Lowland Scotch as Spoken in the Lower Strathearn District of Perthshire

Author(s): Wilson, Sir James


K.G., K.T., ETC., ETC.
THE scholarly study of Scottish dialects is no new thing.
More than a century ago its foundations were firmly laid
by the extensive and careful work of Dr. Jamieson, whose
dictionary still remains the great source of information
on the subject. There have been other good and active
workers since his day, but much remains to be done before
the task can be regarded as completed. For the deficiencies
which still have to be made good there are in the main
two reasons. One of these is that the Lowland dialects are
not at all sharply divided from each other, so that there
is little apparent ground for dealing with each of them
separately. The tendency has thus been to consider Scottish
speech as a whole, instead of as a collection of dialects, —
a view which has been greatly assisted by the use of a more
or less standard form for literary purposes. The other
reason is that greater attention has been given to the
vocabulary than to the sounds of the language, though
even here the recorded information is often lacking in
fullness and precision, leaving it doubtful how far a particular
word is in use over a given area.
It is only within recent times that the exact form of
individual dialects has become a subject of serious study,
but in some countries of Europe this branch of philological
investigation has already been carried on very extensively.
A fair number of English dialects have now been dealt
with in this way, and others are being gradually added to
the list, but in Scotland the work is only now beginning to
be seriously undertaken. There can be no doubt that if it
is to be done at all, it should be done without delay;
another generation is certain to modify most dialects in
certain respects, and may possibly obliterate distinctions
which at present are quite clear.
It is therefore a matter for satisfaction that one of the
first studies of a single Scottish dialect — that here presented
to the reader — has been carried out with so much
thoroughness, and presents so complete a survey of its
special theme. It is only by an elaborate display of the
dialect in its several aspects that the outsider can obtain
some idea of its character as a whole. What the author has
aimed at, and on what principles he has conducted his
investigations, are explained in his own Introduction, and
need not be anticipated here. There are broad and narrow
ways of dealing with dialects as well as with other things,
and Sir James Wilson has preferred the broad method, as
being more likely to attract and interest others who may
have opportunities to do similar work. A narrower method,
involving a more elaborate and exact notation of sounds,
would have been likely to appeal only to a limited number
of professional philologists or phoneticians. Even these,
however, if at all acquainted with the ordinary basis of
Scottish speech, will seldom be in doubt as to the precise
sound intended.
Although some excellent studies of English dialects have
been made by scholars who never spoke them, it is a great
advantage to an investigator to possess that familiarity with
his theme which can only result from an early acquaintance
with, and personal use of, the speech of the people. In the
present work several points are clearly brought out one
probably for the first time in print — which would almost
certainly have escaped the notice of an outsider, however
well equipped for his task. Above all, it is only this early
familiarity with a dialect that can give the sure and certain
touch in dealing with it which will be evident to every
Scot who scans the pages of the present volume. May
worthy successors to it arise freely within the next few
SIR JAMES MURRAY, in the Historical Introduction to his
Account of the Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland,
which, though published forty years ago, is still the standard
authority on Scottish dialects, expressed the hope that a
complete dictionary of the Northern variety of English
speech would be compiled, and that by way of preparation
for such a dictionary a worker in each district would record
the local pronunciation of all the words used in his dialect.
Much has been done in this direction by the publication
of Professor Wright's English Dialect Dictionary, but the
ground covered by that work is so wide that it is difficult
to extract from it general information regarding any
particular dialect or group of dialects ; and the Scottish
Branch of the English Association is now engaged in
collecting materials for a new Scotch Dictionary, which
will give a complete account of all the dialects now spoken
in the Lowland parts of Scotland.
Partly with a view to helping in this useful and patriotic
work, and still more from a love for my native tongue,
I have in this volume recorded the results of a careful study
of the dialect with which I was familiar in my boyhood.
In order to avoid confusion I have confined my inquiries
to the dialect spoken in the valley of the Earn in the
south-east of Perthshire, between the Grampians and the
Ochil Hills, which forms part of the tract called by
Sir James Murray 'The Highland Border', and is included
in the area defined by Professor Wright as 'North Middle
Scotland'. I have not attempted to trace the history of
the words, but have contented myself with giving a true
account, accurate up to the standard at which I have
aimed, of the words, grammar, and idioms actually used
by the best living speakers of the local dialect within
that area.
I am not without hope that this book may be of interest,
not only to scientific students, but to all who feel the charm
of the homely pithy speech of the village folk, and that
it will show the ordinary reader how he can study any
dialect of English, wherever spoken, without necessarily
mastering unfamiliar symbols, which often make works on
local dialects difficult to understand without special study.
Should any one follow my example, and carefully record the
native speech of the people among whom he lives, he will
find that the inquiry itself becomes fascinating, and that
it brings him closer to his neighbours and affords him
a better insight into their character, ideas, and modes of
thought and life.
I have to express my acknowledgements to Sir James
Murray and Dr. Craigie of the New English Dictionary, to
Mr. Grant of the Scottish Branch of the English Association,
and to others who have kindly helped me out of the
wealth of their experience, as well as to Mr. Robert Davie,
Mrs. Allan, Mrs. Hume, and my other old friends at
Dunning, whose thorough and accurate knowledge of our
mother-tongue has been of the greatest use to me.
February, 1915.
THE AUTHORITES . . . . . . Frontispiece
A FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . 1
PREFACE . . . . . . . . . 3
SPELLING ADOPTED . . . . . . . . . 7
ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . 8
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . 9
REPRESENTATION OF SOUNDS . . . . . . . . . 13
PRONUNCIATION . . . . . . . . . 20
Consonants . . . . . . . . . 21
Vowels . . . . . . . . . 30
Stress on Syllables . . . . . . . . . 57
GRAMMAR . . . . . . . . . 58
Nouns . . . . . . . . . 58
Adjectives . . . . . . . . . 69
Articles . . . . . . . . . 80
Pronouns . . . . . . . . . 81
Adverbs . . . . . . . . . 93
Prepositions . . . . . . . . . 105
Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . 112
Interjections and Exclamations . . . . . . . . . 114
Negatives . . . . . . . . . 117
Verbs . . . . . . . . . 118
Parts of the Body . . . . . . . . . 139
Parts of Animals . . . . . . . . . 141
Food . . . . . . . . . 141
Drink . . . . . . . . . 144
Clothes . . . . . . . . . 145
Buildings . . . . . . . . . 146
Furniture and Utensils . . . . . . . . . 148
Domestic Animals . . . . . . . . . 172
Wild Animals, Birds, Fish, Insects, &c. . . . . 154
Gardening . . . . . . . . . 156
Trees and Plants . . . . . . . . . 158
Crops and Farming . . . . . . . . . 159
Harness, Carts, &c. . . . . . . . . . 161
Farm Buildings, Tools, &c. . . . . . . . . . 162
Christian Names . . . . . . . . . 163
Surnames . . . . . . . . . 165
Place Names . . . . . . . . . 166
Weather . . . . . . . . . 168
Time . . . . . . . . . 169
Days, Months, and Terms . . . . . . . . . 170
Directions . . . . . . . . . 171
Weights and Measures . . . . . . . . . 171
Weaving and Spinning . . . . . . . . . 173
Common Occupations . . . . . . . . . 174
Games . . . . . . . . . 174
Health and Sickness . . . . . . . . . 177
Ceremonies . . . . . . . . . 178
Common Adjectives . . . . . . . . . 180
Physical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . 181
Mental and Moral Characteristics . . . . . . . . . 182
Relations . . . . . . . . . 184
Terms of Endearment . . . . . . . . . 185
Words applied to a Girl or Woman . . . . . . . . . 186
Expressions applied to a Miser . . . . . . . . . 186
Expressions relating to Drunkenness . . . . . . . . . 186
PROVERBS AND SAYINGS . . . . . . . . . 187
Conversation in Vowels between Draper and Customer 208
Conversations about Health . . . 208
Threats and Abuse . . . . . . . . . 209
Drinking and Drunkenness . . . . . . . . . 211
IDIOMATIC USES OF WORDS . . . . . . . . . 212
VERSES CURRENT IN STRATHEARN . . . . . . . . . 216
Riddles . . . . . . . . . 216
Children's Rhymes . . . . . . . . . 219
Other Verses . . . . . . . . . 222
Mummers' Verses on the Last Day of the Year . . 226
Toasts . . . . . . . . . 227
A LOCAL BALLAD . . . . . . . . . 230
DICTIONARY . . . . . . . . . 234
IN this book the letters used in spelling Scotch words and in
giving the pronunciation of English words represent the following
The consonants are to be pronounced as they ordinarily are in
English, with the following qualifications:
c, k, q have the sound of k in 'kick'.
g has the sound of g in 'gag'.
th has the sound of th in 'thick ', 'thin'.
dh has the sound of th in 'this', 'then'.
hw has the sound of wh in 'which', 'when', as pronounced
in the North of England and Scotland.
r in Scotch words has a distinct trill.
s has the sound of the sibilant in 'hiss'.
z has the sound of the sibilant in 'buzz'.
sh has the sound of the sibilant in 'shop'.
zh has the sound of the sibilant in 'measure'.
kh has the sound of the German ch in 'Nacht'.
ch has the sound of ch in 'church'.
The vowel sounds are represented as follows:
Spelling Sound as in the E. words
Written Spoken
a man man
aa father faadher
ai or ay rain, day rain, day
au or aw caught, paw caut, paw
e hen hen
ee see see
i pin pin
ii eye ii
o hot hot
oa road road
oi or oy oil, boy oil, boy
oo foot foot
ou or ow out, cow out, cow
u sun sun
ei and ui are not found in Southern English. ei is the vowel
sound in 'mine' as pronounced by a Scotchman. ui is nearly
the French eu in 'peu'.
a. adjective.
adv. adverb.
art. article.
cf. compare.
comp. comparative.
conj. conjunction.
dem. demonstrative.
E. Standard English
e. g. for example.
esp. especially.
exc. exclamation.
f. feminine.
fut. future.
i. intransitive.
i. e. that is.
int. interrogative.
inteij. interjection.
m. masculine.
n. noun.
neg. negative.
neut. neuter.
nom. nominative.
num. numeral.
obj. objective.
obs. obsolescent.
pa. past.
pa. p. past participle.
part. participle.
pass. passive.
pers. personal.
pl. plural.
poet. used in poetry.
poss. possessive.
prep. preposition.
pres. present.
pron. pronoun, pronounced.
pr. p. present participle.
ref. reflexive.
reg. regular.
S. Scotch as spoken in
Lower Strathearn.
sing. singular.
sl. slurred.
st. stressed.
subj. subjunctive.
sup. superlative.
t. transitive.
v. verb.
v. aux. verb auxiliary.
v. i. verb intransitive.
v. t. verb transitive,
MY object in compiling this book has been to present a fairly
complete and accurate account of one of the various dialects of
Lowland Scotch, which are really dialects of English speech.
I have selected as my study the dialect spoken in the parish of
Dunning, in which I was brought up, and have noted down its
pronunciation and idioms from the mouths of the village folk,
not from books. Both in this country and elsewhere, the
indigenous speech of the people varies considerably from district
to district, almost from village to village, and natives of other
parts of Scotland will no doubt notice many departures from the
pronunciation familiar to their ears. I find that even such a
short distance away as Crieff, some thirteen miles off, there is
a marked difference in the sound of some of the commonest
vowels, and that east of Perth other differences make their
appearance. It seems safe, however, to call this dialect that of
Lower Strathearn, as the differences to be found within that area
are comparatively insignificant. It will be understood therefore
that in this compilation, when I describe words or expressions
as 'Scotch', I mean Scotch as at present spoken in the Lower
Strathearn district of Perthshire.
To avoid confusion, I have resisted the temptation to make
comparisons with other dialects of the English tongue spoken
either in England, or in the Lowlands of Scotland. But in order
to show more clearly what the speech of Strathearn really is,
I have made a fairly full comparison of the words and expressions
used in this dialect with those of standard English. The subject
of my study is the language as spoken by the people, and for my
present purpose it does not matter how either it or standard
English is written. It is the sound that matters. I have therefore,
as a general rule, placed the standard English word, as
spoken, alongside the Scotch word, spelling the sound of both
according to the system of representing sounds which I have
adopted. This plan has also the advantage of showing clearly
what are the sounds I intend to represent by the different letters
or combinations of letters.
There is one serious difficulty which no doubt presents itself
to all students of dialect in this country. The people from
whose mouths it must be studied have almost all been taught
to read and to speak standard English, and are mostly familiar
with the language as employed in the Bible and other books,
or in the newspapers. Thus, sometimes consciously, sometimes
unconsciously, they use in ordinary speech the English word or
phrase which they have learned in place of the one peculiar to
their mother-tongue, especially if the standard pronunciation is
not very different from that of their own dialect. Similarly,
in the same village, each of different men, or even the same man
at different times, will alter the pronunciation, especially of
vowel sounds, according to the state of his own feelings or his ideas
of the intelligence or preference of the person he is addressing;
and it is often difficult to decide which of the various pronunciations
represents the true dialect of the locality. The safest plan
in such circumstances seems to be to watch carefully the unthinking
speech of the oldest residents, to note and compare their
pronunciation, and to select that which is most unlike standard
English, provided that it is frequently repeated, as probably representing
the original speech of the people, the true dialect of
the district.
As my desire is to present a fairly complete picture of my
native dialect, I have not confined my notes to those points on
which it differs from standard English, but have included those
common words and grammatical forms which are the same in
Strathearn speech as in standard English. Indeed, from the point
of view of the student of language, the resemblances are quite as
important and as interesting as the differences. There is sometimes
a difficulty in deciding, when the pronunciation of a word or
a grammatical form or expression is the same in the dialect as in
standard English, whether it is indigenous to the dialect or has
been learnt at school or from books, but in the case of almost all
the commonest words and phrases it is fairly certain that they must
have been handed down from mouth to mouth for generations,
and must be a natural development of the old native speech.
When we eliminate from the common speech of the village
folk of Lower Strathearn, along the northern foot of the Ochils,
all that they have probably adopted from books, it will be found
that their dialect is a pure English, with very little admixture of
other tongues, even of Gaelic, although for centuries the people
who spoke it lived within sight of the Grampians, beyond which
the language commonly spoken was, and still is, Gaelic, and
although they must from time to time have absorbed into their
communities many Gaelic speakers of Celtic blood. It seems
probable that in the main the present-day dialect is a direct
descendant of the language spoken by the first Angle invaders
who, some eight centuries ago, pushed their way north of the
Forth and settled in the valley of the Earn.
The absorption of Celtic blood is still in progress. The Gaelic
surnames which are common in Strathearn show that the
ancestors of many of its inhabitants came from across the
Highland line; and what happens now in our own experience
has no doubt been going on for centuries. A Highlander, whose
native tongue is Gaelic, and therefore quite unintelligible to his
Scotch-speaking neighbours, comes down from his ancestral home
north of the Grampians, and settles down in some Lowland village,
perhaps marrying a Lowland wife. He gradually picks up the
dialect of the people among whom he lives, but never entirely
forgets the Gaelic he spoke when he was a boy, and speaks Scotch
with a Gaelic accent and some Gaelic words and idioms. His
children, brought up among Scotch speakers, remember some of
their father's Gaelic, but the influence of their playmates and schoolmaster
is all in favour of the Scotch dialect they hear spoken and the
standard English they are taught; and in the third generation,
though the Highlander's grandchildren may be of pure Celtic blood,
there is little trace left in their speech of their grandfather's Gaelic;
they speak a pure dialect of English speech, with hardly any Gaelic
accent or idiom. Possibly, however, it is due to the fact that the
ancestors of many of the present residents of Crieff were Gaelic
speakers, that in that town the pronunciation of some of the
vowel sounds differs from that current on the southern side of the
Strath. In Dunning two of the most characteristic vowel sounds
are au and ui, as in aw for 'all' (aul), auld for 'old' (oald),
guid for 'good', spuin for 'spoon': in Crieff, in these and other
similar words these vowel sounds become aa and ee, as aa, aald,
geed, speen.
I have some hope that this account of the Strathearn dialect
may be of use to others in studying their own native dialects of
English, whether in Scotland or England, or beyond the seas. To
such students I may be allowed to offer the following suggestions:
(1) Get rid, as far as possible, of your preconceived ideas as to
the pronunciation of words, due to the traditional methods of
spelling standard English and local dialects. They are often
most misleading.
(2) Adopt some definite system of spelling sounds, either the
one I have adopted or some other, but having adopted it, stick to
it, and always spell the same sound in the same way.
(3) To show what sounds you represent by your spelling, give
the corresponding standard English words spelt according to
your system.
(4) Get away from books, and do not trouble about the past
history of the words. Confine yourself to an accurate representation
of the living speech of the existing generation, taken
straight from the mouths of people accustomed to speak it without
conscious effort, as the natural vehicle for their thoughts.
(5) Poetry is an unsafe guide. The poet, searching for a word
to fit his rhyme or his metre, often mixes up different dialects or
even manufactures a dialect of his own.
(6) Get the schoolmaster to pick out ten or a dozen of the boys
and girls who have been born in the parish and who speak the
broadest dialect. They will soon get interested and supply you
with numerous words, idioms, and rhymes clearly pronounced;
but do not trust the material they give you until it has been
corroborated by their elders.
(7) The best authorities are the oldest residents, born and bred
in the parish; but they all know something of standard English,
and have all their days been accustomed, when they thought
of the words they were using, to try to speak standard English. It
is difficult for them to get out of this habit, when asked directly
'What is the Scotch for' this or that? They get confused
and cannot tell. The best plan is to get them to talk naturally
among themselves of old times and old ways of life, and carefully
note how they actually pronounce the words and what
idioms they use. It is a slow process requiring much patience
(on both sides!), and many first impressions have to be corrected.
But the student who perseveres in it will learn much, besides
acquiring a mere knowledge of the dialect, and will reap an ample
reward for his pains. At the same time he will give some pleasure
to the old folk, who love to find their familiar mother-tongue
There is no doubt that here, as elsewhere, the native dialect
of the people is rapidly disappearing, and as each generation
passes away, some of the good old pithy words and phrases
pass away with it. Books and newspapers are teaching the
people, even in remote villages, to think and speak in something
like standard English. But the chief enemy of local
dialects is the schoolmaster. He rightly holds it one of his first
duties to teach the village boys and girls to read, write, and
speak as correct standard English as he can, and in pursuit of
this aim discourages the use of local peculiarities of pronunciation
and idiom. I am inclined to think that this is not the best way
to attain his object. If he would first himself master the local
dialect by some such method as I have suggested, and would
carefully point out to the children what their own native dialect is,
and how it differs in pronunciation, idiom, and accent from standard
English, they would have a much more accurate idea as to what
standard English really is, and would be more likely to avoid
provincialisms in afterlife, as they would have a better knowledge
of what the provincialisms were into which they were most
likely to fall. The detailed comparison between the local dialect
and standard English would also be a useful training for their
minds, similar to that which is obtained from the study of some
language other than one's own. In any case he would give them
a precious possession, for they would carry with them to the ends
of the earth a better knowledge of the homely speech of their
fathers and grandfathers, which would often warm their hearts
when far away in distant lands. He need not trouble overmuch
about their accent. A Scotch accent is not a bad thing for a man
to have, anywhere in the wide world.
The system of spelling the sounds which I have adopted is based
on two principles: first, that the same sound should always be represented
by the same letter or combination of letters, and second, that
the letters employed should be those which will most readily suggest
the sound they are intended to indicate to the reader familiar
with ordinary English. In representing vowel sounds, I have
thought it, on the whole, less confusing to employ the somewhat
clumsy expedient of using combinations of vowels, such as are
common in writing English, instead of using diacritical marks
or unfamiliar symbols. In such cases it must be remembered
that, as in English, two or more letters often represent a single,
simple vowel sound. I have avoided the general use of accents,
either to indicate that a vowel sound is long or short, or to show
on which syllable of a word the stress comes. Generally it may be
understood that the stress falls on the same syllable as it does in
the corresponding English word. I have sometimes adopted the
plan, common in English, of doubling a consonant to show that
the preceding vowel sound is short, or that the stress falls on
that syllable.
I have retained the use of the letter j, although the sound might
be represented by dzh; of x, where it is pronounced ks; of c
hard before a, o, or u, and of q, which have exactly the same sound
as k; of ch, which might be written tsh, and of the familiar
combinations ng, sh, and th, which represent single, not double
sounds. For a similar reason I spell the sound ai at the end of
a word ay (as in day), au at the end of a word aw (as in paw), and
ou at the end of a word ow (as in cow).
The consonant sounds may be grouped thus:
This follows closely the grouping adopted by Mr. W. Grant in
his Pronunciation of English in Scotland, p. 16.
I also use the following letters for compound consonants not
entered in the above table:
ch = tsh(tʃ)
j = dzh (dʒ)
x = ks
hw = (ʍ)
In this table those consonants are classed as 'breathed' which
pass through the throat, unimpeded by the vocal chords, while
those classed as 'voiced' have to force their way through the
vocal chords drawn over the exit to the windpipe.
Stop consonants are those in pronouncing which the air-passage
in the mouth is completely blocked for a moment, so that these
sounds cannot be prolonged.
Open consonants are those in pronouncing which a narrow
air-passage is left open in the mouth, so that the sound can be
prolonged at will.
In pronouncing the Side consonant l, the air-passage in the
mouth is divided, and the air escapes at the side in two uninterrupted
In pronouncing Nasal consonants, the air-passage in the mouth
is stopped completely, and the air escapes through the nose in an
uninterrupted stream.
In pronouncing the Trilled consonant r, the tip of the tongue
Lip Consonants are made by bringing the two lips together.
Lip Back Consonants are made at the back of the tongue and
the rounded lips.
Lip Teeth Consonants are made between the lower lip and the
upper teeth.
Point Teeth Consonants are made between the point of the
tongue and the upper teeth.
Point Consonants are made between the point of the tongue
and the teeth ridge.
Fore Blade Consonants are made between the front of the blade
of the tongue and the teeth ridge.
After Blade Consonants are made between the back of the
blade of the tongue and the teeth ridge.
Middle Consonants are made between the middle of the tongue
and the hard palate.
Back Consonants are made between the back of the tongue and
the soft palate.
Throat Consonants are made between the vocal chords in the
p is the sound twice repeated in pup.
b is the sound twice repeated in babe.
m is the sound twice repeated in mamma.
w is the sound beginning the words wife, went. But at the end
of a word aw sounds au as in paw, and ow ou, as in cow.
f is the sound twice repeated in fife.
v is the sound twice repeated in vivid.
th represents the breathed dental sound in thin, thick, breath, bath.
dh represents the voiced dental sound in the, this, that, breathe,
t represents the sound twice repeated in taught.
d represents the sound twice repeated in did.
n is the sound twice repeated in nun.
1 is the sound twice repeated in lull.
r is pronounced in Scotch differently from the English r, being
always given a distinct trill, whether at the beginning or
end of a word, and it does not, as often in English, alter the
pronunciation of a preceding vowel sound. In representing
the sound of English words, I have not attempted to
indicate the numerous and complicated ways in which in
English r affects the preceding vowel sound. The spelling
I give in such a case represents the sound of the English
word as pronounced by a Scotchman who has not attempted
to master the English r.
s is the breathed sibilant sound in hiss, which is twice repeated
in sister. In English this sound is often spelled with a c
before e or i, as in peace (pronounced pees), and in city (pronounced
z is the voiced sibilant sound in buzz, which is twice repeated
in disease. In English it is often written s, as in is (iz),
was (woz), shoes (shooz).
sh represents the breathed sibilant sound in shop, dish.
zh represents the voiced sibilant sound in measure, vision.
kh represents the rough aspirate, which is not now found in
standard English, but is common in Scotch words such as
nikht (night), fekht (fight), loakh (loch), and in German
words such as Nacht. The sound is often written ch, but
I employ this combination of letters only for the sound
tsh which it commonly represents in English. In reality
there are two rough aspirates, pronounced at the middle or
back of the tongue according to the vowel preceding, as in
dreekh, loakh, but they sound much the same to the ear
and I have represented both by kh.
y is the sound beginning the words you, yes. But ay at the end
of a word sounds ai (as in day). I indicate the vowel
sound in such words as tune, mute, few, dew by yoo.
k also written c and q, has the sound twice repeated in cock.
g is always guttural, as in gag, never palatal as in gin.
ng represents the sound twice repeated in singing.
h is a mere breath, pronounced at the beginning of a word, as in
hen, hare. It is more distinctly pronounced in Scotch than
in English. The only word which has h at the end of it
is the interrogative interjection aih? = eh? what?
ch represents the sound twice repeated in church.
j represents the sound twice repeated in judge.
x might in most words be written ks, but I have retained it in
words corresponding to those written with an x in English.
Where it is pronounced gz, as in exact, example, I have
written the sound gz.
hw represents more accurately than wh the double sound at the
beginning of such words as what, when, which in Scotch
consists of a distinctly breathed h before, not after, the w.
The letters used in the above table, and in this book, are those
adopted by the Association, with the following exceptions:
I also use the following letters for compound consonants not
found in the International table:
ch = tsh (tʃ)
j = dzh (dʒ)
x = ks
In Scotch the vowel sounds are usually simple, single sounds,
not a combination of different vowel sounds, as is often the case
in English words in which the vowel is long. Generally speaking,
the Strathearn Scotch folk speak more slowly and make their
vowel sounds longer than do most Englishmen, so that to an
English ear a Scotch short vowel sounds long, and a Scotch long
vowel sounds drawled. Some speakers lengthen their vowels more
than others, and the same speaker will alter the length of a vowel
according to the rapidity of his utterance. The spelling I have
employed is as follows:
Spelling Sound as in the English words
a man, hat
aa calves (caavz), mamma (mumaa), Ah! (aa), far
(faar), father (faadher)
ai or ay maid, sail, day, may
au or aw haul, all (auI), awe (aw), paw
e hen, pet, best
ee feet, deed, see, me (mee)
ei Not found in English, but common in the pronunciation
by a Scotchman of such English
words as mine (mein), night (neit), tile (teil).
i pin, mist, mill
Spelling Sound as in the English words
ii I (ii), eye (ii), my (mii), die (dii), mine (miin)
o hot, fond, lost
oa road, go (goa), roll (roal)
oi or oy oil, boy, moist
oo foot, food, cool, would (wood)
ou or ow our, house, how, cow
u sun, but, must
ui Not found in English ; something like the French
eu, or German ö. In Lower Strathearn it is
between oo and i, but nearer i than oo; e.g.
spuin is nearer spin than spoon.
Most of these vowels may be either short or long. When short,
the sound is practically the same as the E. short vowel; when
long it is the sound of the first part of the E. long vowel in
shouting or singing on a long note.
It is not easy to say when a vowel is short and when it is long,
as that greatly depends on the way of speaking of the individual
speaker. Except in the case of o and au, where I have employed
o for the short sound and au or aw for the long sound, as in E. hot,
haw, I have not attempted to distinguish between short and long
vowels. Almost the only general rules that can be laid down
are that —
(1) i, o, and u are always short, as in E. pin, hot, sun.
(2) ay and ee are short at the end of a word of more than one
syllable, as in S. wunnay (will not), cheenee (china).
But in bawbee, soaree, coamitee, the ee is long.
Some words are generally pronounced with a longer vowel sound
than others, especially when the vowel comes at the end of the
word. Examples:
Vowel sound Short vowel Long vowel
aa caannay (can't) ca̅a̅̅nay (gentle)
e hen bētur (better)
bĕll pēticoat (petticoat)
bĕd brēd (broad)
ai daith (death) bāīth (both)
ain (one) āīn (own)
pain (pane) pāīn (pain)
maid (made) māīd (maid)
hai1 (whole) hāīl (hail)
haid (head) plāīd (plaid)
Vowel sound Short vowel Long vowel
ui duin (done) dui (do)
fuil (fool) crui (sty)
oo doon (down) coo (cow)
roond (round) soo (sow)
au auld (old) snaw (snow)
ei jein (join) ei (always)
The spelling I use corresponds as follows with the symbols
adopted by (1) The International Association (followed by Mr.
Grant); (2) The New English Dictionary; (3) The English Dialect
Besides these simple vowel sounds there are also found in
Scotch the following double vowel sounds:

