ſtil les nattural
Sir, and Maddam. Edher pair wood com in good time.
Bil or Billy, az Natures own voice haz named dhe liſper,
muſt inſtantaneouſly expand into' William! Pol or Polly
knows no more her own charming name, dhan dhat ov
dhe dignified Mary. She muſt ſwel, from dhe our ov
her baptiſm, into' dhe pompous exottic Maria!
Numberles ar dhe inſiddious guizes, in hwich dhe
idol Faſcion draws dhe worſhip ov dhe ignorant, dhe
inattentive, and dhe affected. Not onely gahps dhe
ear for pompoſſity (ov ſound): dhe moaſt common terms
rite into' rage. Dheir native propriety brings dhem
into' uſe; hwence, warped and bandied in all ſhapes.
and at all ventures, dhey firſt becom inſippid and dhen
unintelligibel. Dhus hav Londoners (ov almoaſt evvery
carracter) ſucceſſively primed, ſpoarted, ſpouted and
ſcouted; line, ſtile, circumſtance, period, exiſtence,
trifling or oſtenſibel; hwich from hwatevver deſcripcion
ov quizzes dhe terms, or dheir tortures, may hav oridginated;
ar laffabel, in dhe extreme. Som ov dheze ar
but newiſh, dho all be alreddy old in ſubſtitucion, or
hwatevver oddher ucion dhey may hav undergon. In
words, howevver oridginally fraught widh idea; hwen
hacneyed, az dhe abov, into' cant, no meaning can be expected
to' remain. Yet cant itſelf, howevver low a member
ov human ſpeech, may ſtil be a ſubject ov Anallogy. Prog
and ſcrog we ſaw in dheir claſſes (I. 330. II. 179):
quiz and bore may be followed down to' dheirs. Quiz
iz found, by moddern ſcollars, to' compound queer phyz;
and bore may torture (127) Curioſſity manny ways, before
it compenſate her pains. A mouth-piece iz a mere voice
(or tinkelling cymbal) in certain provvinces: for cant
muſt be common to' quaintnes and ruſtiſcity. Widh
dhe latter alſo a mort ſucceded a power (dhe Lattin vis)
in dhe ſenſe ov a grait indeffinite quantity or number.
To' dhis clas ſeems refferabel dhe verb ouſt, perhaps a
ſqueze ov outcaſt; a perſon ouſted being outed or caſt
out ov favor. A truithteller haz been lately canted into'
a truiſt; hoo queſtionles truizes, haven he commits a
truiſm. If impropriety in dhe uſe ov ſimpel words ſo
diſonnor anny dialect, can Common-ſenſe form or ſuffer
ſuch jumbels, az a nec-handkerchief? Dhe Scotch
pocket-napkin iz a far more nattural compound, dhan
even dhe handkerchief, hwich nocs dhe hed and hand
togueddher, and a nec-cloth iz ſurely complex enuf.
How wood dhe French brook homme-ſagefemme; for
accoucheur? and can dhe Ingliſh ear or eye ſtil bair a
man-midwife for a layer or bringer-to-bed? Not ſparrow--
gras iz a graiter corrupcion ov aſparragus, dhan a contry-dance
(from contre-danſe) ov counter-dance.
FROM quaint terms to' quaint phrazes, dhe advance iz
but from components to' dhe compoziſcion. Ov quaint
phrazes, perhaps dhe leaſt offenſive ar words ov coarſe,
dhe reddy-made ſupplement ov ſenſe and ov civillity.
For, az an addequate compliment iz dhe complement ov
ellegance; compliments unmerrited, or unment, ar dhe
vileſt words ov coarſe. But, if dhe parts may be ſo
vindicated from all imputation ov meaning, dhe iddioms
(or iddiotiſms) ar not likely to' be loaded widh much
intenſional guilt. Hob or nob dherfore (hav or not hav)
haz at leaſt az much ſignifficance az I'l thank yoo for
ſuch a thing; hware no thanks ar more intended dhan
expected; or az dhe ſtil bolder prommiſe, I make yoo laf
— by telling yoo — or, I'l tel yoo hwat wil make yoo laf:
hware dhe intenſion howevver may be onneſt. But, in
dhe rich artikel ov tabel-talk, or dhoze words ov coarſe
dhat fil up widh equal convenience dhe vacuities ov
thought and ov converſacion; dhat, being levvel to' all
ſpeakers, poot all ſpeakers on dhe level; dhat, making a
mecannic round ov queſtion and anſer, require mere
maſhenes for circulation; SWIFT haz (in hiz Polite Converſacion)
drawn up dhe ladder; az dhe French figgure
it, ov hooevver haz ſo completely diſcuſſed a ſubject,
dhat no won can com after dhe diſcuſſer; hoo, az we
ſay, haz left notthing behind him (or her).
Yet convivvial joys hav graiter debaſements dhan
words ov coarſe; and dheze ar dhe words ov wine. If
dhe ſtupiddeſt ov all ſtlies be dhat hwich means notthing;
and, far worſe dhan dhe ſtupiddeſt, dhat hwich
means dhe unperceived reverſe ov hwat it ſays; worſe
dhan dhe former, and (if poſſibel) az bad az dhe latter,
iz dhat hwich can guiv (unneſceſſary) pain to' anny prezzent
or abſent; hwatevver borders on profannity, or
wood minguel indecency widh glee. Dhe ſocial, az dhe
poettic, haz doutles its licence; but dhe licence, dhat
hopes to' ſublimate libberty; muſt keep az oppozite, az
it may ſeem contigguous, to' licenciouſnes. Habittual
fiends ov Decency, forguet her not over a glas.
From purity ov mind all plezzure ſprings;
And, from an umbel ſpirrit, all our pece.
ſays dhe Neſtor ov Dhe Night-thaughts, hoo did indeed
but bring down to' blank-verſe, Bleſſed ar dhe meek:
for dhey ſhal inherrit dhe erth. Bleſſed ar dhe poor in
ſpirrit: for dheirs iz dhe kingdom ov Hevven. Bleſſed
ar dhe pure in hart: for dhey ſhal ſee God. Az
dhe ſoarce, ſuch dhe ſtream: from dellicacy ov thought
can notthing flow, but dellicacy ov expreſſion. Dho
Truith be too lovly, to' need dhe forrain aid ov ornament;
dubbel iz her power, haven clodhed according to'
time and place. In gentile days, ſhe laſhed Folly in
Folly's language; but Revvelacion braught refinement.