NOTE. In making the following comparison between Strathearn
Scotch and standard English as spoken, when I use such phrases
as 'dropping of consonants', 'addition of consonants', 'change of
consonants', I do not mean to imply that the Scotch dialect is
derived from standard English, or even that in all cases the
corresponding words are cognates, but merely to point out the
differences between it and standard English, taking the latter as
the basis of comparison.
1. As compared with standard English, many Scotch words
omit certain consonant sounds. The sound most often omitted is
that of l, especially at the end of a word, and after the vowel
sounds au, oo, and ou. There is also a tendency to omit it before
t or d. Examples:
English Scotch
Written Spoken
all aul aw
ball baul baw
call caul caw
fall faul faw
gall gaul gaw
hall haul haw
small smaul smaw
stall staul staw
wall waul waw
wool wool oo
full fool foo
pull pool poo
poll poal pow
roll roal row
knoll noal tnow
bristle brissul burs
trample trampul traamp
false fouls faus
fault fault faut
malt mault maut
salt sault saut
English Scotch
Written Spoken
coulter coalter cootur
poultry poaltry pootray
bolster boalster boustur
colt coalt cout
smolt smoalt smout
scald scauld scaud
build bild big
soldier soaljer soajur
shoulder shoaldur shoodhur
solder solder soudhur
gold goald goud
hold hoald haad or
golf golf gouf
bulk bulk book
gulp gulp goup
pulpit poolpit poopit
hollow holloa how
cloak cloak kyuk
There are, however, a number of exceptions, e. g. auld (oald),
bauld (boald), cauld (coald), fauld (foald), boul (boal), roul (ravel),
fool (fowl), tool (towel), youl (howl).
l is not often omitted after the vowel sounds aa, ai, e, ee, ei,
oa, u, or ui.
e. g. shaal (shawl), hwaal (wail), waal (well); hail (hail), nail
(nail), tail (tail), mail (meel); bell (bell), tell (tell), sell (sell); eel
(eel), hweel (weel), heel (heel), feel (feel); eil (oil), beil (boil), jeil
(jail); coal (coal), foal (foal), hoal (hoal); ull (ill), dull (dull),
bull (bool), spull (spoil); stuil (stool), scuil (scool), cuil (cool).
Where in E. an l has been dropped, as shown by the spelling,
S. drops it also, e. g. haaf for half (haaf), cauf for calf (caaf).
2. There is a tendency to omit labial sounds, in comparison
with E. In a number of words the labial sound b is omitted,
especially before 1. Examples:
E. S.
Written Spoken
bramble brambul brummul
grumble grumbul grummul
jumble jumbul jummul
rumble rumbul rummul
tremble trembul trummul
tumble tumbul tummul
tumbler tumbler tumlur
thimble thimbul thummul
timber timbur tummur
The labial sound v is often dropped, especially at the end of a
word. Examples:
E. S.
Written Spoken
of ov oa
dove duv doo
love luv loo
brave braiv braw
give giv gee
gave gaiv gay
given givn geen
E. S.
Written Spoken
devil devil deel
twelve twelv twell
silver silver sullur
serve sery sair
harvest haarvest hairst
ravel ravel roul
The labial sound f is dropped in the words sel for self, twelt for
The labial sound w is dropped in the words soon for swim,
soop for sweep, koa for quoth, oo for wool, oo for woo.
3. There is also a tendency to omit dental sounds as compared
with E. The dental sound t is often dropped, especially at the
end of a word, after the guttural k. Examples:
E. S.
Written Spoken
act act aak
fact fact faak
contact contact coantaak
intact intact intaak
connect connect connek
correct correct correk
direct direct direk
effect effect effek
E. S.
Written Spoken
expect expect expek
object object oabjik
tighten tiiten tikhun
lightning liitning likhnin
fetch fech fesh
hoist hoist heez
cushat cushat cushay
attempt attempt uttemp
Strathearn Scotch does not, like some other Scotch dialects,
drop the dental d at the end of many words after n ; e. g. we say
haund for hand, laund for land, find for find (fiind), wund for
wind, pund for pound, waurld for world (wurld). But it does drop
the d after n in un for and, and between n and 1, or n and r in
the following words:
E. S.
Written Spoken
candle candul caunul
handle handul haunul
spindle spindul spunnul
founder founder foonur
thunder thunder thunnur
wonder wunder wunnur
kindle kindul kennul
'Hundred' becomes hundur.
'Worsted' (woorsted) becomes wursut.
Th is dropped at the end of the words koa for quoth, froa for
froth, wee for with.
Dh is dropped in claiz for clothes (cloadhz), smuir for smother
4. Other consonant sounds dropped as compared with E. are:
E. S.
Sound dropped Written Spoken
k cream creem raim
taken taiken tain
next next neest
n kiln kiln kull
drunken drunken drukkun
r partridge paartrij paitrik
s worse wurs waur
corpse corps coarp
sneeze sneez neez
since sins sin
moustache mustaash mootaash
For 'from' we say fay, not fray.
In some words the g pronounced after ng in E. is omitted in S.
E. S.
Written Spoken
finger fing-ger fing-ur
hunger hung-ger hung-ur
English Ing-glish Ing-lish
single sing-gel sing-ul
1. It is curious to note that in the matter of pronouncing or
not pronouncing an h at the beginning of a word S. agrees in
almost every case with standard E., so that, in this respect,
standard E. has adopted the general usage of the northern dialects
of English instead of the southern. The only words in which I
have noticed a difference are:
E. S.
Written Spoken
it it hut
us us hiz, huz
owl oul hoolut
heritor heritor erritur
humour hyoomur yoomur
2. Words which, as spelt in E., begin with wh, and are in E.,
as spoken in the south of England, pronounced as if they began
with w only, are pronounced in S. as if they began with hw, both
letters being distinctly sounded.
E. S.
Written Spoken
when wen hwaan
what wot hwaat
where wain hwaur
why wii hwei
E. S.
Written Spoken
whale wail hwaal
whey way hwii
white wiit hweit
whip wip hwup
The E. who (hoo) becomes hwaw; 'whole' (hoal) becomes hail.
3. In a number of words S. has a consonant sound not found
in E.
E. S.
Sound added Written Spoken
r pin pin preen
skimp skimp scrimp
spout spout sproot
thistle thissel thrissul
1 dregs dregz dregglinz
tinker tinker tinklur
kitten kitten kittlin
v lark laark laivruk
E. S.
Sound added Written Spoken
n ballad ballad baalund
minnow minnoa minnin
rat rat roatun
slake slaik sloakhun
starry (sky) staaray staarnay
d sign siin seind
y earth erth yird
itch ich yukk
tough tuff tyukh
tug tugg tyugg
hook hook hyuk
nook nook nyuk
enough enuff unyukh
duck duck dyuk
w sword sord swurd
wrestle ressul waarsul
wright riit wrikht (obs.)
z hie hii hiiz
pea pee piz (obs.)
t knee nee tnee
knife niif tneif
knock nokk tnoakk
knob nob tnoab
knoll noal tnow
knot nott tnoat
castle caasl caastul
owl owl hoolit
k know noa ken
slate slait sklait
slap slap sklaaf, skelp
elbow elboa elbuk
window window winduk
NOTE. The consonant sound pronounced before the n in such
words as tnee, tnow, &c. (spelt in E. kn), is between t and k, but
nearer t than k.
1. One of the most common points of difference between E. and
S. is that while in E. the present participle and gerund end in
ing, in S. (as in almost all local dialects of English) they end in
in without the guttural nasal. A similar difference of pronunciation
exists as regards other E. words ending in ng, except mono--
syllables, which retain the ng in S. Examples:
Written Spoken
Pres. part. singing singing singin
speaking specking speekin
saying saying sayin
Other words:
among among amoan
herring herring hairin
legging legging leggin
pudding pooding puddin
shilling shilling shullin
morning morning moarnin
gelding gelding geldin
Monosyllables. Bring, ring, sing, thing, tung (tongue), yung
(young) are pronounced as in E. 'King' becomes keeng, thrang
means 'busy' 'song' becomes saang, 'wrong' (rong) raang, and
'long' becomes laang or laung. 'Nothing' (nuthing) becomes
On the other hand 'onion' (unyun) becomes ing-in.
2. As compared with E., S. has a liking for guttural sounds,
and more especially it retains the hard aspirated guttural sound
kh (usually written ch), which is common in German, but has
been dropped in standard English, though a number of E. words
show by their spelling that it was pronounced in Old English.
E. S.
Written Spoken
laugh laaf laakh
draught draaft draakht
straight strait straakh
ought ant aukht
high hii heekh
laughed laaft luikh
light liit likht
might miit mikht
night niit nikht
right riit rikht
tight tiit tikht
tighten tiiten tikhun
E. S.
Written Spoken
lightning liitning likhnin
enough enuff unyukh
bright briit brikht
fright friit frikht
wright riit wrikht
eight ait ekht
fight fiit fekht
height hiit hekht
weight wait wekht
neigh nay nikhur

E. S.
Written Spoken
bought baut boakht
daughter dauter doakhtur
hough hok hoakh
aught aut oakht
naught naut noakht
wrought raut roakht
E. S.
Written Spoken
sought saut soakht
thought thaut thoakht
trough trof troakh
sigh sii sekh
rough ruff rukh
tough tuff tyukh
Other S. words in which the sound kh is found are:
E. S.
Written Spoken
charlock chaarlock skellukh
(wild mustard)
low loa laikh
maggot maggot maukh
flea flee flekh
pant pant pekh
flicker flicker flikhur
flutter flutter flikhtur
snowflake flaik flikhun
E. S.
Written Spoken
lake laik loakh
slake slaik sloakhun
shuffle shufful shaukhul
screech screech screekh
stiff stiff stekhay
a shepherd's plaid raukhun
hollow with steep
sides hyookh
trench shyukh
The guttural sound k (or c) is found in S. where other sounds
are found in E. Examples:
E. S.
Sound altered Written Spoken
ch chalk chauk cauk
churn churn kurn
chaff chaff caaf
chest chest kist
church church kirk
breeches brichiz breeks
birch birch burk
such such sikk
pitch pitch pikk
stitch stitch steek
thatch thatch thaak
itch itch yukk
larch laarch lerruk
much much mukkul
j partridge paartrij paitrik
p peep peep keek
spill spill skell
chops chops chouks
plump n. plump plunk
E. S.
Sound altered Written Spoken
t two too kwaw
twelve twelv kwaal
in children's games
twenty twenti kwintee
between between akween
brittle brittul bruklay
On the other hand pocket becomes pooch, scowl becomes shoul.
Similarly the guttural g is found in S. in place of other sounds
in E.
E. S.
Sound changed Written Spoken
j ridge rij rigg
bridge bnij brigg
sedge sej segg
w wizened wizzend geizund
y yawn yaun gaant
The E. 'singe' (sinj) becomes sing.
3. Another tendency is for S. to have a 'breathed ' sound in
place of a 'voiced' one in E. Examples:
E. S.
Change of sound Written Spoken
k for g grease grees creesh
ch for j porridge porrij paarich
t for d -ed -ed it (termination of past
tense and pa. p.)
th for dh though dhoa thoa
scathe scaidh scaith
heathen heedhen heethen
mouths moudhz mooths
paths paadhz peths
f for v vetches vechiz fichiz
shovel shuvvul shufful
nephew nevyoo neffay
wives wiivz weifs
knives niivz tneifs
loaves loavz loafs
halves haavz haafs
sheaves sheevz shaifs
shelves shelvz shelfs
Stephen Steeven Steefen
s for z lose looz loss
wise wiiz weiss
Instances to the contrary are:
E. S.
Change of sound Written Spoken
g for k cravat cravatt graavut
z fors us us hiz
dose doas doaz
precentor prisentor prizentur
d for t bottom bottom boddum
warrant worrant waarund
4. There is no particular tendency as to aspirating consonant
sounds except that dh is often substituted for d between two
vowels. Examples:
E. S.
Change of sound Written Spoken
th for t drought drout drooth
d for th earth erth yird
d for dh smithy smidhi smuddee
dh for t to-day too• day dhe-day
to-night too-niit dhe-nikht
to-morrow too-morroa dhe-moarn
together toogedher dhegidhur
dh for d bladder bladder bledhur
ladder ladder ledhur
adder adder edhur
udder udder edhur
fodder fodder fudhur
powder pouder poodhur
solder solder soodhur
shoulder shoalder shoodhur
5. Other consonant changes are:
E. S.
Change of sound Written Spoken
s for sh ashes ashiz ess
bush boosh buss
sh for s grease grees creesh
fleece flees fleesh
rustle russul reeshul
sew soa shoo
soon soon shuin
wincey winsay winshay
E. S.
Change of sound Written Spoken
sh for sk scowl skoul shoul
zh for z poison poizon poozhun
pheasant fezant faizhun
l for n chimney chimnay chumlay
n for 1 clock clock tnoak
p for ch catch cach kep
t for ch scratch scrach scaart
sh for ch fetch fech fesh
n for r garter gaarter gertun
t for p peep peep teet
f for p trump trump trumf
f for th Thursday Thurzday Fuirzday
h for th three three hree (also three)
y for h howl houl youl
Mrs. (missiz) is pronounced in full — mustris
In a few words the consonant sounds are transposed:
E. S.
Written Spoken
grin grin girn
grass gras girs
gristle grissil girsul
bristle brissil burs
board board broad
burnt burnt brunt
curds curdz crudz
scratch scrach scaart
tickle tikkil kittul
pretend pretend purtend
profession profeshun purfaishun
third thurd thrud
apron aipron aipurn
The differences in vowel sounds between S. and E. are much
more numerous, and more important as affecting the sound of the
language, than are the differences in consonant sounds.
The aa sound, which is common in S. and in many other
languages, is found in comparatively few words in E.
In a few words the E. aa is represented in S. by the same
E. S.
Written Spoken
are aar aar
bar baar baar
far faar faar
hard haard haard
barn baarn baarn
half haaf haaf
E. S.
Written Spoken
laugh laaf laakh
dark daark daark
market maarket maarkut
park paark paark
spark spaark spaark
aunt aant aantay
But in most cases the E. aa is replaced in S. by e, sometimes
broadened into ai. Examples:
E. S.
Written Spoken
art aart ert
heart haart hert
part paart pert
smart smaart smert
tart taart tert
cart caart kert
card caard kerd
arm aarm errum
farm faarm ferrum
harm haarm herrum
yarn yaarn yern
harp haarp herp
clerk claark clerk
E. S.
Written Spoken
March Maarch Merch
charge chaarj cherj
large laarj lerj
hearth haarth herth
starve staarv sterv
garden gaarden gerdun
master maaster mestur
plaster plaaster plestur
nasty naasti nestay
party paarti pertay