Evvery immage, dhat wood be coarſe naked, wil be duly
vailed by dhe dellicate. Dhus doo belly, ſtummac, ſwet,
and oddher homely terms, ellegantly ſubſtitute ſtummac,
appetite, perſpire and perſpiracion, or dhe like. If
Nature bluntly ſay, Yoor belly may be fool, child;
Polliſh ſays az natturally, yoor ſtummac may be ſtayed.
Won, I hav no ſtummac; dhe oddher, I hav no appetite.
Dhat, yoo ſwet; dhis, yoo perſpire; or, yoo ar
all in a perſpiracion.
If all muſt be dhus decent by land, if dhe verry
gards ov good-manners muſt evince dhemſelvs ſuch by
patiently and politely inviting each oddher to' exchainge
but a ball in dhis world, az mutually introductory to' a better!
ſhal Common-Civillity, not to' ſay Common-Senſe,
creddit, dhat ſudden oaths, can be occazzionally recquizite;
dhat dhey can annihware command regard, or blaſphemy
lay a ſtorm? Won wood indeed expect dhat a ſtile, hwich
defies Hevven, ſhood proov at leaſt omnippotent on
Erth. And, dhat it iz omniprevvalent in won human
dialect, dhey muſt be az much ſtraingers to' Brittiſh
Libberty, hoo doo not own; az inſenſibel to' Brittiſh
Elleganee, hoo perſiſt in dhe practice. Hwile dhe Jews
trembel to' utter dhe name ov JEHOVAH, can Chriſtians
wantonly familliarize its evvery varriacion? Not to' multiply
exampels, ov hwich dhe verry exhibiſcion wer contagious;
az addiſcionally conducive to' a violation ov
dhat Law, on hwich all oddhers turn; can edher Rezon
or Relidgion bluſter in dhe name ov GOD? or can
Affectacion be ſuffiſciently inſenſibel to' flurriſh her airs
in Gods name? Dho it iz nevver abſolutely too late
for dantles Rezzolucion to' correct Impropriety; az won
poet aſſures:
— Labor omnia vincit
Improbus, et duris urgens in rebus egeſtas.
Strong Perſeverance muſt prevail at laſt;
And Triumph follow, hwen Diſtres iz paſt.
Yet ſallutary dhe advice ov anoddher:
Principiis obſta: ſerò medicina paratur,
Dum mala per longas invaluere moras.
Chec budding il: leſt remmedy be vain,
Hwen Habbit riots in Preſcripcions reign.
Such attenſion wood preclude evvery dainger; nor
ſhood we hear Infancy liſping, firſt Law! dhen Lord!
and dhen — hwatevver can diſonnor and deprave at wonce
children and dheir parents. From liſtleſnes ov habbit
ſprings neſceſſarily ſuch ov taſte, az produces
expreſſions hware Poetry and Piety raddher bleed
dhan bluſh togueddher:
Hware iz dhe North? at York, tiz on dhe Tweed.
On Tweed, 'tiz in dhe Orcades; and dhare
In Nova Zembla, or dhe LORD knows hware.
Yet can it not be denied, dhat Ingliſh Libberty iz ſomtimes
but a ſhoot ov French Fredom. Nor les certainly
had dhe Gallic Horrace begun widh Mon Dieu! and
reached by due gradation dhe calloſſity ov dhe moddel;
Mais moi (grace au Deſtin!) qui n'ai ni feu ni lieu;
Je me loge où je puis, et comme il plaît à DIEU.
I (thank my ſtars) hav nedher houſe nor home;
So, hware God plezes, muſt erect my dome.
WIDH principels ov life decline principels ov language.
Tallent. no longer opperates, hware Taſte no
more inſpires. Diſregard to' draught brings careleſnes
ov expreſſion, and trivvial peruzals trivvial pubblicacions.
Hence dhe inattenſion ſo frequent (and ſo flagrant) in
writing az in ſpeech, to' evvery kind ov accuracy; and
dhe violation we hav ſeen in boath dialects, ov evvery
law dhat ſhood gard Common-ſenſe, no les dhan common
Perſpicuity. Hence dhe yet unceſing interchainge ov
affirmative and neggative, ov reſt and mocion; ov perſons,
ſtates, genders, numbers, degrees; tenſes, moods,
formacions, and ſtiles, in dhat hwich jumbels all in won
caottic dialect. Hard indeed iz it to' ſay in hwat rank
or ſittuacion we doo not ſee az wel az hear, hwat neither
you or I could credit; what ſeldom or ever fails to ſhock
the unvitiated ear and eye; what therefore you would
not imitate on no account: nor I neither. From whence
is all this barbarity come? and where ſhall it be going
From hence (ſhall it go) in the country of oblivion. Betwixt
you and I, no one would hardly believe that you,
nor no other in the pariſh of Mary-le-bone, could expreſs,
far more exhibit thoſe ſort of reflections, nor bother the
learned as inquiſitive public with any of them things.
That is very high. It is all a hum. You muſt not
think to hum me. It was not me, it was him; or it was
all along of him. Was I perſuaded of that, I ſhould be
ſatisfied, nor trouble my head no further about it; but
till I myſelf am perſuaded, you will forgive my dubiouſneſs
(herd often doobuſnes). Nay, give me leave to tell
you, I heard him himſelf ſwear that you was the only
one, who could be arraigned of the audacity to begin,
continue, and finiſh the unpardonable innovation. I
leave any rational creature to gueſs which of the two
affirmations is the moſt probable, or which of both the
worthies deſerves the greateſt credit; whether he that
hath ſworn, or him that will not ſwear. I wiſh you had
not thus expoſed yourſelf: O that he was here now!
Was you among the mob, when the convicts was hung?
I'l be hang'd, if he was not there. You don't imagine
he was; but I could lay you a guinea on it: as I hope he
has too much humanity, to loſe one of the many happy
occaſions of bidding friends a very good-night.
Not to' comment on a parragraph, hware
ſtile iz wordhy dhe thaughts, and hwat dhey hoo
know equally Greek and Ingliſh, wood call dhe orthoggraphy
(yet write dhe orthography!) ov boath;
Writing muſt be, for manny rezons, more accurate
dhan Speech. But, if accuracy beguin not in ſpeech,
it wil not be annealed in writing; nor can anny, hoos
converſe iz ſlovvenly, be expected to' pen widh ellegance.