In these words the e sound is most commonly heard, but sometimes
it is broadened into ai, as in pairt, cairt, caird, gairdun,
&c., and in the following words:
E. S.
Written Spoken
yard yaard yaird
father faadher faidhur
Charlie Chaarli Chairlay
harvest haarvest hairst
E. S.
Written Spoken
lark laark laivruk
partridge paartrij paitruk
starch staarch stairch
This sound again is sometimes narrowed into e, as in yerd,
sterch, Cherlay, fēdhur. It is sometimes neither a distinct e
nor ai, but a sound between the two.
In some words E. aa is broadened into au:
E. S.
Written Spoken
mamma mamaa maw
papa papaa paw
calf caaf cauf
E. S.
Written Spoken
barley baarlay baurlay
psalm saam saum
The sound u is found for E. aa in the slurred form of ur for
'are' (aar).
A short.
The peculiar short a, which is so characteristic of standard E.,
is not found in S., its place being usually taken by aa, au, e,
or ai.
E. a replaced by S. as:
E. S.
Written Spoken
can can caan
man man maan
back bak baak
black blak blaak
bat bat baat
cat cat caat
hat hat haat
E. S.
Written Spoken
that dhat dhaat
lamb lam laam
bad bad baad
bank bank baank
hash hash haash
thatch thach thaak
E. a replaced by S. au:
E. S.
Written Spoken
lad lad laud
lass lass laus
laddie laddi laudee
lassie lassi lausay
land land laund
hand hand haund
sand sand saund
E. S.
Written Spoken
chaff chaff cauf
candle candul caunul
handle handul haunul
salmon samon saumun
wax wax waux
tobacco tobacco tubaukay
The younger generation show a tendency to turn this sound
into aa, as in haand, laad, laas, but the older people make it a
broad au, as in E. law, paw.
E. a replaced by S. e:
E. S.
Written Spoken
have hav hev
has haz hez
had had hed
cap cap kep
clad clad cled
ashes ashiz ess
brass brass bress
class class cless
glass glass gless
grass grass grass
flat flat flet
glad glad gled
sack sack sekk
Jack Jack Jekk
thank thank thenk
branch bransh brensh
path path peth
adder adder edhur
E. S.
Written Spoken
gather gadher gedhur
ladder ladder ledhur
bladder bladder bledhur
saddle saddul seddul
hackle hakkul hekkul
carry carri kerray
marry marri merray
parish parish perish
after after eftur
bracken bracken brekkun
manner manner mennur
matter matter mettur
granary granari grennuray
alley allay ellay
Saturday Saturday Setturday
natural natyooral netturul
shadow shadoa shedday
E. a replaced by S. ai:
E. S.
Written Spoken
have hav hay
ash ash aish
apple appul aipul
cabin cabin caibun
crag crag craig
E. S.
Written Spoken
plaid plad plaid
plait plat plait
jacket jacket jaikut
nag nag naig
family famili faimlay
Here again, the older generation has a tendency to pronounce
the vowel sound ai, and the younger generation e, e. g. pairish
or perish (parish), jaikut or jekut (jacket), faimlay or femlay
In hing for hang, i replaces a in E.; and in a number of
common short words when rapidly pronounced, E. a becomes u:
E. S.
Written Spoken
a, an a, an u, un
that dhat dhut, ut
and and un
E. S.
Written Spoken
than dhan dhun
ploughman plowman ploomun
In a considerable number of words, E. ai is represented by the
same sound in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
day day day
may v. may may
clay clay clay
they dhay dhay
gave gaiv gay
acre aicur aicur
acorn aicorn aicoarn
maid maid maid
blade blaid blaid
bake baik baik
cake caik caik
rake raik raik
hail hail hail
nail nail nail
sail sail sail
tail tail tail
name naim naim
pane pain pain
E. S.
Written Spoken
taken taiken tain
bear bair bair
care cair cair
fair fair fair
hair hair hair
mare mair mair
pear pair pair
share shair shair
stair stair stair
swear swair swair
tear tair tair
face fais fais
place plais plais
great grait grait
plate plait plait
blaze blaiz blaiz
mason maison maisun
In a good many words E. ai becomes e, especially when followed
by n:
E. S.
Written Spoken
chain chain chen
fain fain fen
gain gain gen
again again ugen
rain rain ren
drain drain dren
grain grain gren
train train tren
faint faint fent
paint paint pent
acquaint aquaint uquent
dainty dainti dentee
E. S.
Written Spoken
change chainj chenj
strange strainj strenj
game gaim gem
hames haimz hemz
trade traid tred
eight ait ekht
weight wait wekht
gate gait yett
break braik brek
wages waijiz wejuz
lady laidi leddee
Other vowel sounds which in S. replace the E. ai are as follows:
E. S.
Vowel sound Written Spoken
aa make maik maak
shake shaik shaak
take taik taak
gauge gaij gaaj
whale wail hwaal
halfpenny haipnay haapnay
au away away awaw
brave braiv braw
dare dair daur
where wair hwaur
bacon baicon baucun
potato potaitoa tautay
ee neighbour naibur neebur
staple staipul steepul
ei aye ay ei
hay hay hei
May May Mei
pay pay pei
stay stay stei
weigh way wei
jail jail jeil
wade waid weid
bailie baili beilay
tailor tailor teilyur
i table taibul tibbul
stable staibul stibbul
ii whey way hwii
Au or aw.
In a few words E. au is represented by the same sound in S.,
but in others its place is taken by aa, oa, or some other vowel
E. S.
Vowel sound Written Spoken
au all aul aw
ball baul baw
call caul caw
fall faul faw
hall haul haw
wall waul waw
E. S.
Vowel sound Written Spoken
au saw n. and v. saw saw
draw draw draw
hawk hauk hauk
awful awful aufay
aa war waur waar
warm waurm waarm
want waunt waant
water wauter waatur
shawl shaul shaal
ai straw straw stray
haunch haunsh hainsh
e bald bauld beld
broad braud bred
oa ought aut oakht
bought baut boakht
wrought raut roakht
brought braut broakht
nought naut noakht
sought saut soakht
thought thaut thoakht
daughter dauter doakhtur
ou thaw thaw thow
It will be noticed that (1) a number of E. words ending in aul
end in aw (au) in S.; (2) a number of words which in E. begin
with wau, begin with waa in S.; and (3) a number of E. words
ending in aut end in oakht in S.
In a few words E. e is represented by the same sound in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
bed bed bed
said sed sed
ell ell ell
bell bell bell
hell hell hell
sell sell sell
tell tell tell
hen hen hen
men men men
ten ten ten
E. S.
Written Spoken
end end end
send send send
says sez sez
help help help
learn lern lern
feather fedhur fedhur
heather hedhur hedhur
best best best
better better bētur
In a number of words E. e is replaced by ai in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
dead ded daid
head hed haid
lead led laid
bread bred braid
deaf def daif
death deth daith
breath breth braith
earth erth airth
early erli airlay
earnest ernest airnist
threaten thretten thraitun
pearl perl pairl
E. S.
Written Spoken
tenant tenant tainunt
hedge hej haij
verse vers vairs
yes yes yais
serve serv sair
guess gess gais
stretch strech straich
memory memori maimray
precious preshus praishus
regiment rejiment raijmunt
Perth Perth Pairth
Other vowel sounds found in place of E. e are as follows:
E. S.
Vowel sound Written Spoken
aa then dhen dhaan
wren ren raan
well n. well waal
swell swell swaal
let let laat
step step staap
heard herd haard
west west waast
weft weft waaft
wrestle ressul waarsul
wedding wedding waadin
fellow felloa faalay
yellow yelloa yaalay
ee well a. well weel
devil devil deel
jelly jelly jeelee
wet v. wet weet
thread thred threed
breast brest breest
friend frend freend
second second seecund
ei sweat swet sweit
i egg egg igg
leg leg lig
beg beg big
beggar beggar biggur
chest chest kist
get get git
E. S.
Vowel sound Written Spoken
oa any enni oanay
many menni moanay
u the dhe dhu
web web wub
yet yet yut
when wen hwun
her her hur
cherry cherri churray
merry merri murray
twenty twenti twuntee
ui bury berri buiray
In many words the E. vowel sound ee has the same sound in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
be bee bee
bee bee bee
he hee hee
key kee kee
me mee mee
knee nee tnee
see see see
sea see see
she shee shee
tree tree tree
three three three
ye yee yee
field feeld feeld
feed feed feed
heat heet heet
meet meet meet
need need need
seed seed seed
sweet sweet sweet
cheek cheek cheek
speak speek speek
week week week
creel creel creel
eel cel eel
E. S.
Written Spoken
feel feel feel
heel heel heel
steel steel steel
wheel weel hweel
bean been been
clean cleen cleen
mean meen meen
creep creep creep
deep deep deep
keep keep keep
sheep sheep sheep
sleep sleep sleep
steep steep steep
dear deer deer
here heer heer
near neer neer
year yeer yeer
cheese cheez cheez
freeze freez freez
geese gees gees
piece pees pees
thief theef theef
sleeve sleev sleev
needle needul needul
In many other words E. ee becomes ai in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
leaf leef laif
leave leev laiv
sheaf sheef shaif
deal deel dail
heal heel hail
meal meel mail
real reeul rail
steal steel stail
beam beem baim
dream dreem draim
seam seem saim
even eeven aivun
evening eevning aivnin
lean leen lain
scene seen sain
cheap cheep chaip
heap heep haip
fear feer fair
tear teer tair
please pleez plaiz
peace pees pais
tease teez taiz
bead beed baid
beat beet bait
E. S.
Written Spoken
beard beerd baird
cheat cheet chait
eat eet ait
east eest aist
heed heed haid
lead leed laid
meat meet malt
neat neet nait
peat peet pait
seat seet sait
treat treet trait
beast beest baist
least leest laist
creature creetyoor craitur
decent deesunt daisunt
secret seekrut saikrut
serious serious sairaius
treacle treekul traikul
conceited conseeted consaitit
reason reezon raizun
weak week waik
easy eezi aizee
season seezun saizun
It will be noticed that in many words which are spelt with ea
in E. the vowel sound is pronounced ee in E. and ai in S. ; but
there are a number of exceptions to this rule.
The names of the letters of the alphabet which in E. end in ee
end in ay in S., e. g. bay, say, day, for bee, see, dee.
Other vowel sounds which in S. take the place of the E. ee are
E. S.
Vowel sound Written Spoken
ei glebe gleeb) gleib
bleach bleech bleich
lea lee lei
weed weed weid
deacon deekon deikun
e knead need ned
beneath beneeth uneth
ou leap leep Loup
ui bleed bleed bluid
i pea pee piz
In a number of words the E. vowel sound i is represented by the
same sound in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
in in in
him him him (also hum)
his hiz hiz
six six six (sex or saax)
E. S.
Written Spoken
ink ink ink
drink drink drink
sing sing sing
thing thing thing
In a considerable number of words E. i is replaced by cc in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
drip drip dreep
give giv gee
gig gig geeg
given given geen
pin pin preen
pity piti peetee
sick sik seek
wick wik week
stir stir steer
king king keeng
with with wee
swish swish sweesh
breeches brichez breeks
finish finish feenish
exhibition exibishun exibeeshun
spirit spirit speerut
original original oareejnul
similar similar seemlur
particular partikyoolar purteeklur
snivel snivul sneevul
position pozishun pozeeshun
women wimmen weemin
Most commonly E. i becomes u in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
rib rib rub
ribbon ribbon rubbun
clip clip clup
dip dip dup
E. S.
Written Spoken
grip grip grup
whip wip hwup
lip lip lup
big big bug
E. S.
Written Spoken
brick brik bruk
stick stik stuk
fill fill full
hill hill hull
ill ill ull
kill kill kull
mill mill mull
will will wull
shilling shilling shullin
lift lift luft
stilt stilt stult
mist mist must
bit bit but
it it hut
ditch dich duch
dish dish dush
wish wish wuss
fish fish fush
E. S.
Written Spoken
milk milk mulk
pin pin pun
him him hum
thimble thimbel thummul
miss miss muss
Mrs. missis mustris
swirl swirl swurl
witch wich wuch
smith smith smuth
live liv luv
wit wit wut
this dhis dhus
whistle wissel hwussul
little littel luttul
sister sister suster
pistol pistol pustul
history histori hustray
timber timber tummur
In some of these and other similar words the older generation
pronounce a distinct u sound, e. g. mulk rhymes with E. sulk,
muss with E. fuss, ull with E. dull, &c., while the younger
generation tend to pronounce them with an i as in E., or more
often with a sound between E. i and u.
Other vowel sounds which take the place of the E. i are:
E. S.
Vowel Written Spoken
e still n. still stell
think think thenk
dinner dinner dennur
thirty thirti therty
kindle kindul kennul
ei ticking tiking teikin
April Aipril Apreil
In a few words E. ii is represented by the same sound in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
ay ii ii
buy bii bii
dry drii drii
E. S.
Written Spoken
lie v. lii lii
(e. g. to lie down)
my mii mii
E. S.
Written Spoken
pie pii pii
rye rii rii
sly slii slii
tie tii tii
try trii trii
E. S.
Written Spoken
fire fiir fiir
five fiiv fiiv
scythe siith siith
ply plii plii
In a few words E. ii becomes ee in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
by bii bee
die dii dee
eye ii ee
fly flii flee
E. S.
Written Spoken
lie n. lii lee
china chiina cheenee
oblige obliij obleej
But most commonly E. ii becomes ei in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
fine fiin fein
kind kiind keind
like liik leik
lime liim leim
mine miin mein
mile miil meil
nine niin nein
swine swiin swein
mind miind meind
pint piint peint
knife niif tneif
E. S.
Written Spoken
drive driiv dreiv
wife wiif weif
shire shiir sheir
pipe piip peip
wild wiild weild
ice iis eis
rise riiz reiz
why wii hwei
white wiit hweit
bible biibul beibul
In a number of words E. ii is shortened into i in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
bind biind bind
blind bliind blind
find fiind find
grind gri-ind grind
light liit light
E. S.
Written Spoken
might miit mikht
night niit nikht
right riit rikht
tight tiit tikht
behind behiind uhint
Other vowel sounds which in S. take the place of the E. ii are:
E. S.
Vowel sound Written Spoken
aa I ii aa
by bii baa
my mii maa
u climb cliim clum
wild wiild wuld
E. short o is, as a general rule, broadened into oa in S. Almost
the only word in which it is o in both E. and S. is the word 'or'.
E. S.
Written Spoken
job job joab
clock clock cloak
cock cok coak
cottage cottaj coatuj
dock dok doak
hock hok hoakh
lock lok loak
Jock Jok Joak
stop stop stoap
spot spot spoat
short short shoart
sort sort soart
moth moth moath
broth broth broath
froth froth froa
trough troff troakh
shop shop shoap
cord cord coard
lord lord loard
nod nod noad
thorn thorn thoarn
horn horn hoarn
scone scon scoan
torn torn toarn
storm storm stoarm
fond fond foand
E. S.
Written Spoken
box box boax
cross cross croas
horse hors hoars
often offen oafun
robin robin roabin
solid solid soalid
bottle bottul boatul
common common coamun
morning morning moarnin
office offis oafis
offer offer oafur
copy copi coapay
hobby hobbi hoabay
holly holli hoalay
belong belong biloang
orange orinj oarunj
possible possible poasubul
ordinary ordinary oardnur
corner corner coarnur
copper copper coapur
closet clozet cloazit
constable constabul coanstubul
coffin coffin coafun
promise promis proamus
modern modern moadurn
comical comical coamicul
to a number of words E. o becomes aa in S., especially when the
vowel-sound is preceded or followed by a lip letter:
E. S.
Written Spoken
drop drop draap
off off aaf
loft loft laaft
E. S.
Written Spoken
soft soft saaft
croft croft craaft
pot pot paat
E. S.
Written Spoken
sob sob saab
want wont waant
throng throng thraang
song song saang
wrong rong raang
long long laang,
also laung
swan swon swaan
top top taap
hop hop haap
E. S.
Written Spoken
wash wosh waash
wasp wosp waasp
what wot hwaat
bother bodher baadhur
hollow holloa haalay
holiday holiday haaliday
dwarf dworf dwaarf
porridge porrij paarich
warrant worrant waarund
quantity quontiti quaantitay
Other vowel sounds which in S. take the place of the E. o are:
E. S.
Vowel sound Written Spoken
ai lord lord laird
cloth cloth claith
tongs tongz taingz
au long long laung (also laang)
e hot hot het
ou solder solder soudhur
u dog dog dug
bog bog bug
clog clog clug
was woz wuz
for for fur
lodge loj luj
lodgings lojjingz lujjinz
sword sord swurd
body boddi buddee
The E. vowel sound oa is, in some words, represented by the
same sound in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
coal coal coal
foal foal foal
hole hoal hoal
pole poal poal
slow sloa sloa
folk foak foak
choke choak choak
door doar doar
E. S.
Written Spoken
before befoar ufoar
boar boar boar
nose noaz noaz
froze froaz froaz
rose n. roaz roaz
story stoari stoaray
open oapen oapun
In a number of words E. oa becomes ou (ow) in S., pronounced
as in the E. word 'house' (hoas):
E. S.
Written Spoken
row roa row
bow boa bow
tow toa tow
grow groa grow
hoe hoa how
bowl boal boul
poll poal pow
soul soal soul
roll roal row
E. S.
Written Spoken
knoll noal tnow
hope hoap houp
colt coalt cout
four foar four
gold goald goud
over oavur our
pony poani pounee
bolster boalster bouster
smolt smoalt smout
Still more commonly E. oa becomes ai in S., especially at the
end of a word:
E. S.
Written Spoken
own oan ain
alone aloan alain
home hoam haim
comb coam caim
moan moan main
stone stoan stain
go goa gay
no a. noa nay
so soa say
sloe sloe slay
whole hoal hail
low a. loa laikh
oats oats aits
more moar mair
sore soar sair
hoarse hoars hairs
rose v. roaz raiz
most moast maist
E. S.
Written Spoken
throve throav thraiv
rope roap raip
potato potaitoa tautay
tobacco tobaccoa tubaukay
oath oath aith
both boath baith
soap soap saip
load load laid
toad toad taid
loaf loaf laif
yellow yelloa yaalay
tallow talloa taalay
harrow haaroa herray
fellow felloa faalay
elbow elboa elbay
narrow naroa nerray
barrow baroa baaray
pillow pilloa pullay
In a few words E. oa becomes au in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
sow v. soa saw
crow croa craw
snow snoa snaw
blow bloa blaw
E. S.
Written Spoken
old oald auld
cold coald cauld
fold foald fauld
bold boald bauld
Other vowel sounds which in S. take the place of the E. oa are
E. S.
Vowel sound Written Spoken
oo coarse coars coors
sew soa shoo
pour poar poor
court coart coort
flown floan floon
shoulder shoalder shoodhur
poultry poultry pootray
coulter coulter cootur
aa no interj. noa naa
spoke spoak spaak
broke broak braak
hold hoald haad
ee widow widdoa weedee
u hold hoald hudd
mourn moarn murn
cloak cloak cluk or kyuk
ui floor floar fluir
board board buird
ford foard fuird
The E. oi generally becomes ei in S., but in some words another
sound takes its place:
E. S.
Vowel sound Written Spoken
oi coin coin kein
join join jein
joiner joiner jeinur
point point peint
oil oil eil
boil boil beil
voice vois veis
quoit koit keit
oo poison poizon poozhun
u spoil spoil spull
ui oil oil uilee
The E. sound yoo generally becomes in S. either u or ui:
E. S.
Vowel sound Written Spoken
u creature creetyoor craitur
picture piktyoor piktur
mixture mixtyoor mixtur
ui use v. yooz uiz
use n. yoos uis
refuse refyooz refuiz
excuse n. excyoos excuis
excuse v. excyooz excuiz
In a few words E. oo is represented by the same sound in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
blue bloo bloo
flew floo floo
rue roo roo
true troo troo
you yoo yoo
book book book
hook hook hook
E. S.
Written Spoken
look look look
full fool foo
pull pool poo
wool wool oo
could cood cood
room room room
More frequently E. oo becomes ui in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
brew broo brui
do doo dui
shoe shoo shui
too too tui
good good guid
stood stood stuid
boot boot buit
brute broot bruit
fruit froot fruit
root root ruit
shoot shoot shuit
soot soot suit
cool cool cuil
fool fool fuil
rule rool ruil
school scool scuil
E. S.
Written Spoken
spool spool spuil
stool stool stuil
broom broom bruim
loom loom luim
moon moon muin
tune tyoon tyuin
June Joon Juin
spoon spoon spuin
sure shoor shuir
poor poor puir
goose goos guis
took took tuik
proof proof pruif
roof roof ruif
truth trooth truith
toothache toothaik tuithik
In some words E. oo becomes u in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
wood wood wud
would wood wud
crook crook cruk
bull bool bull
bullet boolit bullut
your yoor yur
E. S.
Written Spoken
bush boosh buss
foot foot fut
put poot putt
fully foolli full-lay
woman woomun wummun
Other vowel sounds which in S. take the place of the E. oo are:
E. S.
Vowel sound Written Spoken
ai to too tay
au who hoo hwaw
two too twaw
ee tooth tooth teeth
ei juice joos jeis
o lose looz loss
oa brood brood broad
ou loose loos lous
chew choo chow