Habbit iz wel named a ſeccond-nature: occazzional exercion
wil not chainge it. Nevver wil an aukward and
a tawdry oridginal, make at wonce a like and a polliſhed
picture. Ov all tawdrines dhe groceſt, we hav alreddy
perceived Affectacion. She wil (we know) uze dhe
familliar for dhe ſollemn; az chriſten and chriſtening,
for baptize and baptiſm: nor les, dhe ſollemn for dhe
familliar; az dhe jeſts ov Joſeph Miller, for Joe-Millers
jeſts. Solemnity, dhus claiming dhe direct arraingement,
leves to' familliarrity, hwat not evvery tung enjoys,
dhe power ov tranſpoziſcion. Widh equal propriety
dhen, in reſpective place, Shakſpears works may
be ſpoke ov; or dhe works ov Shak-ſpear may proov dhe
various theme, on hwich dhe opinnions ar ſpoken. Propriety
dherfore adapting thaught and expreſſion, nedher
ſoars beyond, ſinks beneadh, miſrepprezents nor
miſaddreſſes her object; hwile her antipode overhwelms
widh compliment inapplicabel, damps by widhholding
onnors due; or, worſe dhan edher,
Donne de l'encenſoir au travers du viſage,
Widh dhe raſh cenſer ſtrikes dhe fearles face.
Dignity ſuffering equally from promiſcuouſnes and from
pomp; alike ridicculous (cood dhe impious be ridicculous)
wer dhe ſtile, dhat ſhood throw togueddher dhe
ilands ov Brittain and Iceland; and dhat hwich ſhood
impute, perhaps to' a pompous ſpeech, dhe ſalvacion
ov dhe Brittiſh Empire; or, ſhood even attempt to' expand
dhe hoal Brittiſh Empire at large. If ſtiles
dhen ar to' be ſuited to' dheir objects, no les muſt dhey
be conſiſtent in dhemſelvs. If he doth and drives muſt
be claſſed widh he pardoneth and abſolvs; Conſiſtence
cannot dhou and dhee it in won part ov an addres, and
yoo and ye it, in anoddher. Dhe ſame quaintnes, dhat
ſubſtitutes a collective for a plural, finds an indefinite
genteel for a deffinite idea. Dho it haz not yet ventured
Pubblic ar — for Dhe pubblic iz — notthing wil now go down
but Minniſtry ar — for dhe Minniſtry (or dhe Minniſters
ar) and ſo on. Dhe ſame accuracy makes dhey and dhem
reprezent a ſingular (collective) ſubject (130, 131). Not
dhat dhe deffinite artikel iz quite exploded. Dho dhe
grammar ov anny livving language be now beneadh anny
ſcollars attenſion, all muſt know French enuf to' admire
ſuch (cood ſuch be) az Dhe Abington and Dhe Siddons!
Dhey, hoo bluſh not yet to' return back again, ar proud
to' meet approbation, to' pledge themſelves, nay ſomtimes
to' commit themſelves, and dhe like.
Dhe falſe curteſy ov moddern tungs allows familliar
ſtile to' addres won perſon and manny perſons, alike by
dhe pronoun ov dhe plural number; dho yoo can no more
paint perſons in dhe govverning, dhan ye in dhe govverned
ſtate. If yoo howevver (widh dhis indiſpenſabel
reſtriccion) be dhe promiſcuous repprezentative ov dhe
dhe ſeccond perſon; we cannot, but in dhe moaſt awfool
ſolemnitv, exhibbit a ſinguel ſpeaker, or dhe firſt
perſon ſingular. Hwile a vizzibel individdual can ſo
seldom (widhout arrogance) ſwel into' we, an imizzibel
and indeffinite plurallitv (ſuppozed a verry legion ov
ſpirrits) can urge no better titel, dhan dhe Prieſtes ov
Apollo, to' iſſue anny orrakel introduced or enfoarced by
we or us. Argument haz no need ov dhe arguer (principal
or proxy); and intelligence muſt not ſpeak by dhe
intelligencer, in dhe ſpeaking perſon. From anny den
dherfore ov pubblicacion, hoo can bair dhe aſſociated
voice, hwich at wonce precludes critticiſm, and antiſcipates
ſorrow or joy? We are ſorry to' declare — We ar
happy to' announce (according to' moddern pomp) —
We wood caucion our readers — hoo hav abſolutely no
correſpondence widh edher crittics or advertizers. An
anonnymous newſwriter may indeffinitely ſay We,
(for he cannot I) hear, if anny prefface be needfool,
dhat on — day laſt, Mr.— committed dhe raſh action, or
(more genteelly) died a Roman deth; and dhat yeſterday
was decided in Hyde-park, an affair ov onnor, in hwich
won ov dhe heroes (unfortunately!) fel. If a word often
more dhan ſuffice to' dhe intellectual, dhe boddily ear
and eye ar ſomtimes unitedly ſhocked, nay repeatedly
mocked, by dhe cluſter ov informacion. A general
Court of Proprietors — was held — for taking into conſideration
their ſituation under the operation of the late
Act? But, ſuch ſtore being now no ſore, wil warrant
even dhe bold ſubſtitucion ov a twanging particippial for
an adverb, from a like melodious ſoarce. The various
colours of the earth have an amazing pleaſing effect!
Dho dhe quallifier ov noun may, in all diccions, repprezent
dhe cognate quallifier ov verb; ſo an adjective its
adverb (Sweet az tunes Phillomel her nightly ſtrain);
an adjective, howevver near in ſound, cannot proxy an
adverb, dhat muſt moddify anoddher quallifier. Yet
bel, febel in dhe end, iz often herd (nay, ſeen!) dhe
ſubſtitute ov bly for belly; particcularly in remarkabel
for remarkably: az remarkabel good, for remarkably
good; remarkabel wel, for remarkably wel. Dhe ſame
untutorednes or inattenſion, dhat knows not or minds
not, dhe difference between a febel vowels prezzence
and abſence, even haven dhe ſlender vocallity muſt diſtinguiſh
adverb from adjective; edher haples cauz may
more ezily interchainge a prezzent and an abſent iniſcial
aſpiracion; eſpeſcially az dhe picturage ov various moddern
tungs haz hiddherto' been apt to' prezent almoaſt
alike to' dhe eye ſuch aſpiracion, real or imadginary.
Orthoggraphv alone can aſcertain utterance; but notthing
(except Nature or Care) can preclude Affectacion
and Vulgarrity. Boath wil dherfore pannegyrize, if not
dhe hoſpitable builders of hoſpitals; dhe oſpitabel bilders
ov hoſpitals; hwile dhey really mean to' cellebrate dhe
hoſpitabel bilders ov oſpitals. If propper ſound cannot
continnue under impropper picturage, impropper ſound
wood be but rattified by dhe juſteſt picture. To' obviate
dhis dainger widh reſpect to' iniſcial aſpiracion, a London--
Newſpaper prezented (Sept. 25, 1784) a parragraph hwich
a littel varriacion in dhe words, and a total ov dheir
picture, haz adapted.
To' dhe Printer.
"I hav always had an averſion to' anny departure from
rectitude. Yoo wil perhaps think me ſcrupulouſly nice,
hwen I tel yoo, dhat I cannot bair extravvagance in behavior,
dres, or food; anny miſapplicacion ov words, anny viſcious
pronunciacion, or ungrammattic language. Ov won thing,
dhat guivs me particcular diſguſt, I obzerv manny perſons
guilty: I mean dhe aſpiracion ov all words beguinning widh
a vowel, and dhe rejecting ov dhe aſpiracion in dhoze
hwich onneſtly beguin widh an H. Such omiſſion, even
from dhe nectareous lips ov dhe fair, iz ungracefool In
hopes dhat ſom ov my acquaintance may, upon a fool
hearing, make due atonement; I take dhe libberty to'
prezent Dhe umbel petiſcion ov H, hwich ſhoweth —
Dhat manny Ladies, Gentelmen and oddhers, to' hoom
H uzed to' find fair az free acces; hav now edher totally
diſcarded dhat aſpiring iniſcial, or ridicculouſly
aſſociated him widh a company ov ſtraingers. A yong
Lady, to' dhe grait mortificacion ov H, obzerved dhe
oddher day, dhat ils made a pretty contract widh dhe
valleys below; dhat dhe ouzes wer butifoolly diſperſed
among dhe woods, and dhat ſhe waz fond ov earing dhe
howls in dhe hevening. From dhe verdant harbor, hware
dhe birds chant ſo ſweetly; ſhe can admire dhe capacious
arbor, hware ſo manny ſhips ſlote ſo ſafely. She
trembels at dhe prancing ov a orſe, but fears him not
drawing dhe arrow. She lovs dhe harts, az wel az dhe
ſciences; but iz conſtantly ſhooting harrows hat ſuſceptibel
arts. In ſummer preferring hale to' wine, ſhe
heats hartichokes; and in winter ſwallows ot aſhes, widhout
receiving anny arm. She ates warm weddher, yet
likes verry wel a clear evven, heſpeſcially wen ſantering
among dhe haſhes and dhe hoaks. So hamiabel howevver
iz dhis yong Lady, dhat, widh her fine air,
ſweet hies, quic hears, dellicate harms; abov all, her
tender art; ſhe wood guiv anny man a ankering to'
halter iz condiſcion. She even toaſts a andſo.m uzband,
next to' elth and appines ere and crafter; and dhis
verry morning, perhaps meaning no arm, ſhe made a
gay yong fellow bluſh, by telling him he waz verry
H umbly dherfore hopes a redres ov hiz wrongs; inazmuch
az no human being, more dhan himſelf, can be
edher onnored or happy widhout it." H iz here made a
a male, contrary to' dhe gender ov ſom parent-diccions,
perhaps becauz a Lady iz repprezented az interchainging
dhe violation; dho dhe oddher ſex, widh all its
aids, be fool az apt to' violate vernaccular Propriety.
Dhis barbarous interchainge cannot be ſuppozed
peculiar to' won, but common to' all dialects dhat admit
iniſcial aſpiracion; hwich by its verry effort, muſt
evverihware be les frequent dhan iniſcial vocallity. In
Lattin az in Greek, even dhe ruf ſpirrit waz ſo gentel,
az ſcarce to' claim dhe rank ov articulacion; and not at
all to' ſhare poziſcional onnors. Before a vowel ſtrong
or long howevver, it muſt be more effective dhan before
a febel won. Hence dhe ezy contraction ov mihi and
nihil into' mî and nîl, dhe interchainge ov Hannibal
and Annibal, and dhe almoaſt ſamenes ov dhe former
ſyllabel in dhe laſt word ov Semper tibi pendeat hamus;
and ov reti convenit ames. Simmilarly next to' notthing.
became dhe h ov
Hic erit, ut perhibent doctorum corda virorum,
Primus Romana Criſpus in hiſtoria.
Criſpus, dhe Crittics boaſt, ſhal beam dhe glory,
Ov primal magnitude, in Roman ſtory.
Dho iniſcial aſpiracion muſt be ſtronger in moddern,
dhan it waz in aincient languages; and dherfore we cannot
ſay an hiſtory, an habit, an heroe, an horror, an
human creature, for a hiſtory, a habbit, a heroe, a
horror, a human creture; nor even an hiſtoric detail, or
dhe like. But dhe febelnes ov Roman aſpiracion made
CATULLUS neglect inſtances ov its impropper omiſſion,
hwile Affectacion rendered its unnattural prefixture
abundantly ridicculous. Nor can we dout dhat ſuch az
Arrius foolly gutturalized mihi and nihil into' michi and
nichil, az wel az commadum into' chommodum. But
hear we Catullus himſelf, firſt in hiz own language, and
dhen in ours.
Chommoda dicebat, ſi quando commoda vellet
Dicere, et hinſidias Arrius inſidias.
Et tun mirificè ſperabat ſi eſſe locutum;
Cùm, quantum poterat, dixerat hinſidias!
Credo, ſic mater, ſic Liber avunculus ejus;
Sic maternus avus dixerat, atque avia!
Hoc miſſo in Syrian, requiêrunt omnibus aures:
Audîbant eadem haec leniter et leviter.
Nec ſibi poſtillà metuebant talia verba,
Cùm ſubitò affertur nuncius horribilis:
Ionios fluctus, poſtquam illuc Arrius îſſet;
Jam non Ionios eſſe, ſed Hionios.
My character, hwen carracter he'd ſay;
Cri'd Arrius, murder'd in hinſiddious way!
Dhen ſoar'd aloft, az if inſpir'd he ſpoke,
Hwen, on hinſiddious harts! hiz wrauth he wroke.
Hiz moddher, unkel, grandſire ſo aſpir'd;
Nor had hiz grandame from dhe hight retir'd.
Arrius to' Syrria ſent, all ears had reſt;
Or from dhe pitteous pant, or breth ſuppreſt:
Nor dhencefoarth fear'd to' feel from edher faut;
Hwen ſuddcn dhe horriffic news waz braught,
Dhat dhe Ionian waves, ſince Arrius croſt,
Wer all, alas! in dhe Hionian loſt.