ewe yoo yow
The vowel sound on in E. generally becomes oo in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
bow bow boo
brow brow broo
cow cow coo
now now noo
plough plow ploo
sow sow soo
crowd croud crood
drought drout drooth
doubt dout doot
out out oot
stout stout stoot
spout spout spoot
E. S.
Written Spoken
clout clout cloot
trout trout troot
count count coont
mouth mouth mooth
house hous hoos
louse lous loos
mouse moos Moos
foul foul fool
owl oul hoolit
towel touel tool
brown broun broon
crown croun croon
E. S.
Written Spoken
down doun doon
town tours toon
our our oor
flour flour floor
flower flouer floor
power pouer poor
scour scour scoor
E. S.
Written Spoken
sour sour soor
shower shower shoor
round round roond
south south sooth
couch couch cooch
powder powder poodhur
Only in a few words is the E. sound ou represented by the same
sound in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
growl groul groul
howl houl youl
Some other vowels which in S. take the place of the E. on are:
E. S.
Vowel sound Written Spoken
u cloud cloud clud
ground ground grund
pound pound pund
au found found faund
In a number of words E. u is represented by the same sound
in S.:
E. S.
Written Spoken
touch tuch tuch
rough ruff rukh
dull dull dull
come cum cum
dumb dum dum
some sum sum
hunt hunt hunt
month munth munth
sun sun sun
son sun sun
tongue tung tung
E. S.
Written Spoken
young yung yung
up up up
sup V. sup sup
word wurd wurd
work v. wurk wurk
us us us
but but but
cut cut cut
uncle ungkul ungkul
worm wurm worm
snuff snuff snuff
In others, E. u is replaced in S. by oo:
E. S.
Written Spoken
duck v. duk dook
suck suk sook
bulk bulk book
plum plum ploom
thumb thum thoom
dove duv doo
E. S.
Written Spoken
love v. luv loo
us us oos
double dubbel doobul
supple suppel soopul
Russian Rushyan Rooshyun
In a few words E. u becomes ui in S.
E. S.
Written Spoken
blood blud bluid
cud cud cuid
done dun duin
just just juist
E. S.
Written Spoken
above abuv ubuin
cousin cuzin cuizun
shovel shuvul shuil
Thursday Thursday Fuirzday
Other vowel sounds which in S. take the place of the E. u are
E. S.
Vowel sound Written Spoken
aa one wun waan
once wuns waans
work n. wurk waark
worst wurst waarst
rush n. rush raash
stomach stumak staamak
ai one wun ain
nothing nuthing naithing
au worse wurs waur
world wurld waurld
e udder udder edhur
ee slush slush sleesh
i us us hiz
church church kirk
churn churn kirn
such such sik
other udher idhur
brother bredher bridhur
mother mudher midhur
oa among amung amoan
oven uvn oavun
colonel curnul coarnul
Qu sup n. sup soup
As in E., there is in S. a strong tendency to turn almost any
vowel sound in an unstressed syllable into the indeterminate
vowel sound u, pronounced as in the E. words 'sun', 'but', 'rub'.
This seems to be the vowel sound which can be pronounced with
the least effort of the vocal organs, and the natural laziness in
speaking of the majority of mankind has led to its adoption in
many words and syllables where the traditional spelling shows
that formerly some other sound was heard. It has thus become
the commonest vowel sound in the language.
In S. there are a number of words frequently used in ordinary
speech, which, when emphasized, have a stronger vowel sound, but
when slurred or unstressed or rapidly spoken have this sound of u.
This is more especially the case with words which have in their
emphasized form the sound of aa. Examples:
E. S.
Written Spoken Emphatic Unstressed
man man maan mun
when wen hwaan hwun
then dhen dhaan dhun
what wot hwaat hwut
that dhat dhaat dhut
were wer waar wur
are aar aar ur
them dhem dhem dhum
their dhair dhair dhur
us us hiz, huz, oos us
it it hit, hut ut
yet yet yet yut
his hiz hiz huz, us
this dhis dhis dhus
for for for fur
your yoor yoor yur
A number of other words frequently used, which in E. have an
a or other vowel sound, are almost always pronounced in S. with
a u-sound. Examples:
L. S.
Written Spoken
a a u
an an un
and and un
the dhe dhu
him him hum
E. S.
Written Spoken
was woz wuz
fifty fifti fuftay
miss miss muss
little littel luttul
The most characteristic differences as regards vowel sounds
between E. and S. are that, generally speaking (though there are
many exceptions), we find the following changes. Examples:
E. S. E. S.
Vowel sound Vowel sound Written Spoken
aa e heart haart hert
arm aarm errum
a e has haz hez
glad glad gled
aa cat cat caat
man man maan
au lad lad laud
hand hand haund
ai e rain rain ren
eight ait ekht
ei hay hay hei
way way wei
au an (after w) warm waurm waarm
water wauter waatur
oa brought braut broakht
thought thaut thoakht
e ai head hed haid
deaf def daif
aa step step staap
west west waast
ee well a. well weel
friend frend freend
ee ai fear feer fair
eat eet ait
ee sick sik seek
women wimmen weemin
u ill ill ull
whip wip hwup
ii ei fine fiin fein
bible biibul beibul
o oa cock cok coak
stop stop stoap
aa off off aaf
song song saang
E. S. E. S.
Vowel sound Vowel sound Written Spoken
oa ai home hoam haim
go goa gay
ou grow groa grow
four foar four
oi ei oil oil eil
join join jein
oo ui do doo dui
good good guid
ou oo cow cow coo
out out oot
u oo suck suk sook
thumb thum thoom
Looked at the other way, we find the S. vowel sounds most
commonly represented in E. by the following vowel sounds.
S. E. S. E.
Vowel sound Vowel sound Spoken Written
aa a maan man man
ai maak maik make
au waatur wautur water
o taap top top
e waast west west
ai e haid hed head
oa maist moast most
ai hair hair hair
ee ait eet eat
au a laud lad lad
ai hwaur wair where
oa auld oald old
e aa hert haart heart
a gless glass glass
ai ren rain rain
ee ee mee mee me
ii ee ii eye
e weel well well
i seek sik sick
S. E. S. E.
Vowel sound Vowel sound Spoken Written
ei ii teim tiim time
ai pei pay pay
oi eil oil oil
i ii find fiind find
u midhur mudhur mother
e igg egg egg
oa oa doar doar door
au boakht baut bought
o coarn corn corn
oo oo y oo yoo you
oa shoo soa sew
ou hoos hous house
it thoom thum thumb
ou oa four foar four
u u sun sun sun
e wub web web
oo bull bool bull
i mulk milk milk
o dug dog dog
ui oo buit boot boot
u bluid blud blood
oa buird board board
yoo uis yoos use
Some S. words containing the vowel sound ui, to which there
is no corresponding word in E., are:
S. E.
crui pig-sty
cruizee oil-lamp
cuif fool
cuit ankle
S. E.
huil pod, husk
guissee pig
luif palm
tuim empty
There is a tendency among the younger generation to substitute
ay for ui at the end of a word ; e. g.:
E. S.
Written Spoken Old New
do doo dui day
shoe shoo shui shay
too too tui tay
sty crui cray
Many words in S., and especially diminutive nouns, which are
much more: commonly used than in E., end in a short vowel
sound (generally spelt y or ie), which is usually a distinct ay or ee
short, though sometimes it is a sound between the two, difficult to
distinguish. When such a word is sung to a tune which makes
a long note fall on the last syllable, or is shouted, e. g. in calling
a child by its diminutive name, the emphasis on the last syllable
generally shows whether it is ay or ee. The following rules
seem to apply:
1. If the last consonant of the word is a breathed one, i. e. p, f,
th, t, s, sh, k or kh, the sound added is a short ay. Examples:
consonant Word Meaning Word Meaning
k Joakay little John
Hekkay little Hector
chukkay round pebble
hwuskay whisky
Gleskay Glasgow
Graankay Granco (Street)
rookay misty
paukay shrewd
ch Erchay little Archibald
t Kaitay little Catherine
Kurstay little Christina
Bettay little Elizabeth
aantay little aunt
boatay little boat
claurtay dirty
buttay little bit
tautay potato
thertay thirty
foartay forty
fuftay fifty
ekhtay eighty
daaftay a daft person
p coapay copy
gruppay gripping, grasping
shoapay little shop
f Effay little Euphemia
aufay awful
daifay adeaf person
s Crissay little Christina
Bessay little Elizabeth
Jessay little Jess
laussay little lass
2. If the last consonant of the word is a voiced one, i. e. b, v,
dh, d, z, g (other than m, n, l, r, or ng), the sound added is
a short ee. Examples:
consonant Word Meaning
Word Meaning
g Duggee little Duncan
duggee little dog
Peggee little Margaret
coagee little coag (bowl)
naigee little nag
waagee water wagtail
d Saundee little Alexander
Joardee little George
lauddee little lad
daaddee little father
leddee lady
buddee body
smuddee smithy
cuddee donkey
weedee widow
caandee candy
braandee brandy
windee window
b Roabee
Boabee little Robert
Baabee little Barbara
Tibbee little Isabella
coarbee raven
v Daivee little David
z Luzzee little Elizabeth
Eezee little Isabella
Meizee little May
aizee easy
toozee dishevelled
cruizee oil-lamp
3. If the vowel sound in the preceding syllable is ee, ei, oo, or
ou, the termination is ee whatever be the consonant between.
S. E.
deeree darling
sweetee sweetmeat
weeree weary
jeelee jelly
cheenee china
cheeree cheerful
greedee greedy
Jeenee little Jane
Beelee Billy
weifee little wife
S. E.
Teenee little Christina
Beenee little Robina
skeelee slate-pencil
creepee low stool
peetee pity
droothee thirsty
cookee small bun
poossee pussy
Louree little Lawrence
hweilee little while
4. Otherwise, if the last consonant of the word is m, n, l, r, or
ng, the sound added is a short ay. More especially the negative
added to a verb is a short nay.
S. E.
duinay don't
caanay can't
wunnay won't
maannay mustn't
coodnay couldn't
S. E.
wudnay wouldn't
boanay bonnie
bairnay little child
coalay collie
oanay any
S. E.
moanay many
graanay grandmother
Aidinburray Edinburgh
braulay well
daidlay pinafore
baaray barrow
kerray carry
merray marry
haapnay halfpenny
Aundray little Andrew
Chairlay little Charles
Daanay little Daniel
Hairay little Harry
S. E.
Jaimay little James
Joanay little John
Taamay little Tom
Wullay little Will
Aanay little Ann
Naanay little Nan
Faimay little Euphemia
Jinnay little Janet
Lullay Lily
Mairay Mary
Sairay Sarah
Saalay Sally
In almost all words in S. the stress (accent, emphasis) comes on
the same syllable as in E. Exceptions are:
E. S.
Written Spoken
April Aípril Upreíl
July Joolíi Jóolay
mattress máttress matréss
mischief míschif muschéef
discord díscord discóard
soiree swáray soarée
committee comíttee cóamitee
magazine magazéen máagizin
massacre mássacur masáacur
covenanter cúvenanter coavenéntur
AMONG the different ways in which nouns are formed the
following may be noticed:
1. Diminutives expressive of smallness, endearment, or contempt
are very commonly formed from other nouns by adding the sound
of ay (as in E. may) or ee (as in E. see) to the original noun or to
a contraction of it.
Examples in ay:
S. E.
Dim. Written
aant aantay aunt auntie
bairn bairnay child little child
boat boatay boat little boat
burn burnay brook little brook
but buttay bit little bit
graandmidhur graanay grandmother granny
laam laamay lamb little lamb
lauss laussay lass little girl
maan maanay man little man
maw maamay mamma mammy
shoap shoapay shop little shop
yaird yairday garden little garden
yow yoway ewe little ewe
A wee but maanikay. Quite a little mannikin.
A wee but yairday. A tiny little garden.
Examples in ee:
S. E.
coag coagee wooden bowl small wooden bowl
daw daadee father daddy
dugg duggee dog doggie
hweil hweilee while little while
laud lauddee lad little boy
naig naigee nag (pony) little pony
2. A similar termination added to an adjective means a person
or object possessing the quality expressed by the adjective.
S E.
daaft daaftay mad mad person
daif daifay deaf deaf person
deer deeree dear darling
dumm dummay dumb dumb person
sweet sweetee sweet a sweet
saaft saaftay soft soft-headed person,
3. The addition of the sound ur to a verb forms a noun which
means the person who does the action implied by the verb.
When added to a noun it means the person who has to do with
the object implied by the noun.
S. E.
Verb Noun
baik baikur bake baker
daans daansur dance dancer
dail dailur deal dealer
jein jeinur join joiner
lee leeur lie liar
loup loupur leap leaper
pent pentur paint painter
shair shairur reap reaper
shoo shoostur sew sempster
sing singur sing singer
speek speekur speak speaker
weev weevur weave weaver
Noun Noun
duch duchur ditch ditcher
ferm fermur farm farmer
flesh fleshur flesh (meat) butcher
haij haijur hedge hedger
mull mullur mill miller
seddul seddlur saddle saddler
wub wubstur web weaver
4. Some nouns are formed from adjectives by the addition of
t or th with a change in the body of the word, to denote the
quality expressed by the adjective.
S. E.
Adj. Noun Spoken Written
drii drooth drii drout dry drought
heekh hekht hii hiit high height
laang laingth long length long length
troo truith troo trooth true truth
If the adjective ends in t or d no consonant sound is added.
S. E.
Adj. Noun Spoken Written
bred breed braud bredth broad breadth
cauld cauld coald coald cold cold
het hait hot heet hot heat
5. Many nouns have the same form as the verbs with which
they are connected.
S. E.
Verb Noun Spoken Written
fair fair feer fear fear
laakh laakh laaf laugh laugh
sleep sleep sleep sleep sleep
staap staap step step step
stoap stoap stop stop stop
6. The verbal noun in in (the same in form as the present
participle) is commonly used. Examples:
Beitin un scaartin'z Scoach foak's wooin.
Biting and scratching is Scotch people's form of wooing.
Spaak oa loupin our a linn.
Spoke of jumping into a deep pool.
As in standard E., the plural is usually formed by adding a
sibilant sound, z or s, to the singular; but if the noun itself
ends in a sibilant sound, including ch (which is the same
sound as tsh), j (which is the same sound as dzh), and x (which is
the same sound as ks), the sound added to mark the plural is iz
(spelt es in E.).
1. Nouns ending in a vowel sound add z for the plural.
S. E.
Spoken Written
Sing. P1. Sing. Pl. Sing. P1.
baw bawz baul baulz ball balls
craw crawz croa croaz crow crows
day dayz day dayz day days
bairnay bairnayz small child small children
bee beez bee beez bee bees
buddee buddeez boddi boddiz body bodies
wei weiz way wayz way ways
doo dooz duv duvz dove doves
ploo plooz plow plowz plough ploughs
row rowz roal roalz roll rolls
yow yowz yoo yooz ewe ewes
2. Nouns ending in a voiced non-sibilant consonant (b, m, v,
dh, d, n, l, r, g, ng) add z for the plural.
S. E.
Spoken Written
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
wub wubz web webz web webs
laam laamz lam lamz lamb lambs
nev nevz fist fists
haid haidz hed hedz head heads
hen henz hen henz hen hens
heel heelz heel heelz heel heels
faidhur faidhurz faadher faadherz father fathers
igg iggz egg eggz egg eggs
dug dugz dog dogz dog dogs
thing thingz thing thingz thing things
3. Nouns ending in a sibilant sound (s, z, ch, j, sh, zh, x) add
iz for the plural.
S. E.
Spoken Written
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
gless glessiz glass glassiz glass glasses
noaz noaziz noaz noaziz nose noses
much muchiz cap caps
haij haijiz hej hejiz hedge hedges
dush dushiz dish dishiz dish dishes
boax boaxiz box boxiz box boxes
4. Nouns ending in a breathed non-sibilant consonant (p, f, th,
t, k, kh) add s for the plural.
S. E.
Spoken Written
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
haip haips heep heeps heap heaps
shoap shoaps shop shops shop shops
taap taaps top tops top tops
munth munths munth munths month months
smuth smuths smith smiths smith smiths
caat caats cat cats cat cats
cout couts coalt coalts colt colts
caik caiks caik caiks cake cakes
paitrik paitriks paartrij paartrijiz partridge partridges
flekh flekhs flee fleez flea fleas
pekh pekhs pant pants
screekh screekhs screech scrcechiz screech screeches
5. Unlike E., in which most nouns ending in the breathed
sound f change it into the voiced sound v, and add z for the
plural, in S. they retain the f and add s for the plural.
S. E.
Spoken Written
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
cauf caufs caaf caavz calf calves
haaf haafs haaf haavz half halves
laif laifs loaf loavz loaf loaves
shaif shaifs sheef sheevz sheaf sheaves
shelf shelfs shelf shelvz shelf shelves
theef theefs theef theevz thief thieves
tneif tneifs niif niivz knife knives
weif weifs wiif wiivz wife wives
6. Nouns ending in the breathed sound th retain that sound and
add s for the plural, instead of changing it into the voiced sound
dh and adding z, as some do in E. (but not all ; see month, death,
S. E.
Spoken Written
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl. Sing. Pt.
mooth mooths mouth moudhz mouth mouths
peth peths paath paadhz path paths
7. As in E., nouns ending in s generally retain that sound
before the iz of the plural, e.g. gless, glessiz; cless, clessiz;
buss (bush), bussiz.
Sometimes one hears the plural hoosiz, instead of hooziz,
corresponding to the E. houziz, plural of 'house' (hous).
8. As in E., one or two nouns form the plural by adding n
instead of a sibilant.
S. E.
Spoken Written
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl. Sing. P1.
ee een ii iiz eye eyes
shui shuin shoo shooz shoe shoes
A curious double plural is sometimes heard:
Taak aaf baith yur shuinz. Both of you take off your shoes.
Steek baith yur eenz. Both of you shut your eyes.
9. Some nouns have the plural the same as the singular.
S. E.
Spoken Written
Sing. Pt. Sing. Pt. Sing. Pl.
burs burs brissul brissulz bristle bristles
coad coad cod cod cod cod
dizn dizn duzn duzn dozen dozen
deer deer deer deer deer deer
fush fush fish fish fish fish
grous grous grous grous grouse grouse
hairin hairin herring herring herring herring
hoars hoars hors horsiz horse horses
nout nout bullock bullocks
piz piz pee peez pea peas
reis reis twig twigs
saumun saumun saamon saamon salmon salmon
scoar scoar scoar scoar score score
sheep sheep sheep sheep sheep sheep
teeth teeth tooth teeth tooth teeth
Hoo moanay hoars hay yee? How many horses have you?
Three pair oa hoars un an oaray baist. Three pairs of horses
and an odd one (beast).
10. Some nouns denoting time, weight, length, area, or distance,
make no change after a numeral or numeral adjective.
Hee'z three munhh auldur'n mee. He's three months older
than me.
Shee'z ekht yeer auld. She's eight years old.
A twaal yeer auld coo. A twelve-year-old cow.
Aa gay um twaw pound. I gave him two pounds (£2).
Hut weiz foartay pund dhe bushel. It weighs forty pounds
the bushel.
Hee'z abuin dhe four scoar. He's above fourscore (eighty
years old).
Hut'll bee four aikur oanaywei. It will be four acres at least.
Hoo moanay yeer iz'd sin sein? How many years is it since
Ten stain oa hei. Ten stones of hay.
Hoo moanay meil iz'd tay Dinnin? How many miles is it to
Hut'll bee ekht moil fay hoer. It will be eight miles from here.
Fiiv bow oa mail. Five bolls of meal.
Four dizzin (oa) iggz. Four dozen eggs.
Ekht scoar (oa) sheep. Eight score sheep.
11. Some nouns form the plural irregularly:
S. E.
Spoken Written
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
cheeld chuldur children boy, lad children
coo kii cow couz, kiin cow cows, kine
soo swein sow swiin sow, pig swine
guis gees goos gees goose geese
loos leis lous liis louse lice
moos meis mous miis mouse mice
maan men man men man men
wummun weemin woomun wimmin woman women
baist bais beest beests beast beasts
fut feet foot feet foot feet
pennay puns penni pens penny pence
claith claiz cloth cloaz cloth clothes
NOTE. Cheeld in S. means a boy or lad, chuldur means children.
Soo means pig in general, as well as sow, e. g. soo'z crui, a pigsty.
The plural of pennay is puns when a sum of money is
spoken of, e. g. tuppuns, thruppuns, sixpuns, but if a number of
penny pieces is meant the plural is pennayz.
As in E., claith has two plurals, claiths meaning cloths, and
claiz meaning clothes.
12. As in E., some nouns are used only, or most commonly, in
the plural, or have a special meaning when used in the plural.
S. E.
bellusiz bellows
taingz tongs
pliiurz pincers
nuppurz pincers
sheers scissors
taut a scourge of
hemz hames (on a
horse's collar)
bauks balance (for
glessiz spectacles
speks spectacles
peips bagpipes
mainz home farm
poalisayz enclosed park
round country
plenstainz pavement
flaagz pavement
juggz pillory
sellz police cells
ess ashes
pigz crockery
finninz smoked haddock

kippurz dried herring
groats oats with the
husks off
aits oats
coallups minced meat
meeluks crumbs
murlinz crumbs
scumminz skimmings
dregglinz dregs
airninz rennet
speeruts whisky
saipay suds soapsuds
dudz rags, old clothes
S. E.
claiz clothes
brawz finery
steiz corset
gaalusiz braces
coats a woman's skirts
huggurz footless stockings

breeks trousers
nikkurz knickerbockers
murninz mourning
roulinz ravelled worsted
haarnz brains
guts bowels
likhts lungs
munnaypliiz third stomach of
a ruminant
haarigulz entrails
hunkurz bent legs
baats an illness of animals

buffits mumps
mizulz measles
poax smallpox
shaakurz staggers
doadz sulks
bledhurz nonsense
claivurz gossip
haivurz nonsense
oadz odds, difference
mennurz manners
aurlz earnest money
wejiz wages
teendz tithe
feers officially fixed
average prices
of grain
leinz lines, certificate
of proclamation
of marriage
caarichiz catechism
gutturz mud
quikkunz a grass with trailing
S. E.
fichiz vetches, tares
foarbeerz ancestors
eeldinz equals in age
paiks licking
13. A number of nouns denoting semi-liquid food are plural:
S. E.
paarich porridge
kail broth
broath broth
broaz a preparation of oatmeal
soa-inz a preparation of oatmeal
hoach poach broth with a mixture of vegetables
crudz curds
Thay'z guid kail. That's good broth (lit. those are).
Taak a hween mair crudz. Take a little more curds (lit. a few
Gee's a draap paarich. Give me a little porridge.
Shee maid az moanay paarich
az wud sair tull dennerteim
She made as much porridge as
would serve till dinner-time.
Dhur paarich ull bee our
cauld, gin yee duinay taak
dhem suin.This porridge will be too cold, if
you don't take it soon.
As regards most nouns, there is nothing in the sound of the
word to show the gender. That is determined only by the meaning,
nouns being masculine, feminine, common, or neuter according as
they denote males, females, either sex, or something without life.
A few words denoting persons or animals have different forms for
the masculine and feminine.
S. E.
Spoken Written
Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. Masc. Fern.
maan wummun man woomun man woman
maan weif man wiif husband wife
laud laus lad lass lad lass
lauddee laussay laddi lassi laddie lassie
faidhur midhur faadher mudher father mother
sun doakhtur sun dauter son daughter
bridhur sustur brudher sister brother sister
guchur graanay grandfather grandmother
S. E.
Spoken Written
Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem.
unkul aantay unkul aant uncle aunt
neffay nees nevyoo nees nephew niece
keeng queen king queen king queen
loard leddee lord laidi lord lady
bull coo bool cow bull cow
stoat quei bullock heifer
staig mair mair stallion mare
cout fullay coalt filli colt filly
boar soo boar sow boar sow
tuip yow ram yoo ram ewe
wedhur gimmur castrated male
sheep ewe in her
second year
draik dyuk draik duk drake duck
coak hen cok hen cock hen
dug bich dog bich dog bitch
There are, as in E., three cases — nominative, objective, and
possessive. The objective case of a noun is always the same as
the nominative.
The possessive singular is formed like the regular plural, by
adding a sibilant to the nominative, the sibilant being z, iz, or s,
according to the same rules as determine the sibilant added to
make the regular plural, so that in the case of all nouns which
merely add a sibilant or iz to form the plural, the possessive
singular has exactly the same sound as the nominative plural. In
writing, in order to distinguish between the two cases, it is usual
to insert an apostrophe in the possessive singular, but this does
not affect the sound. Examples:
S. E.
Dhe bairnay'z fut. The small child's foot.
Dhe yow'z hoarn. The ewe's horn.
Dhe dug's tail. The dog's tail.
Dhe laam'z haid. The lamb's head.
Dhe juj'iz wig. The judge's wig.
Dhe dyuk's neb. The duck's bill.
Dhe caat's lug. The cat's ear.
Daith's dear. Death's door.
As in E., the sound of the possessive singular differs from that
of the nominative plural only in those nouns which make some
change in the body of the word to form the plural or which have
the plural the same as the singular. Examples:
S. E.
Poss. Sing. Nom. Pl. Poss. Sing. Nom. Pl.
coo'z kii cow's cows
deer'z deer deer's deer
hoars'iz hoars horse's horses
maan'z men man's men
moos'iz meis mouse's mice
sheep's sheep sheep's sheep
wummun'z weemin woman's women
As in E., when a noun adds a sibilant sound to form the plural,
the sound of the possessive plural is the same as that of the
nominative plural ; but in writing an apostrophe is added to mark
the difference of case. Examples:
yowz' hoarnz ewes' horns
laamz' haidz lambs' heads
Sometimes another sibilant (iz) is added to form the possessive
plural. Example:
Dhe bairnz'iz claiz. The children's clothes.
Dhe dugz'iz lugz. The dogs' ears.
When the nominative plural is not formed by adding a sibilant
to the singular, the possessive plural adds a sibilant to the
nominative plural, as if it were a singular.
S. E.
Nom. Pl. Poss. Pl. Nom. Pl. Poss. Pl.
deer deer'z deer deer's
hoars hoars'iz horses horses'
kii kii'z cows cows'
men men's men men's
sheep sheep's sheep sheep's
weemin weemin'z women women's
meis meis'iz mice mice's
hoars'iz tails horses' tails
men'z coats men's coats
sheep's haidz sheep's heads
weemin'z claash women's gossip
As in E., it is uncommon to use the possessive of a word denoting
an inanimate object. It is more usual to express the sense
of belonging to, connected with, or used for, by simply placing one
word before the other without any sibilant, a hyphen being sometimes
put between the two words in writing them to show the
connexion between them. Examples:
S. E. Meaning.
kail-paat broth-pot pot used for making broth
paat-lud pot-lid lid of a pot
paarich-spurtul porridge-stick stick used for stirring porridge
shoap-doar shop-door door of a shop
mull-daam mill-pond pond for a mill
Sometimes a word meaning an animal is used in the same way.
S. E. Meaning.
coo-shairn cow-dung the dung of cows
hoars-dung horse-dung the dung of horses
hoars-hair horsehair the hair of horses
swein-saim hogs' lard the lard of hogs
But we say sheep's oo (sheep's wool), not sheep-oo; sheep's
haid (sheep's head), not sheep-haid.
The commonest derivative adjectives are formed from nouns or
verbs by the addition of the vowel sound ay or ee. Examples:
S. E.
Noun or Verb Adj. Noun or Verb Adj.
grupp gruppay grip miserly
maukh maukhay maggot maggoty
cheer cheeree cheer cheery
creesh creeshee grease (grees) greasy
dudd duddee rag ragged
reek reekee smoke smoky
A number of adjectives are formed by adding sum to a noun
or verb:
Noun or Verb Meaning Adj. Meaning
aw awe awsum awful
fair fear fairsum fearful
groo shudder groosum ghastly
way woe waysum woeful
Others again are formed by adding fay (corresponding to the E.
ful) to a noun or verb. Examples:
Noun or Verb Meaning Adj. Meaning
aw awe awfay awful
Bair care cairfay careful
way woe waifay woeful
In these cases the meaning is that of possessing or being
characterized by the object or quality indicated by the noun or
On the other hand, the termination lus (corresponding to the
E. less) has the opposite meaning. Examples:
Noun or Verb Meaning Adj. Meaning
haund hand haundlus handless
cair care cairlus careless
thoakht thought (thaut) thoakhtlus thoughtless
As in E., adjectives do not change their form, whatever be the
;ender, number, or case of the nouns to which they refer. The
only exceptions are the following adjectives, which change their
form in the plural:
S. E.
Spoken Written
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pt. Sing. Pl.
dhaat dhay dhat dhoaz that those
dhus dhur dhis dheez this these
luttul noa moanay littel little few
mukkul moanay much menni much many
Adjectives usually form the comparative by adding the sound
ur to the positive, and the superlative by adding the sound ist to
the positive. But, as in E., though not so commonly, the comparative,
especially of long adjectives, may be formed by prefixing
the word mair (more), and the superlative by prefixing maist
(most) to the positive. Examples:
S. E.
Positive Comparative Superlative Positive Comparative Superlative
auld auldur auldist old older oldest
deep deepur deepist deep deeper deepest
faar faarur faarist far farther farthest
heekh heekhur heekhist high higher highest
thikk thikkur thikkist thick thicker thickest
aufay aufayur aufayist or
maist aufay awful more awful awfullest,
most awful
aivun aivunur aivunist even more even most even
haunday haundayur haundayist handy handier handiest
faarund auld--
faarundur auld--
faarundist old--
fashioned more old--
fashioned most old--
Sometimes a double comparative is heard. Examples:
Hee'z mair auldur nor mee. He's older than me.
Hut's mair sweetur nor hweit. It's sweeter than wheat.
A few adjectives form their comparative and superlative
S. E.
Positive Comp. Superl. Positive Comp. Superl.
u11 waur waarst bad, ill worse worst
foar furst
foarmost (before) first
guid bettur best good better best
hindur hinmust (behind) hindmost
luttul less laist little less least
mukkul or
moanay mair
or may maist much
many more most
neer or
neerhaund neerur neest or
nixt near nearer nearest
or next
S. E.
Neest year. Next year.
Ut's yoo nixt. It's you next.
Deel tank dhe hinmust. Devil take the hindmost.
Several adverbs and nouns of place are compared and used as
adjectives. Examples:
S. E.
or noun Comp. Superl. Adverb
or Noun Comp. Superl.
up uppur upmust up upper top
doon doonmust down lowest
uneth nedhur nethmust beneath lower lowest
in innur inmust in inner inmost
oot ootmust out outer outermost
aist aistur aistmust east farther east easternmost
waast waastur waastmust west farther west westernmost
S. E.
Spoken Written
ain, waan wun one
twaw, kwaw too two
three, hree three three
four foar four
fiiv fiiv five
six, sex (obs. saax) six six
saivun, sivn seven seven
ekht (obs. aakht) ait eight
nein niin nine
ten ten ten
ulaivun eleven eleven
twaal, twel, kwel twelv twelve
therteen thirteen thirteen
foarteen foarteen fourteen
fufteen fifteen fifteen
sexteen sixteen sixteen
saivunteen seventeen seventeen
ekhteen, aakhteen aiteen eighteen
neinteen niinteen nineteen
twuntee, kwuntee twenti twenty
twuntee-ain twenti-wun twenty-one
twuntee-twaw twenti-too twenty-two
S. E.
Spoken Written
thertay thirti thirty
foartay forti forty
fuftay fifti fifty
sextay sixti sixty
saivuntay seventi seventy
ekhtay aiti eighty
neintay niinti ninety
hundur hundred hundred
thoozunt thouzand thousand
furst first first
seecund second second
thurd, thrud third third
foart forth fourth
fuft fifth fifth
sext sixth sixth
saivint seventh seventh
ekht aitth eighth
neint niinth ninth
tent tenth tenth
ulaivunt eleventh eleventh
twelt, &c. twelfth, &c. twelfth, &c.
twunteeuth twentieth twentieth
hundurt hundredth hundredth
thoozunt thousandth thousandth
NOTE. Ain is much more commonly used than waan, which
is an emphatic form.
Although we say four (not foar as in E.) we say foart, foarteen,
In the ordinal numeral adjectives up to nineteen the termination
is not th as in E., but t, except in seecund and thurd or thrud,
where, as in E., it is d.
As in E., the numerals can be used in the plural to signify
S. E.
Spoken Written
ainz wunz ones
twawz tooz twos
threez threez threes
The half-hours are described as before the next hour instead of
after the past hour as in E.:
haaf ekht = half past seven
haaf twel = half past eleven
Multiples are sing-ul (singgul), doobul (dubbul), three-plii (triple,
three-ply), and twawsum, threesum, foursum, ekhtsum, i. e.
arranged by twos, threes, fours, eights.
Fractionals are haaf (haaf ), thurd or thrud (thurd), foart
(foarth), &c.; quaartur (quorter) is also used for a fourth part.
Number and quantity are sometimes designated by adjectives,
sometimes by nouns. In the latter case the noun is generally
followed by the preposition oa (of) before a pronoun, but the oa is
often omitted before a following noun.
S. E.
Dikht, doakun, tikk, tikkay,
tait, but, thoakht, gren
flikhun, hair. A bit, a whit, a little bit, a tiny
A draap, a wee draap. A little drop.
A wee, A little.
A wee but, a wee thoakht. A little bit.
A hween. A few.
A pukkul. A little, a small quantity, a few.
Oa'd. Some (of it).
A junt. A chunk.
Twaw three, twaw hree,
twaw'r three. Two or three, several.
A guid but, a guid hween, a
gei hween. A good bit, a good deal, a good
A currun. Several, a number of.
A grait dail oa, a grait haip oa. A lot of; a great many.
A grait pees oa. A good many, a good deal of.
A haantul oa. A considerable number of.
Dhe weil oa. The pick of.
Dhe fekk oa. The greater part of, most of.
Dhe hail oa. The whole of.
Dhe laiv oa. The rest, the remainder of.
Dhe leik oa. The like of (persons or things),
Oaray. Odd.
S. E.
Aa dinnay cair a dikht (doakun).
I don't care a bit.
Juist a tikk, juist a wee tikkay,
juist a wee tait. Just a very little.
Noa a tait. Not a bit.
Juist a but bairn. Just a little child.
Yur but bairn. Your little child.
A but loon. A little lad.
A but shoapay. A little shop.
A wee thoakht hwuskay. A small drop of whisky.
Noa a hair oa mail in aw dhe
hoos. Not a grain of meal in the whole
Aa'll juist taak a but hair. I'll just take a very little.
Gee's a draap waatur. Give me a drop of water.
Aa'll taak a wee draap paarich. I'll take a little porridge.
Aa'll be baak in a wee. I'll be back in a little.
Gee's a wee but kebbuk. Give me a little bit of cheese.
Aa'll juist taak a hween mair
(or may). I'll just take a few more.
A hween puir buddeez. A few poor people.
Aa hunnay seen um dhis
hween yeerz. I haven't seen him for a few
years back.
A pukkul ait-mail. A little oatmeal.
Dhe weif baikit a pukkul oa
scoanz. My wife baked a few scones.
A pukkul ee coarn. A little of the corn.
Dhur'z oa'd ee press. There's some in the cupboard.
Twaw three auld weifs. Two or three (a few) old women.
Juist a currun haivurz. Just a pack of nonsense.
A currun laussayz. A number of girls.
Juist a currun scaartz. Just a few scratches.
A grait dais oa weevurz. A great many weavers.
A haantul oa groazurz. A lot of gooseberries.
Ut's a gei hweil noo. It's a fairly long time ago now.
Dhe weil oa dhum aw. The pick of them all.
Dhe fekk oa dhum. Most of them.
S. E.
Yee see dhe fekk oa'd. You see most of it.
Dhe hail oa'd. The whole of it.
Dhe hail nikht. The whole night.
Dhe laiv oa'd. The rest of it.
Juist aw dhe leik oa dhay
thingz. Just all that sort of thing.
Aa nair saw dhe leik oa'd. I never saw anything like it.
Aa nair saw dhe leik oa dhay. I never saw anything like those.
Aa nair saw dhe baist dui dhe
leik oa dhaat afoar. I never saw the beast do anything
like that before.
Ulkay buddee heznay dhe leik
oa dhaat. Not everybody has that sort of
Floorz un dhe leik oa dhaat. Flowers and things of that sort.
Wuz ivvur dhe leik oa dhaat! Was there ever anything like
Three pair oa hoars un an
oaray ain. Three pairs of horses and an
odd one.
S. E.
oanay any (eni), either
moanay many (meni)
luttul little
mukkul much
aw all (aul)
ulkay each, every
noa no (noa)
nain none (nun), neither (needhur)
awbuddee, ulkay buddee everybody
awthing everything
naybuddee nobody (noabodi)
naything nothing (nuthing)
sum some (sum)
sumbuddee somebody (sumbodi)
sumthing something (sumthing)
sikk, sikkleik, sikk a, sikkun such, such and such
saim same (saim)
baith both
dhe tay, dhe t'ain — dhe t'idhur the one — the other
sum — idhur some (sum) — other (udher)
ay, ain — unidhur one — another
idhur other, each other
oanay idhur buddee anybody else
S. E.
sum idhur buddee somebody else
nay idhur buddee nobody else
aw idhur thing everything else
nay idhur thing nothing else
dhe tay haaf oa'd one half of it
dhe t'idhur haaf the other half
noa a thing not a thing, nothing at all
Oanay oa dhe twaw ull dui.
Either of the two will do.
Ur dhay oanay fekk oa waatur ee waal?
Is there much water in the well?
Dhur noa mukkul waatur ee burn dhe-day.
There's not much water in the brook to-day.
Ulkay blaid oa gress keps uts ain draap oa dyoo.
Every blade of grass catches its own drop of dew.
Ulkay craw thinks hur ain burd hweitist.
Every crow thinks her own bird whitest.
Hee caam in hiz ulkay day'z claiz.
He came in his everyday clothes.
Ulkay buddee kenz dhur ain wei best.
Everybody knows his own way best.
Nain oa dhum. None of them.
Nain oa dhe twaw. Neither of the two.
Dh'ull nain oa dhe twaw oa yee'll gaang.
Neither of you shall go.
NOTE. Although awbuddee (everybody), ulkay buddee (everybody),
oanaybuddee (anybody), and sumbuddee (somebody) are
singular, the possessive pronoun referring to them is used in the
plural. Examples:
Awbuddee hez dhur ain draaf-poak tay kerray.
Everybody has his own draff-sack to carry.
Hwun a buddee'z raang wee dhur meind.
When a person is wrong in his (or her) mind.
Sumbuddee'z left dhur futmaarks uhint dhum.
Somebody's left his foot-marks behind him.
Ut's noa oafun oanaybuddee finds dhur wei dhair.
It's not often that anybody finds his way there.
Ye'er aidhur awthing or naything wee um.
You're either everything or nothing to him.
Sikk a buddee, sikkun a buddee. So-and-so.
Dhur noa sikk a thing noo.
There's no such thing now.
Sikkin a foak's gaun tay bee merraid.
So-and-so is going to be married.
In sikk a gait fay sikk a buddee.
In such-and-such a way from so-and-so.
Baith dhe twaw oa yee. Both of you.
Fay dhe tay yeer'z end tay dhe t'idhur.
From one year's end to another.
Yee'll noa ken dhe t'ain bee dhe t'idhur.
You won't know the one from the other.
Baith dhe t'ain un dhe t'idhur. Both the one and the other.
Dhe t'ain'z nair weel un dhe t'idhur'z nair foo.
The one's never well and the other's never full.
Dhe t'idhur day. The other day.
Dhay wur baith leik idhur.
They were both alike (like each other).
Dhay wur nay idhur thing neerhaund ut.
There was nothing else near it.
NOTE. The word thing is sometimes used with reference to
a preceding noun. Examples:
Aa duinay leik saut buttur; hay yee nay sweet thing?
I don't like salt butter; have you no fresh?
Wee'll hay sum nyoo thing in dhe moarn.
We'll have some new in to-morrow.
Wud yee leik blaak ink, or wud yee taak sum bloo thing?
Do you want black ink, or would you take blue?
NOTE. Ay is an adjective meaning 'one, only'.
Ain is a numeral adjective meaning 'one' (wun), but may be
used as a noun, and has a plural ainz, 'ones' (wunz).
Ains is an adverb meaning 'once' (wuns).
There is another word ain (with a longer vowel sound) meaning
'own' (oan). Examples:
S. E.
Ay day. One day.
Ay shui oan un ay shui aaf. One shoe on and one shoe off.
Ay-ee'd Joak. One-eyed Jock.
A weif's ay doakhtur. A woman's only daughter.
Hur maamay'z ay bairn. Her mother's only child.
S. E.
Dhay ainz iz aw rikht. Those ones are all right.
Aa kent a laud ains. I once knew a lad.
Aa'm gled ma hert's ma ain. I'm glad my heart's my own.
Ulkay ain. Every one.
Gif dhay bee guid ainz. If they are good.
Dhay'z unkay smaw ainz. Those are very small.
Aa waant yoo ainz heer. I want you people here.
Shee'z hur midhur'z t'ay ee. She's her mother's only eye (the
apple of her eye).
Hwaatnay is used as an interrogative adjective, singular or
plural, in place of the E. what or which. Sometimes it means what
kind of; what sort of. The old form hwulk is rarely heard.
S. E.
Hwaatnay coo'z dhaat? Which cow is that?
Hwaatnay baakay'z dhaat? What sort of tobacco is that?
Hwaatnay auld dudz iz dhay? What old rags are those?
Hwaatnay haund wull yee
taak? Which hand will you have?
Hwaatnay yeer wur dhay
merraid in? In what year were they married?
Hwaatnay cuntraymaan ur
Hwaatnay cuntray dui yee
belaung tull, cum fay. What (part of the) country do
you belong to,
come from?
Hwaatnay ain oa yee duid
dhaat? Which of you did that?
Hwaatnay leik buddee'z yon? What sort of person is he?
Hwulk ull yee taak ? Which will you take?
Hwulk ain oa yee'z cummin
wee mee? Which of you is coming with
S. E.
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
dhis, dhus dhur this (dhis) these (dheez)
dhaat dhay that (dhat) those (dhoaz)
yon, dhon yon, dhon yonder yonder
NOTE. Dhis and dhur primarily refer to objects near the
speaker, dhaat and dhay to objects near the person spoken to,
and yon or dhon to objects farther off in place or time. They
thus correspond to the personal pronouns (1) Aa, (2) yoo, and
(3) hee. You or dhon is used much oftener than yonder in E.
You is no doubt the more archaic form, but dhon is now more
commonly used in Strathearn, the initial consonantal sound having
probably been adopted through the influence of the words dhis
and dhaat. Examples:
Aa dinnay leik dhur tautayz.
I don't like these potatoes.
Hwaw'z bairnz iz dhay?
Whose are those children ?
D'yee see dhon tree?
Do you see that tree over yonder?
Aa oafun meind oa yon teim.
I often think of that time (long ago).
Hee'z a rail tummur-haid, dhon.
That man's a downright blockhead.
Dhis is often used idiomatically in phrases relating to time.
Aa hunnay seen um dhis laang teim, dhis moanay a yeer.
I haven't seen him for a long time, for many a year.
The definite article dhe is used in the same way as the E. 'the'
(dhe) both in the singular and plural. In ordinary conversation
the vowel sound in dhe is more like u (as in sun, cut) than e (as
in net, pen), and it might be written dhu rather than dhe.
NOTE. Dhe is sometimes used where in E. a possessive pronoun
would be used. Examples:
Dhe weif. My (your or his) wife.
Dhe guidmaan. My (your or her) husband.
Dhe weif wuz ee gairdun wee's. My wife was in the garden
with me.
Hoo'z dhe guidmaan dhe-day? How is your husband today?
Ur yee oot fur plaizhur, or iz dhe weif wee yee? Are you out
for pleasure, or is your wife with you?
Shee clawd dhe much aaf mee. She tore off my cap.
Aa ei keep ut ee pooch. I always keep it in my pocket.
Dhe is often expressed in S. where it is omitted in E.
At dhe kirk — at dhe scuil. At church — at school.
Hee wuz begun dhe dailun. lIe had begun dealing (trading).
The indefinite article a or an is used as in E. before a singular
Before a consonantal sound, including w and y, a is used, and
an before a vowel sound. In rapid conversation the vowel sound
in the article itself is slurred into u (as in sun, cut), and it might
be written u, un. Examples:
S. E.
u maan a man
u wummun a woman
u yow a ewe
un aufay day an awful day
NOTE. Sometimes the indefinite article is omitted altogether.
Dhur'z moanay ain duiz dhaat. Many a one does so.
Moanay teim. Many a time, often.
As in E., the personal pronouns refer to three sets of persons:
first, the person speaking, as Aa, wee, maa, oor; second, the
person spoken to, as yee, yoor ; third, the person or thing spoken
of, as hee, shee, hut, dhay.
As in E., the personal pronouns make no distinction of gender
in the first or second persons, or in the plural of the third person,
the only distinction of gender being in the singular of the third
person, as hee, shee, hut.
As in E., the use of the second person singular, dhoo, dhaa,
dhee, has entirely dropped out of ordinary speech, and is found
only in prayers and poetry. It is still common in several dialects
of E. spoken in England, but as it seems to have disappeared
several generations ago from the dialect of Lowland Scotch with
which I am dealing, I omit it from my list. As in E., the plural
of the second person is used for the singular, as yee for dhoo.
The First Person (Masculine or Feminine).
Sing. Pl.
Case Ordinary Emphatic Ordinary Emphatic
Nominative Aa Ii wee
absolute mee us, oos hiz, huz
Possessive maa mii oor, wur
Objective mee, 's, 'z us, oos, 's, 'z hiz, huz
The corresponding E. forms are:
Sing. Pl.
Nominative I (Ii) we (wee)
Nominative absolute me (mee) us
Possessive my (mii) our
Objective me (mee) us
Second Person.
Masculine or Feminine, Singular or Plural.
S. E.
Case Ordinary Emphatic
Nom. yee yoo you (yoo)
Nom. absolute yoo you (yoo)
Poss. yoor, yur yoor your (yoor)
Obj. yee yoo you (yoo)
Third Person.
Sing. Pl.
Casse Masc. Fem. Neuter All genders
Nom. hee shee hut, ut, it dhay
Nom. abs. hum, him hur hut dhem
Poss. huz, hiz hur huts, uts, its dhair, dhur
Obj. hum, him, um hur, ur hut, ut, it,
't, 'd dhem; dhum