But dhe completeſt collection ov London-vulgariſms,
may be taken from dhe larger Verſion ov dhe twenty--
ſeccond Eppigram ov dhe firſt Part ov dhe ſixth Book ov
digeſted Marſial; V. 8. ov dhe common Ediſcions.
EDICTUM domini deique noſtri;
Quo ſubſellia certiora fiunt,
Et puros eques ordines recepit;
Dum laudat modò Phaſis in theatro,
Phaſis purpureis rubens lacernis!
Et jactat tumido ſuperbus ore:
Tandem commodiùs licet ſedere,
Nunc eſt reddita dignitas equeſtris:
Turbâ non premimur, nec inquinamur.
Haec, et talia, dum refert ſupinus;
Illas purpureas, et arrogantes,
Juſſit Lectius ſurgere lacernas.
Our ſovv'rain Lords auguſt command,
Dhat bids dhe ſeats reſpective ſtand;
Dhat bids dhe knightly rows be fixt,
Nor multitudes be longer mixt;
Hear Phaſis mid dhe knights atteſt,
Refulgent in hiz purpel veſt!
Swelling, he hems: It iz but fit,
At length we ſhood commodious ſit.
Hiz dignity each knight regains:
Dhe mob nor ſcrouges him, nor ſtains.
Hwile more, ov ſuch equeſtrian ſtuf,
Fond Phaſis pours, ſupinely gruf;
Dhe purpel robes, dhat brave dhe ſkies,
Dhe awfool Lectius bids arize.
Dhe vulgar word ſcrouges, ov dhe tenth line, gave
riſe ro' dhe following Comment (p. 543, ov dhe Quarto--
Ediſcion). "Hwatevver may hav been in Pythaggoras'
artikel (510) ſuggeſted againſt dhe doctrine ov Tranſmigracion,
ſom ſuſpect dhe ſuggeſter a verry Pythaggorean:
no oddher indeed dhan MARSIAL himſelf, annimating
ſuch an alien to' LONDON, az he waz to'
Room; and not onelv prezenting hiz own improoved
Works, Loath Lattin and Ingliſh, but writing hiz own
Comment upon dhem. Won, ſay dhey, wil appear on
collation; dhe oddher by dhe communication, hwich
dhe tranſmigrant alone cood make ov Eppigram XXII.
at large, widh Phaſis' gennuine harangue; hwich, dho
az identic az tungs can tranſmigrate, nedher Room nor
London cood admit in dhe text; but hwich edher
admire, az an anticquity; exhibbiting, hwen boath
languages had attained dheir ſtandard, dhe truly vernaccular
ſtile ov boath times. Dhe Lattin oridginal iz
no more neſceſſary (perhaps les) dhan it waz ſevventeen
hundred years ago. Dhen muſt it hav appeared in dhe
oridginal Comment; and widh ſuch Comment vaniſhed,
hwen boath had anſered dheir end. But dhe Ingliſh,
guivving a ſpeſcimen ov hwat we ſomtimes admire from
vennerated pens, and always accept from numberles
tungs ov dhe Cappital; may hav its uſe, az wel az its
entertainment." Here it may be propper to' premize
hwat waz ſubjoined az a note referred to' (*) line 14.
"All nations and ages hav been liabel to' corruption ov
language, no les dhan ov manners; ov won indeed,
widh dhe oddher. Grocenes and Affectacion walking
hand in hand, hav evver been apt to' ſuppres licquefaccion
and aſpiracion, hware reſpectively indiſpenſabel;
and to' ſupply dhem, hware intollerabel; to' tranſpoze,
interchainge, or oddherwize alter, widh ſtres, at wonce
quantity and ſound; conſequently, to' make ſound and
ſymbol, dho no moddels ov each oddher, perhaps too
faithfool pictures ov dhe ſenſe. Dhe interchainge dherfore
ov dhe depreſſive labial aſpirate, and dhe braud
licquefier, (V and W) howevver repprezented, haz been
genneral, hwarevver dhe abov fatal ſiſters hav reigned.
But, hwile dhey uniformly annimated dhe organs ov a
Phafis; manny, dhat gloried to' join him in oddher
buties, begged leve to' differ from him in dhis. To'
exhibbit a juſt verſion ov ſo curious an anticquity, it
ſeems propper to' mark dhe ſtile ov dhe elder ſiſter, or
dhe obſolete, Itallic; (dhat) ov dhe yonger, or dhe
auguſtan, CAPPITAL?
The knight ſelf-dubb'd, and ſoon degraded;
Who ſtill one ſweet half-hour paraded.
Our ſov'reign lord's auguſt command,
That bids dhe ſeats reſpective ſtand;
That bids the knightly rows be fixt,
Nor multitudes be longer mixt;
Hear Phaſis mid the knights atteſt,
Refulgent in his purple veſt;
His wiſdom fluſhing in his face!
Ve hav at length reſoom'd our place,
And can with doo diſtinction ſet,
Nor ye the great and wulgar met.
Ve dooly ſhall behould the play,
Sence ve in no confuſion lay.
Of ruination vonc't afear'd,
Ven ve vas* nither ſeen or hear'd;
Tell this day, write as alablaſter,
Bewrays me of myſelf no maſter.
One can't ſcarce recollect the tithe,
Of all, that hove th' equeſtr'an ſigh;
But 'tis ſom comfort for to think,
That we was only on the brink.
A humble, no; an high delight
Pricks us for to aſſert our right:
Cur'oſity need never acs,
Nor need no wits be on the racks;
Childern can, like the larn'd, atteſt
If you but look AMONG MANKIND,
You'll ſee that THEY are not ſo blind,
As for to CALL them things IN doubt,
Or on THOSE SORT of themes to ſpout.
Then let's not wine; but on the whing
Of chiefeſt exultation ſing
And ſuch AN ONE we never ſee.
We ne'er was bleſt with bounty bigger:
So ſhall us CUT A tearing FIGURE;
Nay, CUT A FLASH with much facility,
In this here LINE of true GENTILITY.
No rifraf rubbing in VICINITY,
Nor none but of our CONSANGUINITY.
'Tis with AVIDITY and chear,
Go in the countery or town,
A knight is know'd from e'er a clown;
And quite as ſoon purceived his KNOWLEDGE,
In AN HALF-HOUR, as in AN WHOLE age.
Yet wat was all MANKIND, but FOOLS;
Ef THEY was not trained up in ſchools?
There all my COMPANY WERE high,
Who thought THEMSELVES as good as I.
The PUBLIC KNOW, ef here I ly.
BOTHERED THEM in pride of purſes:
But IT was ME, that made the worſes.