The corresponding E. forms are:
Sing. Pl.
Case Masc. Fern. Neuter All genders
Nom. he (hee) she (shee) it they (dhay)
Nom. abs. him her it them (Them)
Poss. his (hiz) her its their (dher)
Obj. him her it them (dhem)
The pronouns are especially liable to be slurred in rapid speech,
and the commonest forms are those I have described as ordinary ;
but some of them have different forms when emphasized, and
I have given these forms separately. What I have called the
nominative absolute is the same in form as the objective, but is
really a nominative, like the French moi, toi, lui. It is not
unknown in E., for, regardless of grammarians, we say in ordinary
speech, 'It's me', 'That's him', but it is much more common in
S. than in E.
When two pronouns of different persons come together, unlike
E. which places the first person last, in S. the first person is
put first. Examples:
S. E.
Mee un yoo. You and I — you and me.
Mee un hum. He and I — him and me.
Us un dhem. They and we — them and us.
In ordinary rapid conversation the old S. form Aa is still in
common use, but it is being supplanted by the E. form Ii, and this
is the pronunciation of the word when emphasis is put upon it.
Similarly, in the possessive the ordinary pronunciation is maa,
but the E. mii is used when the word is emphasized. Before a
vowel maa is sometimes slurred into m'.
In the plural nominative absolute and objective, us is the
commonest form, but oos is also common, and when the word is
emphasized, the pronunciation hiz or huz is often heard. (Note
not only the addition of the initial aspirate but the change of s
into z.) After a vowel us is often slurred into 's, sometimes
into 'z. Examples:
Aa'm noa shuir. I'm not sure.
Aa coodnay say. I couldn't say.
Ii dinnay ken. I don't know.
Maa dautay. My little pet.
Dhaat's mii tneif. That's my knife.
Noa i mii day. Not in my time.
Mii mooth juist buds a jull. My mouth just holds a gill.
Claw yoo mii baak un Aa'll claw yoorz. You scratch my back
and I'll scratch yours.
Nain oa's goat naything. None of us got anything.
M'unkul un m'aantay. My uncle and my aunt.
Gee mee a caanay oor at een. Give me a quiet hour in the
Maa ermz uboot maa deeree, Oa! My arms around my darling,
Hut wuznay mee. It wasn't me.
Noa mee. Not I.
Mee un hum'z noa freendz. He and I are not on friendly
Wee gaid haim. We went home.
Hee kenz oos (or us) fein. He knows us well.
Hut's noa fur dhe leiks oa huz (hiz). Its not for people like us.
Ut peid fur books tull oos. It paid for books for us.
Wur tee wuz reddee hwun we caam haim. Our tea was ready
when we came home.
Hiz laussayz ei gaid tee shairin. We girls always went to the
As in colloquial E., the plural form us (usually slurred into 's
or 'z) is often used in the sense of mee, that is, in a singular sense,
just as yoo commonly is. Examples:
Gee's a likht. Give us (meaning give me) a light.
Gee's a luft. Give us (meaning give me) a help (lift).
Gee's yur haund. Give us (meaning give me) your hand.
Gee's a but pees. Give me a snack.
Shee broakht ut tull's. She brought it to me.
Hee criid oan's. He called to me.
Dhe weif wuz ee gairdun wee's. My wife was in the garden
with me.
Aa goat a guid pees uwaw wee's ee moarnin. I took a good
snack away with me in the morning.
Gee's an ell fur a braat. Give me an ell (of cloth) for an
Caw dhe waal for's. Work the well for me.
Gee's a draw oa your peip. Give me a puff of your pipe.
Lay'z ulain — laat's ubee. Leave me alone.
Hee wudnay hay'z. He wouldn't have me.
Aa'v seen'z maakin a bettur joab oa'd. I have seen myself
making a better job of it.
Tell oos uboot ut. Tell me about it.
The word see is sometimes used with the meaning gee's (give
me). Examples:
S. E.
See a hud oa dhaat. Give me a hold of that.
See a haank oa yairn. Give me a skein of yarn.
See a faag. Give me a cigarette.
See a but oa'd. Give me a bit of it.
In ordinary speech the nominative and objective are yee, but
when the word is emphasized, and always in the nominative
absolute, it is pronounced yoo. The possessive is, as in E., yoor,
but in rapid speech it is slurred into yur.
S. E.
Yee ken. You know.
Aa tellt yee dhaat. I told you so.
Aa'll gee yee'd. I'll give it you.
Dhaat's noa fur yoo. That's not for you.
Mee un yoo'll gaang dhegidhur. You and I will go together.
Steek yur gaab. Shut your mouth.
Masculine Singular.
Hee, hiz, him are pronounced much the same as in E., but hiz
is sometimes pronounced huz, and him more often hum, or in
the slurred form 'urn. Examples:
S. E.
Hee'z daaft. He's mad.
Hee broakht ut wee um. He brought it with him,
Dhaat's noa hiz dug. That's not his dog.
Mee un hum'z noa cheef. He and I are not friends.
Aa tellt um. I told him.
Duid yee git oanaything fay
um? Did you get anything from
Hiz is sometimes slurred into 'z. Examples:
S. E.
Dhe pedlur un'z paak. The pedlar and his pack.
Ut fell oot ee'z haund ee fluir. It fell out of his hand on to
the floor.
Feminine Singular.
Shee and hur are pronounced much the same as in English,
but in rapid speech hur is often slurred into ur. Examples:
S. E.
Shee'z duiin fein. She's doing well.
Shee beidz wee ur midhur. She lives with her mother.
Mee un hur'z neeburz. She and I are neighbours.
Aa hunnay seen ur. I haven't seen her.
Yee gay ur ur dyoo. You gave her her due.
Laat ur gaang. Let her go.
Neuter Singular.
The English form it and its are frequently heard, but are often
pronounced ut and uts, and the old Scotch forms hut and huts
are still quite common, especially when the word is emphasized.
Hut is often contracted into ut or in the objective into 't, or more
commonly into 'd, which is almost invariably the sound it takes
after a vowel or a voiced consonant, such as 1, m, n, r, z. Examples:
Oa'd — wee'd — fay'd — tui'd, tull'd, tull' t. Of it — with it — from
it — to it.
Aaf't — for'd — eftur'd — afoar'd. Off it — for it — after it —
before it.
Throo'd — in'd — oan'd (also in't, oan't). Through it — in it —
on it.
Intul'd — iz'd — wuz'd. Into it, in it — is it — was it.
See'd — gee'd — dui'd — duin'd. See it — give it — do it — done it.
Tain'd — goatun'd — puttin'd — luittun'd. Taken it — got it —
putting it — let it.
S. E.
Dhaat's hut noo. That's it now.
Hwaw'z hut? Who is it? (in a game of tig).
Aa cood taak hut fein. I could take it well.
Dhay gits 't ulkay day. They get it every day.
Hee hed oa'd in. He had some in (cattle in a sale):
Aa meind oa'd fein. I remember it well.
Look at dhe haid oa'd. Look at its head.
Hwaat iz'd? hwaat wuz'd? What is it? what was it?
Duid yee seed? Did you see it?
Laat's see'd. Let me see it.
Aa coodnay dui'd. I couldn't do it.
Hee caannay keep fay'd. He can't keep from it (resist it).
Shee wuz puttin'd in. She was putting it in.
S. L.
Dhay wur naithin g in't. There was nothing in it.
Aa coodnay putt a naim oan'd. I could not give it a name (put
a name on it).
putt dhe lud oan't. Put the lid on it.
Shea spaan'd aw hursel. She span it all herself.
Wud yee ken'd gin yea saw'd
ugen? Should you know it if you saw
it again?
Hwaat ull yee gee's for'd? What will you give me for it?
Hay yee goatun'd? Have you got it?
Gee'd tee maan — gee dhe
maan'd Give it to the man.
When two pronouns, one of which is ut in the objective, come
together, the ut generally follows the other pronoun, instead of
preceding it, as in E. Examples:
S. E.
Gee mee'd — gee's't. Give it me.
Gee um'd — gee ur'd. Give it him — give it her.
Gee oos't — gee hiz'd. Give it us — give it to us.
Aa'll gee yee'd. I'll give it you.
Gee dhum'd. Give it them.
Aa'll tell yee'd. I'll tell it you.
Aa gay um'd — ur'd — dhum'd. I gave it him — her — them.
Hee gay mee'd — yee'd — oos't
— dhum'd. He gave it me — you — us — them.
Yee'll noa gee's't bank ugen. You'll not give it me back again.
Duid yee tell um'd? Did you tell it him?
Third Personal Pronoun, Plural, all Genders.
As in English, the plural of the third personal pronoun is dhay,
which in this dialect is the same as the plural of the demonstrative
pronoun dhaat, viz. dhay (E. that, those).
The possessive dhair (vowel sound as in hair, pain) is not quite
the same in pronunciation as the English their, which is more
like a lengthened form of dher. In rapid speech it is often slurred
into dhur. The objective dhem is often slurred into dhum, but
not the nominative absolute, which is always dhem. Examples:
S. E.
Dhay'r aw weel. They're all well.
Ut wuznay dhem uvaw. It wasn't them at all.
Mee un dhem'z noa cheef dhe
noo. They and I are not on friendly
terms at present.
Dinnay gay neer dhum. Don't go near them.
NOTE. In S. the possessive pronoun is sometimes used where
it is omitted in E.
S. E.
Cawaw tay yur tee. Come along to tea.
Aa haynay goatun maa den
nur yet. I haven't had (got) dinner yet.
Hee'z uwaw haim tull hiz
suppur. He's gone home to supper.
When a possessive pronoun is not followed by a noun it ends
in a sibilant sound.
S. E.
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
1st Pers meinz oorz mine (miin) ours (ours)
2nd Pers. yoorz yours (yoorz)
3rd Pers. hiz, hurt, huts dhairz his, hers, its theirs (dherz)
NOTE. These forms are used whether the preceding noun is
singular or plural. Note that meinz ends in a sibilant, which is
wanting in the E. mine. Examples:
S. E.
Dhis dug'z noa meinz. This dog is not mine.
Dhur'z meinz un dhay'z yoorz. These are mine and those are
Ain (own) is added to the possessive pronouns to give them
emphasis. Example:
Ut wuz mun ain oanay wei. It was my own at any rate.
The reflexive pronouns are formed by adding the word sel
(self) or in the plural selz (selves) to the possessives.
S. E.
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl..
1st Pers. masel oorselz myself ourselves
2nd Pers. yursel yurselz yourself yourselves
3rd Pers. hissel, hursel,
itssel dhurselz himself, herself,
itself themselves
NOTE. While in the third person E. adds the word self or
selves to the objective form of the pronoun, S. adds it to the
possessive form, viz. hissel (himself), dhurselz (themselves). For
itssel the phrase dhe sel oa'd (the self of it) is sometimes used.
The reflexive pronoun is intensified by
inserting ain (own = oan)
between the possessive and the word sel or selz, e. g. maa ain sel,
oor ain selz. Examples:
S. E.
Aa'll duid masel. I'll do it myself.
Wee'll gaang oorselz. We'll go ourselves.
Wee'll speek dhaat our umoan
oorselz. We'll talk that over among ourselves.

Taak tent oa yursel. Take care of yourself (one per--
Taak tent oa yurselz. Take care of yourselves (more
than one).
Gaang uwaw yur twaw selz. You two, go along by yourselves.
Hee hurtit hissel. He hurt himself.
Dhe burd hurtit itssel (or dhe
sel oa'd). The bird hurt itself.
Dhay wur aw bee dhurselz. They were alone (all by themselves).

Yee maan keep dhur bu
dhurselz You must keep these by themselves.

Ut wuz staundin dhe sel oa'd. It was standing by itself.
Ut wuz lii-in bu dhe sel oa'd. It was lying alone.
Fair play tellz dhe sel oa'd. Fair play tells of itself.
Aa maid ut maa ain sel. I made it quite by myself.
Hee did ut hiz ain sel. He did it quite by himself.
NOTE. The possessive of the reflexive pronoun is formed by
adding ain (own = oan) to the possessive form of the simple
pronoun, e. g. maa ain, hiz ain, oor ain, dhur ain. Example:
Shee caannay thoal hur ain
foak. She can't endure her own people.
The word lain (lone = loan) is used as a noun much in the
same way as sel (self).
Sing. P1.
1st Person maa lain oor lainz
2nd Person yur lain yur lainz
3rd Person hiz, hur, uts lain dhur lainz
In English the meaning is expressed by the phrases by myself',
'by ourselves', &c., or in all cases by the word 'alone' (aloan).
S. E.
Aa wuz aw maa lain.
Aa wuz aw maa lee lain. I was all alone, or by myself.
He wuz aw hiz lain. He was all alone, or by himself.
Trii gin ut'll staund uts lain. Try if it will stand alone.
Wee gaid oor lainz. We went alone, or by ourselves.
Dhay baid dhur lainz. They lived alone, or by themselves.

Shee wuz suttin hur lain. She was sitting alone, or by
The E. indefinite pronoun 'one' is generally expressed by the
phrase 'a buddee', the corresponding possessive pronoun being
'dhur' (their). Examples:
Dhaat duiz a buddee guid. That does one good.
A buddee wudnay hurt dhursel
One wouldn't hurt oneself.
Dhem is often used indefinitely where in E. the words 'he',
they', 'those', or 'whoever ' would he used.
Dhem ut wull tay Coopur maan tay Coopur.
He that will (go) to Cupar must (go) to Cupar.
Geed baak tay dhem ut's aukht ut.
Give it back to whoever it belongs to.
The demonstrative adjectives dhus, dhur, dhaat, dhay, yon
or dhon are used by themselves as pronouns, as the corresponding
words are in English. Examples:
S. E.
Dhur'z guid neeps. These are good turnips.
Dhay'z boanay bairnz. Those are pretty children.
Yon'z a mukkul tree. That's a big tree over there.
Dhus iz a fein day. This is a fine day.
Dhaat wuz a guid saang. That was a good song.
Dhon wuz graund teimz. Those were fine times (long ago).
Dhaat ull bee fein. That will be capital.
The relative pronoun for all numbers, genders, and cases is ut,
but it is often omitted altogether. No word corresponding to the
E. 'which' is used as a relative, and hwaw, hwaw'z, corresponding
to the E. 'who' (hoo), 'whose' (hooz), are used only as
interrogatives, not as relatives. Examples:
Dhaat's dhe maan ut Aa saw. That's the man that I saw.
Dhe lauss ut Aa loo. The girl that I love.
Hee's our dhe hullz ut Ii loo weel. He's over the hills whom I love well.
Hwaw wuz dhon maan ut wuz heer dhe-day? Who was that man that was here today
Dhe waarst ut ivvur Aa saw. The worst that I ever saw.
Ut's an ull burd ut feilz uts ain nest. It's a bad bird that dirties its own nest.
Dhe saangz maa midhur saang. The songs my mother sang.
Aa kent a maan gayd oafun dhair.
I knew a man who often went there.
Dhe maan yee gay'd tay'z noa weel. The man to whom you gave it is ill (not well).
Duid yee ken you wummun ut Aa wuz speekin wee? Did you know that woman to whom I was speaking?
For the possessive case of the relative, 'whose', or 'of which ',
a circumlocution with ut is employed. Examples:
Dhaat's dhe maan ut hiz bairn deed dhestreen. Dhaat's dhe maan ut hed a bairn deed dhestreen. That's the man whose child died yesterday evening.
Dhon wuz dhe wummun ut Aa kent hur sun. That was the woman whose son I knew.
Gimmee dhe stick ut dhe haid oa'd'z broakun. Give me the stick with the broken head.
Dhaat's dhe dug ut goat uts lig run our. That's the dog whose leg was run over.
Dhe auld maan ut goat huz lig broakun caam hurplin oot. The old man whose leg was broken came limping out.
Dhe tree ut hee sellt dhe fruit aaf's daid. The tree whose fruit he sold is dead.
Hee beidz ee hoos ut yee see dhe end oa'd. He lives in the house the end of which you see.
Hwaat is used as a relative and sometimes expressed where
it is omitted in E. Examples:
Dhaat's mair nor hwaat Aa thoakht. That's more than I thought.
Deer kenz aw hwaat hee sed. Goodness knows what he said.
The interrogative pronoun hwaw, like the E. 'who' (hoo), is
masculine or feminine, singular or plural, and, like the E. 'who' in ordinary conversation, is used for the objective as well as the
nominative. There is no hwaam, corresponding to E. 'whom'
(hoom). The possessive case in both genders and both numbers
is hwaw'z, corresponding to E. 'whose' (hooz). The neuter,
both singular and plural, nominative and objective, is hwaat,
E. 'what' (wot), often slurred into hwut.
S. E.
Masc. and Fem. Neuter Masc. and Fem. Neuter
Nom. hwaw hwaat who (hoo) what (wot)
Poss. hwaw'z whose (hooz)
Obj. hwaw hwaat whom (hoom) what (wot)
S. E.
Hwaw'z dhaat? Who is that?
Hwaw ur yee? Who are you?
Aa kennay hwaw yee bee — aar. I don't know who you are.
Hwaw'z bairn'z dhaat ? Whose child is that?
Hwaw'z shuin'z dhay? Whose shoes are those?
Hwaw duid yee see? Whom did you see?
Hwaw wuz aukht dhis hoos afoar yee boakht ut? Who did this house belong to before you bought it?
Hwut's yur wull? What do you say (what's your
Some of the commonest adverbs are connected with pronouns
in form and meaning.
Pronoun Adverb
Place Time Manner
Inter. hwaw hwaur hwaan hoo
Relative hwaw (poetic) hwaur hwaan, hwun hoo
Dem. dhis heer noo
dhaat dhair dhaan say, dhaat
dhon or
yon dhondur or
Pronoun Adverb
Place Time Manner
Inter. who (hoo) where (wair) when (wen) how (how)
Relative who (hoo) where when how
Dem. this (dhis) here (heer) now thus (dhus)
that (dhat) there (dher) then (dhen) so (soa)
yonder yonder
NOTE. The interrogative and relative adverbs, like the corresponding
pronouns, begin with the sound hw, except in the case of
hoo (how), where the sound of w has been absorbed in the following
vowel. As in English, the relative adverbs are the same in sound
as the corresponding interrogatives, except that the relative hwaan
(when) is often slurred into hwun. The adverb of manner 'thus'
(dhus), which has almost dropped out of English as ordinarily
spoken, is not used in Scotch, its place being taken by the expression
dhus wei (in this way). The word corresponding to the
English 'why' is not used in pure Scotch, its place being taken
by the phrase hwaat wei (in what way), or hwaat fur, meaning
'for what reason'. Say (so = soa) is used, but often the E. 'so' is
represented in S. by ut or dhaat. The word dhondur or yondur,
referring to things at a distance, is used much more commonly
than yonder in E. Examples:
S. E.
Hwaur (ur) yee gaun? Where are you going?
Hwaan duid hee cum? When did he come?
Hoo'z aw wee yee? How are you all (all with you)?
S. E.
Hee wuz weel hwun Aa saw
um. He was well when I saw him.
Cum 'eer — beid dhair. Come here — stay here.
It's moanay yeer sin dhaan
(sein) It's many years since then.
Aa'm non dhaat (say) weel. I'm not so well.
Ut's noa dhaat ull. It's not so bad (not at all bad).
Aa dinnay think ut. I don't think so.
Aa wudnay say dhaat. I shouldn't say so.
Hee tellt oos dhaat oafun. He often told us so.
Shee wuz dhaat prood. She was so proud.
Gaang our dhondur. Go over there.
Ut's noa dhaat mukkul. It's not so large (as that).
Aa wuz dhaat faird. I was so frightened.
Hwaat wei noa? Why not?
Aa wull dhaat
Aa'll dui dhaat I will do so. — I will indeed. — Right you are!
Aa'm sayin dhaat. I'm saying so (that's what I say).
Aa tellt yee dhaat. I told you so.
Hwaat is sometimes used in place of hoo:
Hwaat mukkul dhay wur dhaan! How big they were then!
As in English, many prepositions of place and time are used as
adverbs, e. g. in, oot (out), up, doon (down), ufoar (before), uhint (behind), uboot (about), ubuin (above). Other adverbs are:
Adverbs of Place.
uwaw, waw, away, along
heeruwaw, hereabouts
dhairuwaw, thereabouts
hwawruwaw, whereabouts
our, over (oavur), away.
unour (in over), farther in, in.
utour (out over), farther out, or
off, back.
but, into or in the outer room.
ben, into or in the inner room.
neer, neerhaund, near, nearly.
faar, far.
yont, along, farther along,
sumwei, sum gait, somewhere.
oanay gait, anywhere.
awgait, everywhere.
haaf gait, halfway.
bii, past.
in bii, inside, indoors.
neer bii, near.
oot bii, outside, out of doors.
our bii, over the way, a little
way across.
foarut, forwards.
baak, back, backwards.
dhegidhur, together.
ujee, uglei, to one side, off the
straight, squinting, awry.
haim, home.
foarun, abroad.
Cum uwaw (cawaw). — Gay waw haim. Come along. — Go along
Aa'm gaun uwaw tee waal. I am going along to the well.
Dhur noa sik a thing heeruwaw. There's no such thing here-abouts.