So an't us, as we was of old:
We are got in the age of GOLD:
You was a wand'ring certainly;
As how you thought that wat was wrong,
Would laſting, or (in ſhort) be long.
You muſt allow, that WAS but I there,
You had no room to tremble NITHER
And, wen you ſee me that there day;
I dar'd, as now I dares to ſay,
Wat now YOU need not I to tell YE,
Do but prowide for back and belly:
Be this, with watſomever crown'd;
And that, with toonick or withgownd;
Your rank is SA FE as mine, AND SURE;
Let thunder growl, or tempeſt pour.
Our dignity we knights regains:
The mob NOR ſcrouges us, OR ſtains.
Wat, thof our terror wonc't was GREAT,
Leaſt we ſhould loſe our ancient ſeat?
Whoe'er hath more or LESSER fear,
May bold, az ME MYSELF, Come HERE,
Whoe'er's afeard, I a'n't, nor wa'n't
Not never that myſelf I VAUNT,
Nor nought my manly mind can DAUNT.
Nor yet let none ſuſpect me SAUCY,
Like a low feller of the cauſey;
Wile I the matter WHOLE diſcuſs,
Ef cur'ous yoo, or coveteous:
For immater'al thof it be,
Preſumptious i'n't it not in me,
Who never play'd no ANTIQUARIAN;
YET STILL a Roman, no barbarian;
To give your hopes AN HIGH incentative,
Nor leſſer to your fears preventative.
As I ſat out then, and BEGUN,
Before the horſe of moon or ſun;
And, ef I HAD not yet BEGAN,
You ALL confeſs I were the man,
From who your conſolation SPRUNG,
On who your ſorrows all you FLUNG;
Who no induſtry ne'er could vary,
Watever might be ly'd contrary:
Could NITHER doubt OR debt diſpel.
You can't ALLEGE, that now I dream,
Or wander FOREIGN FROM my theme:
AVERSE FROM ſcrouging with the ſcum,
How glad I was, wen HERE I come!
And ſooner HERE we ſhould have came,
But othergueſs folks was to blame.
Of woes the cloſe! of joys the ſoorce!
As Caledonians ſhape their coorſe!
But Oh! I feel a ſudden WOOND —
Nor more: the paly PHASIS ſwoon'd.
The purple robes, that brav'd the ſkies,
Heard awful LECTIUS roar ARISE!
Dhis LECTIUS waz won ov dhe officers appointed by
dhe Emperor to' prezerv dhe pollity ov dhe Amphitheater;
dhat no encroachment might be made on dhe reſpectively
appropriated places ov dhe Sennators, Knights,
and Commons. Ov dhis, and oddher anticquities, dhe
Curious hav a fool inveſtigacion, in dhe Comment hwence
dhis ſummary iz taken.
To' deſcend from ſuch ſublimmity ov thought and
expreſſion, and from a picturage wordhy ov booth; wer
to' pas from dhe pathos to' dhe bathos; terms alike lucid
to' ſcollars, and vennerated by dhe reſt. But, dho dhe
barbariſm, or barbariſms, ov evvery line ſtrike at wonce
dhe eye ov evvery attentive peruzer; how manny, even
London-ears, or hurt by dhem? becauz in hwat ſtreet
(raddher hwat houſe) doo for or oddher ov dhem not
occur evvery our, from unimadginabel moudhs? So
true it iz, in language az in life, dhat Evil communicacion
corrupts good manners. Not howevver to' return
bac, far les return bac again, upon dhe abundance, pennury,
or puppyiſm, ov dhoze hoo take (not make) us
prizzoners, yet meet (not widh) our approbacion; hoo
hav ſo often hummed and bored us (111, 129, 136, 145,
and hware not?); hoo ſhood hav thought dhat a genius, a
ſcollar, and a chriſtian, wood hav chozen for dhe heroe
ov won ov dhc moaſt butifool tradgedies in anny language
dhe ennemy ov JULIUS? dhat ſo fine a writer, and ſo
abel a crittic, ſhood hav introduced hiz heroe ſo ſelf--
ſwolen az to' fancy all Nature in arms againſt him and
ROOM, becauz ſhe wood not be commanded by a man,
hoo cood not command himſelf? to' make the morning
lour at leaſt foar times in dhe two firſt lines, and dhe
day thrice tremendous by dhe fate ov dhe philoſopphic
Dhe dawn iz overcaſt, dhe morning lours,
And hevvily, in clouds, brings on dhe day;
Dhe grait, impoartant day! big widh dhe fate
Ov Cato, and ov ROOM!
If ſuch a writer cood ſo exemplify dhe dainger, to' hwich
all human language iz moaſt liabel; no wonder dhat
from writers ov evvery clas may be exampled evvery
ſort ov imprecizzion: hwich may indeed arize, not more
from Redundance, Defiſcience, or Inaddequacy; dhan
from Miſarraingement, Miſconnexion, or Miſnomer:
dhe laſt, dhe child ov Anaccroniſm. Hence it iz, dhat
Inattenſion ſo oft affirms hwat nevver happened: for inſtance,
dhat Lord Anſon ſailed round (neoterrically, circumnavvigated)
dhe world. Dhe firſt copious ſoarce ov
obſcurity may appear in ſuch arrangement az: He tried
dhat way ov writing widh ſpirrit; hware Precizzion
muſt underſtand ſpirrited writing, not ſpirrited trial:
dho (verry common) Imprecizzion might intend, He
tried widh ſpirrit dhat way ov writing; or, Dhat way
ov writing he tried widh ſpirrit. Ov dhis kind waz 'A
report, hwich prevailed (Aug. 3, 1783) dhat dhe French
had inſiſted on receiving part ov dhe expences dhey had
incurred in aſſiſting dhe Dutch, from dhis contry;' inſted
ov receiving from dhis contry, part — So dhe diſtance
ov dhe rellative from antecedent, muſt obſcure by interrupting
dhe connexion. Hoo dhen ſhal (certainly) underſtand
ſuch an artikel ov intelligence, az dhat ov
London, Oct. 14,1784? 'A ſwindler was committed by
the ſitting magiſtrate in Bowſtreet, on Monday laſt.̒ who
was taken by dhe gentleman he had impoſed upon in the
following manner' — or dhis ov Nov. 6. 1784? — Not long
ago he married a young lady, contrary to the conſent of
her parents; by whom he has two children, dhe youngeſt
not three months old. The feelings of a wife, ſo circumſtanced,
muſt be trying in the extreme. Hwatevver
prooved dhe fate ov edher (perhaps won) heroe, dhe
abov words probbably ment: On Monday laſt waz comby
dhe ſitting madgiſtrate in Bowſtreet, a ſwindeller,
hoo waz taken in dhe following manner, by dhe
gentelman he had impozed on — or, hoom dhe gentelman
he had impozed on, took in dhe following manner — if indeed
dhis introduced not dhe manner ov dhe impoziſcion.