'Oa hwawruwaw gaat yee dhaat auld crookit pennay?'
Oh, whereabouts got you that old crooked penny?
Gay haim our wee yee. Go away home.
Cum uwaw unour tee fiir. Come along nearer (farther in —
inside) to the fire.
Cum utour. Come out (e. g. of a cart).
Hud utour fay dhe fiir. Keep back from the fire (farther off).
Aa hunnay been utour dhis ekht dayz. I haven't been out of
bed for a week.
Hee pood dhem utour. He pulled them back (or away).
Gaang but. Go into the outer room.
Cum uwaw ben. Come along into the inner room.
Aa'v ain ben heer. I've one here in the inner room.
Aa wuz neerhaund daid. I was nearly dead.
Sut yont a but. Sit a little farther along.
Ur yee cumin yont dhe toon? Are you coming through the
Hee'z up uboot Ing-lund sumwei. He's somewhere in England.
Aa caannay find ut oanay gait. I can't find it anywhere.
Aa'v luikit augait for'd. I've looked everywhere for it.
Shee gaid bii weeoot speekin. She went past without speaking.
Cum in bii. Come inside, indoors.
Baak un foarut. Backwards and forwards.
Heesht yee baak. Come back soon (haste you back).
Shee fuish unour dhe boatul un paat doon dhe kebbuk.
She brought (fetched) over the bottle and set (put) down the
Hee roakht oot bii. He worked outside, out of doors.
As in E., dhair, dhur (there) is used at the beginning of a
sentence beginning with some tense of the auxiliary verb bee (be)
merely as an introduction, but after dhur the verb iz is often
omitted. Examples:
S. E.
Dhur a maan at dhe doar. There's a man at the door.
Dhur naybuddee in. There's nobody in.
Dhur nay doot uboot dhaat. There's no doubt about that.
Adverbs of Time, and Number.
noo, now.
dhe-noo, just now, at present,
eenoo, just now (in the now).
dhaan, dhun, then.
sein, sin, then, ago.
yet, yut, yet.
ei, always, still.
hweilz, sometimes.
u hweil sin, some time ago.
ay day, one day.
ay teim, at one time, once.
ains oan a day, once upon a
uwaw, ago.
dhis moanay a day, for many
a day now.
ains, once.
tweis, twice.
threis, thrice.
ivvur, ever.
nivvur, nair, never.
shuin, suin, soon.
ugen, again.
oafun, often.
moanayteim, many a time,
nooz un dhaanz, now and then.
a wee, a little while.
in a wee, in a little, soon.
laung, for long.
faar back, long ago.
air, early (erli).
lait, late (lait)
A number of adverbial phrases which begin in E. with 'to'
(too), begin in S. with dhe.
S. E.
dhe-day to-day (too-day)
dhe-moarn to-morrow (too-morroa)
dhe-nikht to-night (too-niit)
dhegidhur together (toogedher)
Similarly we have dhe-yeer (this year) and dhe-noo (just now);
and dhe-streen is more common than yustreen for 'yesterday
evening' (but yusturday is used for 'yesterday'). Dhe moarn'z
moarnin is 'to-morrow morning' and dhe moarn'z night
'to-morrow night'. Examples:
Juist uboot dhe noo. Just about now.
Noa dhe noo. Not just now.
Aa'll bee eenoo. I'll be there immediately.
Shee wuz heer eenoo. She was here just now.
Sein Aa gaid haim. Then I went home.
Auld laung sein. Old long ago (long, long ago).
Ut's a gei laang hweil sin sein. It's a good long time since then.
Aa'm ei waarslin oan. I'm still struggling on.
Hee'z ei tee foar. He's still to the fore (still alive).
Ei weis uhint dhe haund. Always wise after the event.
Hee cum'z heer hweilz. He comes here sometimes.
Hweilz Ii un hweilz noa. Sometimes yes and sometimes not.
Ut's thertay yeer uwaw. It's thirty years ago.
Noa az ivvur Aa haard oanay wei. Not as I ever heard at any rate.
Dhe tren ull shuin bee heer. The train will soon be here.
Aa'v aitun dhaat moanay teim. I've eaten that often.
Dhe moarn cum ekht dayz. A week to-morrow.
Dhe neeps iz noa guid dhe yeer. The turnips are not good this
Beid a wee. Wait a little.
Duinay beid laang. Don't stay long.
oanay wei, at least, at any rate,
a wee — a wee but — a wee
thing, a little.
a thoakht, a thought (thaut), the
least bit.
keind oa, keinoa, somewhat,
by way of, half, rather.
leik, like (liik), as it were.
aleik, alike, similarly.
gei, geiun, rather, pretty.
juist, just, exactly, only.
fein, well, thoroughly, easily.
weel, well.
mukkul, much.
a haip, a lot, often.
our, too, excessively.
awdhegidhur, altogether (aultoogedher).

dhaat, so (soa).
brawlay, very well.
inyukh, enough (enuff).
leik inyukh, likely enough,
unkay, very.
uvaw, at all.
neer, neerhaund, nearly, almost.

ubee, alone, as it is.
aivun, even, straight, right.
aivun oan, without stopping.
een, just.
maist, almost.
throo, done, finished.
fell, remarkably, very, thoroughly.

S. E.
Ut's wurth twaw pound oanay
wei. It's worth two pounds at any
Shee's a wee but daaft. She's a little mad.
Aa wuz hundurd a wee thing. I was a little delayed.
Ut's a wee thing jimp. It's a little skimpy.
Dhaat's a thoakht our laang. That's the least bit too long.
Hee'z keind oa queer. He is somewhat eccentric.
Hee wuz keind oa gaun uwaw
tay tack a weif. He was by way of going to get
Juist keind oa middlin. Very ordinary (just kind of
Aa wuz keind oa ull aboot ut
— staartin dhe craitur. I was rather unhappy about it
—startling the creature.
Dhur wuz haips leik. There were heaps, as it were.
Aa wuz keind oa faird leik. I was somewhat afraid, as it
Hee spaak grumlay leik. He spoke rather grumblingly.
Aa'm noa verray weel leik dhe
day I'm not very well, as it were,
Aa'm gei thraang. I'm rather busy.
It's gei saaft dhe-day. It's rather wet to-day.
A gei hween. A good few.
Shee'z gei auld. She's pretty old.
Dhaat's gei leik ut. That's pretty like it.
Hee'z a gei queer chaap. He's a very funny fellow (odd).
A gei sair beil ut wuz tui. A pretty painful boil it was too.
Shee'z lookin geiun soabur. She's looking rather ill.
Aa'm geiun weel. I am pretty well.
Aa'm geiun soabur. I am rather poorly.
Juist dhaat. Just so.
Fein dhaat. Quite well, easily.
Aa ken um fein. I know him well.
Hee caan duid fein. He can do it easily.
It's braw tay bee weel leikit. It's good to be well liked.
Shee wuz mukkul thoakht oa. She was much thought of.
Yee'v puitun in our mukkul
saut You've put in too much salt.
Hee caam a haip uboot Dinnin. He often came to Dunning.
Yee'v cumd our shuin. You've come too soon.
Dhur our moanay oa dhum
awdhegidhur There are too many of them
Aa wuz dhaat faird. I was so frightened.
Shee wuz dhaat keind. She was so kind.
Aa ken um brawlay. I know him very well.
Dhaat's guid inyukh. That's good enough.
S. E.
Shee'z unkay queer. She's very eccentric.
Hee'z unkay guid. He's very good (too good).
Dhaat's nay guid uvaw. That's no use at all.
Laat's ubee. Let me alone.
Shee juist gaaburd aivun oan. She simply jabbered without
Ur yee noa throo yet? Haven't you finished yet?
Hee wuz a fell guid ministur. He was a remarkably good
Hee'z fell weel cumd in noo. He's thoroughly well trained
(come in) now.
Shee keind oa kent oa'd tui. She knew something of it too.
Shee fleitit aivun oan — shee
nair divauldid. She scolded without ceasing — she never stopped.
Ut gayz aivun throo. It goes straight through.
Aivun up dhe bray. Straight up the hill.
As in English, many adjectives are used as adverbs. Unlike
English, Scotch rarely adds the equivalent of E. ly to an adjective
to make it an adverb, so that it is more common in S. than in
E. to find an adjective used, without any change of pronunciation,
as an adverb ('very', 'well', 'pretty', and a few others are similarly
used in E.).
S. E.
Adj. Adv. Adj. Adv.
aufay aufay awful awfully, very
caanay caanay gentle gently
cleen cleen clean quite
dufrund dufrund different differently
fair fair fair fairly, quite
fein fein fine well
fell fell remarkable remarkably
laang laang long long
leik leik like likely
lood lood loud loudly, loud
mukkul mukkul much much
neer neer near nearly
quik quik quick quickly
rail rail real (reeul) really, very, quite
rikht rikht right very, really
tairubul tairubul terrible terribly, very, exceedingly
ull ull ill, bad ill, badly
sair sair sore (soar) sorely, thoroughly, well
Among the few exceptions are:
S. E. S. E.
brawlay splendidly, thoroughly haardlay hardly
shuirlay surely (shoorli) full-lay fully (foolli)
this last word being used frequently in the sense of 'quite',
'rather more than', 'a good deal', 'on the whole'.
NOTE. The word 'quite', so common in English, is not used in
Scotch, its place being taken by some such word as full-lay, fair,
cleen. So, too, verray (very) is seldom used, the meaning being
expressed by such words as rikht, rail, aufay, tairubul.
S. E.
Dhaat's aufay guid — aufay
naitThat's awfully good — awfully
Hee'z aufay rich. He is very rich.
Aa'm aufay thraang dhe-day. I am very busy to-day.
Hee wuz tain uwaw aufay
suddun He was taken away (died) very
Caw caanay. Drive gently, take it easy.
Hee'z cleen daaft. He's quite mad.
Aa'm cleen duin. I'm quite exhausted.
Dhaat ain't dufrund maid. That one is made differently.
Aa wuz fair dumfoonurd. I was struck quite dumb.
Dhay'z tairubul fein nowt. Those are exceedingly fine bullocks.

I'm duiin fein — brawlay. I'm doing well — capitally.
Aa kent hum brawlay. I knew him very well.
Hee'z a fell guid-naiturd laud,
yon That's a remarkably good-

natured fellow.
Full-lay Jek hii. Rather beyond the Jack (at
Coorsur full-lay dhaan dhe
floor. A good deal coarser than flour.
Dhay wur full-lay a scoar oa
dhum. There were quite a score of
Full-lay dhaat. Quite that.
Noa mikhtay mukkul. Not very much.
Dhe dug wuz neer wud. The dog was nearly mad.
Dhe coarn'z neer reip. The corn is nearly ripe.
Aa'm rail weel dhe-day. I'm quite well to-day.
Dhay'z rail fein peeps. These are very fine turnips.
Aa wuz rail weel plaizd. I was very pleased indeed.
Dhur kail'z rail guid. This broth is quite good.
Weer rail cheef dhe noo. We're quite friendly at present.
S. E.
Dhaat's a rikht auld ain. That's a really old one.
Hut's rikht foarnent yee. It is straight in front of you.
Hee'z rikht foo dhe-nikht. He's quite drunk to-night.
Dhay claiz iz cumperatif auld. Those clothes are comparatively
Shee fleits coanstant. She's constantly scolding.
Aa wuz fair daivd wee dhur
din. I was quite deafened by the
noise they made.
Shoe wuz greetin sair, puir
laussay. She was crying bitterly, poor
Hee'z noa sair plaizd uboot ut. He's not greatly pleased about it.
Hee wuz sair fluttun tull
hwun hee caam haim. He was thoroughly well scolded
when he came home.
Shee nivvur divauldz. She never ceases.
Hur tung gaangz coanstant. Her tongue is constantly wagging.

Shee juist gaaburz aivun oan. She simply jabbers without
NOTE. In E. 'likely' is more an adjective than an adverb. It is
not good English to say, as many Scotchmen do, 'I shall likely be
there' ; but, curiously enough, one may say 'I shall very likely be
there.' The Scotch for this would be Leik inyukh Aa'll bee
The E. 'else' is expressed by the use of the adjective idhur
(other), e. g. Nay idhur buddee (nobody else), oanay idhur
thing (anything else). Examples:
S. E.
Aa'll leiklay meet yee. I shall probably meet you.
Wur dhay nay idhur buddee
wee yee? Was there nobody else with
Wur dhay oanay idhur thing
yee wuz seekin? Did you want anything else?
S. E. S. E.
noa not naigait nowhere
nay n't nair, nivvur never
S. E.
Yee'll noa dui dhaat. You'll not do that.
Noa mee. Not I.
NOTE. When noa (not) is used after its verb it is usually
slurred into nay, which corresponds to the E. n't for not. The
sound of the verb, too, is sometimes slurred.
S. E.
Slurred Full Slurred Full
iznay iz noa isn't is not
wuznay wuz noa wasn't was not
wunnay wull noa won't will not
duinay, divnay div noa don't do not
caannay caan noa can't cannot
maannay maan noa mustn't must not
hunnay, hevnay hev noa haven't have not
hednay hed noa hadn't had not
neednay need noa needn't need not
kennay ken noa don't know
cairnay cair noa don't care
S. E.
Aa hunnay been ee toon yut. I haven't been into the village
Yee neednay thraip ut doon

maa throat. You needn't force me to swallow
it (some assertion).
The use of a double negative is common:
S. E.
Aa duinay cair uboot nain
oa'd. I don't care for any of it.
Aa duinay taak nay mair nor
a gless. I don't take more than a glass.
Aa nivvur saw nain oa hut. I never saw any of it.
Aa nivvur aits nay beef. I never eat any beef.
Yee coodnay maak nay idhur
oa'd. You couldn't make anything
else of it.
Aa hunnay seen nain oa
dhum. I haven't seen any of them.
Yee caannay luppun oan um
wee naything. You can't trust him about anything

Aa'm noa fur nay mair oa'd. I don't want any more of it.
Aa hunnay seen ur naygait. I haven't seen her anywhere.
Dhur noa nay teim at nikht. There's no time at night.
Hee nivvur kent nay mair. He never knew any more.
Shee hednay nain naidhur. Besides she hadn't any.
aiblinz, perhaps.
aidhur, however.
ain'z airund, (one's errand)
specially, for that alone.
a wee, a little.
aw weiz, in every way.
az laiv, az leef, rather.
bii-oardnur, extraordinarily.
bii-wee'd, (by with it), done
for, as good as dead.
deed, indeed, to be sure.
dhaat wei, in that way, like
dhe wei oa'd, the way of it,
how it goes.
ee coantur, on the contrary.
eent, indeed.
foarun, (foreign), abroad.
furbii, besides.
lood oot, aloud.
mebbee, may be.
noa a gren, not a grain, not in
the least.
noa a hait, not a whit, not in
the least.
suinur, shuinur, rather (raadher).

sumwei, somehow or other.
thoa, though (dhoa).
throo, (through), over, completed.

tui, tay, too.
ubee, as it is, alone.
ulow, on fire.
unaw, as well, also, too.
un aw dhaat, and all that sort
of thing.
un dhaat, and so on, etcetera.
Examples :
S. E.
Yee aiblinz mikht. Perhaps you might.
Ut's noa mulk naidhur. It's not milk, however.
Dinnay gaang ain'z airund. Don't go for that alone (specially
for that purpose).
Dhe lum'z ulou — up. The chimney's on fire.
Hee broakht hiz sun unaw. He brought his son too.
Aa'll taak dhaat ain unaw. I will take that one as well.
Mulkin kii un aw dhaat. Milking cows, and all that sort
of thing.
Shee wuz gleid a wee. She squinted a little.
Aa'd az laiv beid at haim. I'd rather stay at home.
Aa wud az leef dui'd. I would rather do it.
Dhay piz iz bii-oardnur fein. Those peas are extraordinarily
Hee'z bii wee'd. He's past recovery.
Deed Ii; deed noa. Yes, indeed; no, indeed.
Ut wuznay dhaat wei uvaw. It wasn't like that at all.
It iz eent. It is indeed.
Aa'm eent. Indeed I am.
I duid eent. I did indeed.
Iz hee gaun uwaw foarun? Is he going abroad?
S. E.
Faar uwaw beez foarun. Much farther than abroad.
Un moanay mair furbii. And many more besides.
Reed ut lood oot. Read it aloud.
Mebbee Ii, un mebbee noa. Perhaps yes, and perhaps not.
Aa'm noa joakin a gren. I'm not joking at all.
Aa'm noa a gren faird. I'm not in the least afraid.
Aa wad suinur gay haim. I would rather go home.
Shee'z hiz aantay sumwei. She's his aunt somehow or
Wuz ee thoa? Was he indeed?
Duid yee thoa? Did you indeed?
Aa wull thoa. I will though.
His teim wuz throo. His time was over.
Ur yee throo? Have you done?
Laat's ubee. Leave me alone.
NOTE. The word oanlay (only) to a Scotch ear has an affirmative
sense, and to an English ear a negative sense, so that when meaning
to agree with a sentence containing only a Scotchman says 'Ii' (yes),
while an Englishman says 'No'.
Example: It's only five miles to Crieff.
Answer from a Scotchman: Ii, but it's uphill.
Answer from an Englishman: No, but it's uphill.
Adverbs, like adjectives, form their comparative by adding ur,
and their superlative by adding ist to the positive. Examples:
S. E.
Pos. Comp. Sup. Pos. Comp. Sup.
suin suinur suinist soon sooner soonest
laang laang-ur laang-ist long longer longest
Some adverbs form their comparative and superlative irregularly:

S. E.
Pos. Comp. Sup. Pos. Comp. Sup.
luttul less laist little less least (leest)
mukkul mair maist much more (moar) most (moast)
weel bettur best well better best
ull waur waarst ill worse (wurs) worst (wurst)
The comparative is sometimes formed by prefixing mair (more),
and the superlative by prefixing maist (most), to the positive.
NOTE. Adverbs are sometimes given a place in the sentence
different from that given them in E.
S. E.
Hut cumz ei oot ee gloamin. It always comes out in the twilight.

Noa mebbee duiin mukkul. Perhaps not doing much.
aaf, off, away from.
aaf oa, off, away from.
at, at.
baak, towards the back.
ben, towards the sitting-room
or bedroom.
bii, by, past, besides.
but, towards the kitchen.
doon, down.
eftur, after.
fay, from.
foarnent, in front of.
in, i', in.
intay, into.
intul, into, inside.
neer, near (neer).
oan, on.
oot, out.
oot oa, out of.
our, over (oavur), across.
roond, round.
tay, tee, tull, to, till.
throo, through (throo).
ubloa, below.
uboot, about.
ucroas, across.
ufoar, before.
uhint, behind (behiind).
ulaang, along.
umoan, among (among).
uneth, beneath (beneeth).
unour, inside (insiid).
up, up.
useid, beside (besiid).
utween, between.
utour, outside.
uyont, beyond.
wee, with.
yont, along.
NOTE. A number of prepositions begin with u, corresponding
to the E. a, as ubuin, uboot, umoan, but we have also uneth,
ufoar, uhint, useid, utween, uyont for the E. 'beneath', 'before',
'behind', 'beside', 'between', 'beyond'. Examples:
S. E.
Aa tuik ut aaf um. I took it from him (i.e. off his
Hee tuik dhe coat aaf oa mee. He took my coat off me, or away
from me.
Baak dhe cloas. In the entry, back from the
S. E.
Gaang ben dhe hoos. Go into the inner room (bedroom
or parlour).
Bii dhe glessiz. Besides the glasses.
Wee hed idhur keindz bii
dhay. We had other kinds besides
Aa gaid bii um. I went past him.
Hut's but dhe hoos. It's in the outer room (kitchen).
Hwaur d'yee cum fay? Where do you come from?
Foarnent dhe doar. In front of the door.
Lay yur luif i' meinz, lauss. Lay your palm in mine, lass.
Aa nivvur putts a fut intul'd. I never set a foot inside it.
Dhur'z piz intut'd. There are peas inside it.
Hwaat's intul'd. What's inside it?
Oot dhe road. Out along the road.
Hee loupit our dhe burn. He jumped across the stream.
Az Aa caam our dhe brig. As I came across the bridge.
Cumin throo dhe rii. Coming through the rye.
Hwaur (ur) yee gaup tull? Where are you going to?
Geed tull um. Give it to him.
Wee gaid haim tull oor dennur.
We went home to dinner.
Uboot Dinnin. In the neighbourhood of Dunning.

Sumwei uboot dhe Pininshoolur
Waur. Somewhere in the Peninsular
Taak yur auld cluk uboot yee. Take your old cloak round you.
Shee beidz doon uboot Lundun.
She lives somewhere near London.