Dhe oddher tradgic words muſt imply: Not long
ago (dho Vulgarrity prefers Not long bac) he married,
widhout dhe conſent ov her parents, a yong lady, by hoom
he haz two children; dhe yonger (or won) not three
months old. Dhe feelings had better been left to' dhe
reader, hoo might poſſibly hav gueſſed dhe conſequence.
A writer, dhat wood not riſk dhe ſevereſt imputacion ov
redundance, wil not think offiſciouſly for dhe reader.
Yet a more reſpectabel parragraph (Feb. 17, 1785)
mencions a Memorial — requeſting a compenſation — to
the ſufferers by the ſurrender of Eaſt-Florida to the
Crown of Spain; which has now been delivered up in
purſuance — of the Treaty — concluded during the Marquis
of Landſdown's adminiſtration. Here we lern dhat dhe
Crown ov Spain waz delivvered up, during dhe adminiſtracion
ov a perſonage, hoo, it muſt be owned, did not
exiſt. But if hoos and hwiches muſt not involve hweel
widhin hweel, nor he's and hims confound different
males in won period; no proxy can too preciſely repprezent
its principal, and ſo no pronoun its noun. If
a pronoun muſt preciſely repprezent dhe object, or objects,
it pretends to' reprezent; a ſingular can no more
proxy a plural, dhan a plural a singular, a male a female,
or dhe contrary. Hwat precizzion dhen muſt we admire
in dhe following chain ov informacion! London, May 3,
1785. The great Spencer was Poet Laureat to Queen
Elizabeth, who died in 1598, about four years before his
royal Miſtreſs. He was ſucceeded by Samuel Daniel,
who died in 1619, and left the bays to Ben Jonſon,
who held it 18 years, and then reſigned it to Sir William
Davenant; who dying in 1668, after he had enjoyed it
31 years, it was placed on the head of Dryden. But at
the Revolution he was depoſed, and the bays
adorned the brow of Thomas Shadwell, whom Dryden
hated ſo much for this rivalſhip as to produce one of the
ſtrongeſt ſatires in our language, well known by the name
of Mac-Fleckno. After Shadwell had worn it four
years, he died in the year 1692, and it deſcended to
Tate. This Monarch had it 24 years; but dying in 1716,
it fell to the Rev. Mr. Euſden, who enjoyed it to the
year 1730. Colley Cibber was the immediate heir to
Euſden, who perhaps for this and other equally good
reaſons, was made the hero of the Dunciad by Pope. His
dramatic writings however have reſcued him from the
character of a dunce, though his Odes are ſubject to ſome
animadverſions. William Whitehead ſucceeded Colley
Cibber in 1757, and enjoyed it for 28 years. Dying in
April 1785, he is now ſucceeded by the Rev. Thomas
Warton, Fellow of Trinity-College, Oxford, Author of
the Hiſtory of Engliſh Poetry, and other poetical
Precizzion might hav attended conciſenes in ſom ſuch
petty annal az dhis: Queen Elizzabeths (Poet) Laureat,
Spenſer, by deth quitted dhe bays in 1598; hiz ſucceſor,
Sammuel Danniel enjoyed dhem til 1619. Ben-Jonſon,
in 1637, rezigned dhem to' Sir William Davvenant; hoo
dying in 1668, dhey wer placed on dhe brow ov Dryden.
Dhence dhe Revvolucion transferred dhem (in 1688) to'
Tomas Shadwel; hoom hiz preddeceſſor onnored morover
widh Mac-Flecno. Shadwel left dhem in 1692, az
did Nahum Tate in 1716; and dhe Rev. Mr. Euſden in
1730. To' him ſucceded Colley Cibber; hoo, for dhis
perhaps, more dhan anny better rezon, became dhe heroe
ov dhe Dunciad. On Cibbers demiſe in 1757, William
Hwitehed inherrited dhe laurel; and in 1785 it began
to grace, or be graced by, dhe Rev. Tommas Warton,
author ov manny poettical pieces, az wel az ov dhe hiſtory
ov Ingliſh poetry.
Dho ſuch be dhe ſtile ov our pubblic intelligencers, it
cannot now be ſuppozed, dhat imprecizzion, or impropriety
ov anny clas, iz confined to' perioddic pubblicacion.
Nature had matured our language; but Art had not
aſcertained it. Hence it iz, dhat ſo few authors in proze
or verſe can yet be opened, widhout exemplifying exces,
defect, miſchoice, or diſorder; in words, az in
dheir repprezentacion. No wonder if almoaſt evvery
Inſcripcion in dhe Cappital (or, widh Helleniſtic dignity,
dhe Metroppolis) becom a pubblic teſt at wonce ov our
forrain and domeſtic litterature. Hwat ſhal our neighbors
think ov our attainment in dhe language, widh hwich
we ar ſo proud to' interlard our own; hwen dhey ſee us
treat Mary az a man, in dhe ſtreets dignified Mary-le-bone?
Dhey can no more ſuſpect we ſay Marribone,
dhan dhat we mean Marie la bonne. Som antiquaries
indeed ettymollogize it Marie la borne; but borne and
Marie ar equally femminine; and dhe artikel at anny
rate makes no part ov dhe Ingliſh name. How wood
poor PRISCIANS hed bleed anew, cood he rear hiz awfool
eyes on an eddifice inſcribed, Began in ſuch a year,
and Finiſhed in ſuch anoddher! And ſhall Precizzion be
expected in a Land, dhat loads dhe front ov a prime
oſpital in her principal citty, widh an Inſcripcion exhibbiting
it — Supported by the Voluntary Subſcriptions
and Benefactions of the Nobility, Gentry, and others;
inſted ov Suppoarted by Bennefaccions; if indeed ſuch
notice be neſceſſary? Redundance, dhe chief dainger
ov human ſpeech, peculiarly ov derivvative diccion, iz
partly owing to' dhe dezire ov expreſſing enuf, and to'
dhe dellicacy ov perceiving hwen won haz don ſo. But
dhe copiouſnes ov derivvative diccion muſt arize from
dhe numberles ſoarces dhat ſupply it. Hence haz it
ampel ſtore for evvery purpoſe; and parrallel ſtreams ov
expreſſion, muſt often contend for prefference. Yet dho
anny won ov ſevveral (az from Greek, Lattin, French.
Gaulic or German fountain) might, won way or oddher,
paint dhe idea; a littel attenſion wil (ſerv to') evince,
dhat no language howevver copious in itſelf, or enriched
from abraud, can hav anny two terms ſo identic in
ſenſe, and ſo equal in ſound, az to' be preciſely ſynonnymous.
Be dhe pictures ov won arketype, or terms
for won firſt idea, evver ſo numerous; ov evver ſo obvious
a rezemblance, or ſo near an equivvalence to' each
oddher; (the various channels thro' hwich dhey hav deſcended,
muſt hav ſo neſceſſarily varied dhem in extent
or expreſſion, ov meaning or mold, dhat non can to' a
perfet judge be abſolutelv interchaingeabel. Dhe
ſmalleſt diſcrimminacion hints dhe propriety ov choice;
and dhe trueſt taſte wil be dhe firſt to' demonſtrate, az
wel az to' feel, dhe neceſſity ov prefference. To' dhis
wil it be guided, not always inſtantaneouſly, by dhe
compas and quallity ov dhe idea, az genneral or particcular,
ſo les or more conſined; az ſollemn or familliar,
ellegant or vulgar, littoral or figgurative; dhen by dhe
foarce and form ov its repprezentacion, dhe precife or indeffinite,
dhe luminous or obſcure, dhe expreſſive or inſippid,
dhe harmonious or dhe harſh, dhe ezy or dhe
affected, dhe native or dhe far-fetched, dhe dellicate or
dhe coarſe, dhe pure or dhe barbarous, dhe moddern or
dhe obſolete: in anny reſpect, dhe more or les natturally
propper, or demonſtrably adapted. For, onely by dhe
reſpective precizzion or exact impoart (ov ſenſe, ſound,
and picture) can dhe propriety ov choice be aſcertained.
Nor wil dhe purity or ſuffiſcience ov evvery part, or ov
all dhe parts, avail; widhout dhat union and order,
hwich to' render truly happy, ingenuity (or dhe genius
ov dhe writer) muſt combine widh dhe genius ov dhe
Hwile dhus dhe redundant, dhe defiſcient, dhe inaddequate;
dhe pompous, dhe quaint; dhe impious,
dhe indecent; dhe ſlovvenlv, and dhe ſtrained; dhe
forrain, and dhe falſe ov evvery kind; ar, conjunctly or
ſevverally, more to' be avoided dhan dhe braudeſt
Scotch; hwile Ingland iz more dhan formerly enabled
to' annalyze and eſtimate Gawin Douglas and Allan
Ramſay widh Chaucer and Spenſer; all dhe aincient
Ingliſh, az wel az Scottiſh, ornaments ov mankind:
Scotland reannimated to' prezerv her illuſtrious fammilies,
at leaſt in dheir names; lerns widh juſtice to'
ballance dhe buties and blemmiſhes ov her wonce melodious
and expreſſive, dho now paſſing, dialect. Finding
it here howevver braught into' a ſyſtem, ſhe now can
(hwat ſhe nevver cood before) diſcrimminate her own
from dhe Ingliſh diccion; az dhe Poartugueze or Cattalan,
from dhe Caſtillian; dhat ſo dhe Scotch may be
reggularly and effectually trezzured, not onely widh
dhoze three grait dialects ov Spain, but widh dhe Provençal
and dhe French; widh dhe Lattin, dhe Greek, and
dhe Gaulic: and dhat dhe now anallogized and aſcertained
INGLISH LANGUAGE may becom familliar, az it
iz indiſpenſabel, to' all hoo converſe widh Ingliſh authors
or Ingliſh ſpeakers; much more, to' all hoo pretend to'
be edher; and dhat EDDINBURROUGH may gain dhe glory
hwich LONDON can at length boaſt, ov ſcientiffically acquiring,
purifying, and prezerving, dhat nobel dialect;
hwich (parramount, independant, and indiſcerpibel)
can alone recovver, reunite, and reexpand dhe members
ov dhe Brittiſh dominnion.
In dhis VOLLUME, dhe candid Crittic haz probbably red
Page Line
44. 1. Iota haz I iniſcial to' Iota (az if I iniſcial) to'
54. 5. interſlice interſtice
64. 13. Lydia, Libya Lydia (Lyddia), Libya (Libbya).
70. 16. marriage marridge
72. 22. clerk clark
120. 20. uze uſe
132. 17. gents. But gents; dho
140. laſt to to'
154. 1. PART V. PART IV.
162. 3. hwile pint hwile pinte
176. 12. iz az
190. 22. contractives contractives;
194. ant. rize riſe
197. 7. ϰαμπτο ϰαμπτω
8. comb ov comb
214. 11. frivolous frivvolous
241. 15. licencioumes licenciouſnes
254. 19. Such omiſſion Such omiſſion or aſſumpcion
Hwile dhe conſidderate perhaps raddher wonder, dhat ſo manny Scotticiſms and
Ingliſh Vulgariſms cood be, dhan dhat no more ov edher hav been digeſted; dhey
muſt perceiv dhis Vollumes graiter object to hav been dhat ov inveſtigating and
arrainging, dhan ov filling dhe claſſes: a taſk indeed more dhan Herculean. Yet
dhis glory dhe reader may occazzionally partake, by remarking dhe Scottiſh grait
ſhears, for dhe littel cizzars? dhe dubbel ov a letter, for dhe duplicate or coppy ov
it; dhe drop, for dhe dram-weight; poſſet for caudel, yerning for runnet, linty for
linnet; widh dhe verbs open out, ſhear of (liccor), mandate, redargue, inhibbit; for
unpic, ſtrain of, con, or commit to' memmory; refute, reſtrain from expending; and dhe
numberles reſt.


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Propriety Ascertained in Her Picture, Vol. 2

Document Information

Document ID 659
Title Propriety Ascertained in Her Picture, Vol. 2
Year group 1750-1800
Genre Imaginative prose
Year of publication 1786
Publisher W Strahan and T Caddell
Place of publication London
Wordcount 64596

Author information: Elphinston, Mr James

Author ID 223
Title Mr
Forenames James
Surname Elphinston
Gender Male
Year of birth 1721
Place of birth Edinburgh, Scotland
Occupation Educationist
Father's occupation Clergyman
Locations where resident London
Other languages spoken French, Latin
Religious affiliation Episcopalian