Hee'z uboot Ing-lund sumwei. He's somewhere in England.
Ubuin dhem aw yee taak yur
plais. Above them all you take your
Ufoar dhe doar. Before the door.
Cum oot umoan dhe neeps. Come out from among the
Our dhe muir umoan dhe
hedhur. Over the moor among the
Putt ut uneth dhe tibbul. Put it below the table.
Aa wunnay gaang unour yur
doar. I won't go inside your door.
Dhay wur suttin useid idhur. They were sitting side by side
.Hee saat doon useid mee. He sat down beside me.
Wee wudnay gaang utour dhe
doar fur fair oa boagulz. We would not go outside the
door for fear of goblins.
Dhe smuddee staundz uyont
dhe burn. The smithy stands beyond the
Yont dhe toon. Along through the village.
Yont dhe road. Along the road.
As in English, many prepositions of place are also used as
prepositions of time, e. g. ufoar, eftur, utween, at, neer, uboot,
fay, in. Other prepositions of time are:
S. E.
gin by
or till
sin since (sins)
S. E.
Aa'll bee ekhtay gin Mei. I'll be eighty by May.
Hee'll bee heer gin nikht. He'll be here by nightfall.
Wee'll aw bee daid gin dhaan. We'll all be dead by then.
Shee'll bee haim gin Weddunzday.
She'll be home by Wednesday.
Aa roakht ma stoakin or denner-teim.
I knitted (worked) my stocking
till dinnertime.
It's moanay yeer sin sein. It's many years since then.

beez, bee, ba, beside, in comparison
bunnay, except.
but, without.
fur, for.
leik, like (liik).
oa, of (ov).
tay, in comparison with.
weeoot, without.
waantin, short of, without.
S. E.
Hee'z auld ba mee. He's old in comparison with me
(older than me).
Faar noarth beez dhis. Far north in comparison with
this (farther north than this).
Ut brunt leik maad. It burned furiously.
Noa tay hwaat it wuz ains. Not in comparison with what it
once was.
Aa'll noa gaang waantin hur. I'll not go without her.
Dhe laud waantin a lig. The youth short of a leg (with
one leg)
He caam haim waantin dhe
breeks. He came home without his
Aa caannay see waantin dhe
glessiz. I can't see without spectacles.
NOTE. Before an infinitive, fur tay or fur tull (for to) is often
used for the E. to. Examples:
S. E.
Hee ettuld fur tay gaang. He meant to go.
Aa gaid fur tay see'd. I went to see it.
Hee sent a maan fur tay git ut. He sent a man to get it.
In some phrases the article dhe is expressed in S. though
omitted in E. Examples:
S. E.
At dhe kirk. At church.
At dhe scuil. At school.
Oan dhe noak. O'clock.
A gem at dhe boolz. A game at marbles or bowls.
Hee'z uwaw at dhe curlin. He's away curling.
Ur yee cumin tee (tay dhe)
curlin. Are you coming to curl?
Up dhe stair. Upstairs.
Doon dhe stair. Downstairs.
Up dhe bray. Uphill.
Doon dhe bray. Downhill.
Wee dhe tren. By train.
Duid yee cum wee dhe tren? Did you come by train?
Naa, Aa trevulld. No, I came on foot (walked).
Hee'll bee heer wee dhe fiiv
tren. He'll be here by the five o'clock
Some prepositions are used in a different way from what they
are in English:
better oa, better for.
waur oa, worse for.
caw fur, call on.
crii oan, call to.
cum at, think of.
cum oot wee, utter.
faird fur, afraid of.
in a praizunt, as a present.
luppun oan (or tull), trust.
maak up oan, overtake.
meind oa, remember.
merray oan, marry to.
putt fay, put off.
reit, write to.
sleep in, oversleep oneself.
slip uwaw, die.
speek wee, speak to.
speer at, ask.
wait oan, wait for.
aaf, from.
bee, from.
wee, for, owing to, because of.
our, on.
tay, for.
Aa'm dhe better oa dhaat. I'm the better for that.
Nain dhe better oa yoor speerin. None the better for your asking.
Hee'z dhe waur oa drink. He's worse for drink.
Nain dhe waur oa dhaat. None the worse for that.
Duid yee caw for Mustris Bug? Did you call on Mrs. Boag?
Hee criid oan's. He called to me.
Aa caanay cum at a naim for'd. I can't think of a name for it.
Ur yee faird fur um? Are you afraid of him?
Aa'm noa faird fur yoo, oanay wei.
I'm not afraid of you, at any rate.
Aa goat dhaat in a praizunt. I got that as a present.
Yee caanay luppun oan um wee naything.
You can't trust him for anything.
Hee'z noa tay luppun tull. He's not to be trusted.
Aa maid up oan um. I overtook him.
Aa meind oa hum fein. I remember him well.
Hwaw'z shee merraid oan? Who's she married to?
She'z merraid oan maa cuizin. She's married to my cousin.
Ut's noa aizee puttin dhum fay'd. It's not easy to put them off it.
Aa roat um laast week. I wrote to him last week.
Shee sluppit uwaw laast nikht. She died last night.
Aa wuz faird Aa wud sleep in.
I was afraid I should oversleep myself.
Aa duidnay speek wee ur. I didn't speak to her.
Speer at yur midhur. Ask your mother.
Yee neednay speer at hum. You needn't ask him.
Aa wuz waitin oan a maan. I was waiting for a man.
Hee caam oot wee an aith. He uttered an oath.
A but coalup aaf dhe soo.
A small cut from the pig (a rasher of bacon).
Hee het me our dhe haid. He hit me on the head.
Maa midhur shood ut timmay (tay mee).
My mother sewed it for me.
Aa coodnay git sleepit wee dhe likhnin.
I couldn't go to sleep owing to the lightning.
Aa coodnay git sleepit wee dhe dugz baarkin.
I couldn't go to sleep owing to the dogs' barking.
Hiz peenee'z aw cuissen wee sun.
His pinafore is quite faded (cast) owing to the sun. (The sun
has taken all the colour out of his pinafore.)
Aa wuz hirdin wee a maan twaw yeer.
I was shepherd to a man for two years.
Aa'm noa throo yut. I haven't finished yet.
Iz dhe kirk throo? Is service over?
Aa caannay gaang throo wee'd.
I can't go through with it (finish it).
Aa gaid throo sum auld foak wee um.
I went over (talked about) some old people with him.
Hiz fingur wuz cuttit wee gless. His finger was cut by the glass.
Dhe floorz iz sair taasht wee dhe ren.
The flowers are badly battered by the rain.
The prepositional phrases oa dhe (of the), i dhe (in the), are
very commonly slurred into ee. So also, but more rarely, are
at dhe and oan dhe. Examples:
For oa dhe (of the):
Dhe haid ee toon.
The head of the town (the highest part of the village).
At dhe baak ee kirk. At the back of the church.
Bee hair ee haid. By the hair of the head.
Ee playgrund ee auld scuil.
In the playground of the old school.
A draap oot ee kail-paat. A drop out of the broth-pot.
For i dhe (in the) or intay dhe (into the):
Ee moarnin, ee gloamin. In the morning, in the twilight.
Ee big hoos. In the mansion house.
Ee baak end ee yeer. In the end of the year.
Tweis ee day. Twice a day (in the day).
Ee noo. Just now (in the now).
Put ut ee oavun. Put it in the oven.
Coalups frii-in ee paan. Steaks frying in the pan.
Dhur a blaast ee waast ee noo.
There's a shower in the west just now.
Aa'v been seein fairlayz ee fiir.
I have been seeing strange things in the fire.
Aa ei juist keep ut ee pooch.
I always just keep it in my pocket.
Tautayz bursuld ee ess. Potatoes roasted in the ashes.
Hee'z waast ee haw. He's west in the hall.
Hut's broon ee cullur. It's brown in (the) colour.
Aa roakht ee shoap wee Baaray.
I worked in the shop with Barry.
Dhe kii wuz gaun ee paark.
The cattle were set to graze (going) in the park,
Wee goat aukhteen pens ee day.
We got eighteen pence in the day (a day).
Dhay wur a femin ee twintee-six.
There was a famine in the 26 (1826).
Putt ut ee paat. Put it into the pot.
Aa hunnay been ee toon yut.
I haven't been into the village yet.
Hee gaid plunk ee burn. He went plump into the brook.
For at dhe (at the):
Glour ee muin un faw ee middun.
Gaze at the moon and fall on the dungheap.
For oan dhe (on the):
Dhay wuz rowin ee fluir. They were rolling on the floor.
A sclaaf ee lug. A slap on the ear.
A lik ee chaafts. A crack on the jaws.
Hee beidz ee t'idhur seid oa Creef.
He lives on the other side of Crieff.
Ut fell oot ee'z haund ee fluir.
It fell out of his hand on to the floor.
Ee coantur. On the contrary.
Tee is used as a slurred form of tay dhe (to the):
Aa'm gaun uwaw tee waal fur waatur.
I am going along to the well for water.
Ur yee gaun tee kirk? Are you going to church?
Gaang tee hoos un kaim yur hair.
Go to the house and comb your hair.
Hee wuz in tee nekk. He was in up to the neck.
Dinnay gaang tee law. Don't go to (the) law.
Dhe snaw wuz up tee pooch-ludz.
The snow was up to my (the) pocket-flaps.
Dhay tiid a stuk tee snek ee doar.
They tied a stick to the latch of the door.
Ut gaid tee doar oan uts ain feet.
It went to the door on its own feet.
Aa'm ei tee foar. I am still to the fore (still alive).
Wee is used for wee dhe (with the):
Tay sup wee deel. To sup with the devil.
Aa'll gee yee a craak wee poakur.
I'll give you a blow with the poker.
By dhe (by the) sometimes becomes bee:
Yee hay dhe raang soo bee lug.
You have the wrong pig by the ear.
In rapid speech the preposition tay (to) is sometimes slurred
into a:
Aa'm gaun a gee yoo sumthing.
I am going to give you something.
Other constructions are:
Hee tuik ut fimmay (fay mee). He took it from me.
Hee geed ut timmay (tay mee). He gave it to me.
Tay sometimes becomes tee before yee:
Un Aa cum tee yee. If I come to you.
Special prepositions or adverbs are commonly used in Dunning
speech in connexion with particular places:
In tay Pairth.
Our tay Gaask, Creef, Glendevon.
Throo tay Gleskay (Glasgow), Aidinburray (Edinburgh).
Doon tay Dundee.
Doon dhe Cleid (Clyde).
Up tay Kippun, Inverness.
Noarth tay Eburdeen (Aberdeen).
Aist tay Furtevvut (Forteviot).
Waast tay Aakhturairdur (Auchterarder).
As in E., many common adverbs and prepositions are used also
as conjunctions, such as hwaur (where), hwun (when), hoo
(how), hwaat wei (why), ufoar (before), eftur (after). Other
conjunctions are:
aidhur — or, either (iidhur) — or.
az, uz, 'z, 's, as (az).
beez, bii, beside, in comparison
with, than.
bunnay, except.
but, except, without.
cuz, because (bicauz).
ut, 't, that (dhat).
fur, for, notwithstanding that.
fur fair, lest.
gif, gin, in, un, if.
hwei, why.
hwun, while.
naidhur — nor, neither — nor.
nor, nur, dhun, un, 'n, than
or, until, till, before.
or ains, or else.
say, so.
sein, then.
sin, since.
suppoazin, supposing, if.
thoa, though (dhoa).
un, and.
weeoot, unless.
dhe saim uz, as if
Aa nair saang bunnay hwun Aa wuz ee kirk.
I never sang except when I was in (the) church.
Yee'r hweit but hwaur yee'r beld.
You're white except where you're bald.
Wee nivvur saw floor scoanz but on Haansul Mundayz.
We never saw flour scones except on Hansel Mondays.
Aa'll taak dhum baith gin yee leik.
I'll take them both if you please.
Gin a buddee meet a buddee. If a person meet a person.
Gin (un) Aa cum tee yee. If I come to you.
Cuz Aa wuznay biddun. Because I wasn't invited.
Shee'z bettur'n shee'z boanay. She's better than she's pretty.
Dhay wur mair nor ain. There were more than one.
Aa'm mair nor obleejd tay yee. I am more than obliged to you.
Wait or Aa see. Wait till I see.
Beid heer or Aa cum baak. Stay here until I come back.
Hud yur tung or ains Aa'll gee yee'd.
Hold your tongue or else I'll give it you.
Cawaw haim or ains Aa'll tell yur midhur.
Come away home or else I'll tell your mother.
Aa buid gay or ains beid at haim.
I had to go or else stay at home.
Staund baak or Aa trii'd masel. Stand back till I try it myself.
Hee wuz auld sin Ii meind.
He's been an old man so long as I remember.
Dhe saim uz yee wuz booin doon. As if you were bowing down.
Noa sin Ii meind. Not since I remember.
Un yee taak dhaat laud, moanay a needlus preen yee'v
puittun in.
If you take that youth, you've stuck in many a needless pin
(you needn't have taken so much trouble to dress up)
Gin yee leik yur midhur bettur nor me, joist beid wee ur.
If you like your mother better than me, just stay with her.
Noa ut Aa ken oa. Not that I know of (Not so far as I know).
Beez or bii is often used with the positive of an adjective
where in E. the comparative with than would be used:
Yeer auld beez mee. You're older than me.
Sullur'z reif noo beez ut wuz i' mii day.
Money's plentiful now compared with what it was in my day.
Dhe bairnz iz stroang noo beez hwun Ii wuz at dhe scuil.
The children are healthy now in comparison with what they
were when I was at school.
Yee'r an auld maan beez Aa thoakht yee wuz.
You're an older man than I thought.
Sum hez hii heelz beez idhurz.
Some have higher heels than others.
Dhur noa moanay foak heer noo bii dhur wuz at dhaat teim.
There are fewer people here now than there were at that time.
NOTE. But, with the indicative mood, is used where in E.
without is used followed by a participle:
Yee nivvur see green cheez but yur eon reelz.
You never see green cheese without your eyes dancing.
Aa nivvur yut gay bii dhe doar, but ei Aa faw a-laakhin.
I never yet go past the door without bursting into laughter.
S. E.
Aa coodnay say. I couldn't say (I don't know).
Aa daursay. I dare say.
Aa divnay ken.
Aa duinay ken. I don't know.
Aa hay yee noo. I have you now (Now I understand).
Aa'm noa sayin. I'm not saying (I dare say).
Aa sez — sez Ii. Says I.
Aa'z uphaad. I'll uphold (I warrant).
Aa'z waarund yee. I'll warrant you.
Aa weel a waat. Well I wot (Well I know).
Aa wudnay say. I shouldn't say (I hardly think so).
Ai! Oh!
Aih? Eh?
As shuir'z daith. As sure as death.
Az shuir'z oakht. As sure as anything.
S. E.
Beid a wee. Wait a minute (a little).
Bigg paardun. I beg your pardon.
Caw caanay. Drive gently, take it easy.
Cawaw, mun. Come along, man.
Chaaps mee dhe theevul! Bags me the porridge-stick!
Cum 'eer. Come here.
Daagoan yee! Damn you!
Daagoan 't! Damn it!
Deed Ii. Yes, indeed.
Deed noa. Indeed not.
Deel a but. Devil a bit.
D'yee see? Do you see?
E! Ah! (aa)
Faigz — faith! Faith!
Feekh — keekh ! Faugh! (faw) an exclamation of
Fein dhaat. Well, thoroughly, easily.
Gaang uwaw. Get away.
Gaang tay Baamff ! Go to Jericho!
Gay haim wee yee. Go along home.
Gay waw (gawaw) wee yee. Get away.
Geid'z aw. Guide us all.
Guid kenz. God knows.
Gwaw haim. Go along home.
Haavurz. Halves.
Hay! taak dhaat! Here, take that!
Haivurz. Nonsense.
Hay!! Here (take this).
Hee sez — sez hee. Says he.
Heesht yee
Heeshtee. Hurry up, make haste.
Hooray! Hurrah! (hooray).
Hoot, hoots, huts. Tut.
Hoot Ii. Yes, indeed.
Hoots noa. Not at all.
Hoot toot. Tut tut.
Hud yur tung. Hold your tongue (tung).
Hud yur weesht. Be quiet.
Hud yur pais. Hold your peace.
Huilay, huilay. Gently, slowly.
Hwaat's yur wull? What did you say?
Ii. Ay (ii), yes.
Ii, ii. Yes, yes.
Ii, fein. Yes, well.
Koa Ii, koa hee, koa shee. Said I, said he, said she.
Laa um ulain. Let him alone.
Lay'z ulain. Laat's abee. Let me alone.
S. E.
Leik. As it were, so to say.
Loash bluss mee. Lord bless me.
Loash me. Lord.
Maa coanshunz! My conscience!
Meind yee. Remember.
Mii! My!
Mil saang.
mii sertay.
Mii troath. My faith.
Mikhtay mee.
Meggistay mee. My eye.
Naa. No (noa).
Naa, naa. No, no.
Nay fair. No fear.
Nivvur haid. Never mind (heed).
Nivvur leet. Don't tell.
Noa a steek. Not a stitch.
Oa, ow, ai, hekh! Oh!
Oa, yee'r waalcum. Don't mention it.
Ow Ii. Oh yes.
Steek yur gaab. Shut up.
Thenk yee. Thank you.
Waulay. Alas.
Way'z mee. Woe's me.
Weel. Well.
Weesht. Be quiet.
Yee ken. You know.
Yee see. You see.
NOTE. It is very common to interject the word maan,
wummun, laud, laudee, lauss, or laussay, according to the sex
and age of the person addressed. When maan does not begin
the sentence it is slurred into mun. Examples:
S. E.
Maan, Aa divnay ken. Man, I don't know.
Ii, mun. Noa, mun. Yes, man. No, man.
Gay waw wee yee, mun. Get away with you.
Ai wummun, wummun! Oh, woman!
Beid a wee, laudee. Wait a bit, boy.
Gwaw haim, laussay. Go along home, girl.
NOTE. Leik (like) is often added to a sentence or clause,
without much meaning except that of indefiniteness, like 'so to
say'. Examples:
Ut wud sair dhe bais aw day, leik.
It would last (serve) the cattle all day, so to say.
Hur fais wuz aw begruttun leik.
Her face showed marks of weeping, so to say.
Ii, pronounced like the English 'eye', or 'ay' in the phrase
'ay or no', is still in very common use, but the English 'yes' is
taking its place, and is often pronounced yais, with a drawl. Ii is
capable by an alteration of tone of expressing a great variety of
meanings, from simple agreement to ready or doubtful acquiescence,
and Ii Ii is often used simply to fill up a pause in the conversation.
Such, too, are the uses of the corresponding inarticulate sound,
which cannot be exactly expressed in writing. If you say aahaa
in a natural way, and then, with the mouth open, say it through
your nose, you have unhun, which is a lazy way of expressing
assent; then, if you shut your mouth and again try to say aahaa,
letting the breath pass entirely through your nose, you have the
still more lazy umhum, a very common sound in Scotland.
Another sound which cannot be exactly represented is something
like chk, and expresses exultation, e. g.
Chk, laud! yee dinnay ken hwaat Aa'v goatun.
Lad, you don't know what I have got.
As in English, most negatives begin with the sound of n
S. E.
naa interj. no (noa)
noa adv. not
nay adv. n't ('not' after auxiliary verbs)
nay adj. no
nain pron. none (nun)
nair-nivvur adv. never
naidhur conj. neither (niidher)
nor conj. nor
naybuddee n. nobody (noabodi)
naything n. nothing (nuthing)
noakht n. naught (naut)
naygait adv. nowhere
The E. words few and seldom are generally expressed in S. by
noa moanay (not many) and noa oafun (not often).
Sometimes noa weel is used where E. would have ill.
The moods and tenses of verbs and the use of auxiliary verbs
are very much the same in S. as in E., except that:
(1) The subjunctive mood is rarely used, the indicative being
employed in its place.
(2) The active infinitive is often used where in E. the passive
infinitive is used. Examples:
Hee's noa tay luppun tull. He's not to be trusted.
Iz dhis hoos tay let? Is this house to be let?
(3) The present participle with the verb 'to be' is more
frequently used than in E., e. g.: Aa'm thinkin, Aa'm sayin,
Aa'm noa sayin dhaat, Aa'm noa cairin (I don't care).
As regards number and person, the chief difference between S.
and E. is that in the present tense the ending in z or s, which
marks the third person singular, is in S. often used in all persons
of the plural unless the verb follows immediately after a single
pronoun, and also in the first person singular, especially when
the present is used for a narrative past.
This sibilant sound is, as in E., the only inflexion of the verb
now surviving, except those of the past tense and the participles.
The rules which determine whether it shall be z or s are much
the same as those which regulate the formation of the plural of
nouns. That is to say, to form the third person singular of the
present tense, most verbs add a z, but if the verb ends in a
breathed sound (except s, ch, or x) the sibilant sound added is s.
If the verb ends in a sibilant sound including ch, j, and x, the
sound added is iz.
Verbs ending in a vowel sound, which add z in the third person
singular present:
S. E.
Verb 3rd pers. sing. pres. Verb 3rd pers. sing. pres.
dee deez die (dii) dies (diiz)
dui duiz do (doo) does (duz)
faw fawz fall (faul) falls (faulz)
gay gayz go (goa) goes (goaz)
grow growz grow (groa) grows (groaz)
loo looz love (luv) loves (luvz)
pei peiz pay pays (payz)
say sez say says (sez)
Verbs ending in a voiced non-sibilant consonant (g, ng, d, n, b,
m, r, l) which add z:
S. E.
Verb 3rd pers. sing. pres. Verb 3rd pers. sing. pres.
beid beidz live lives (livz)
bid bidz bid bids (bidz)
big bigz build (bild) builds (bildz)
braidh braidhz breathe (breedh) breathes (breedhz)
cum cumz come (cum) comes (cumz)
heer heerz hear (heer) hears (heerz)
rin rinz run runs (runs)
sing singz sing sings (singz)
tell tellz tell tells (tellz)
Verbs ending in a sibilant sound (s, z, ch, j, sh, zh, x) which
add iz:
S. E.
Verb 3rd pers. sing. pres. Verb 3rd pers. sing. pres.
juj jujiz judge (juj) judges (jujiz)
muss mussiz miss misses (missiz)
pooch poochiz pouch pouches (pouchiz)
reiz reiziz rise (riiz) rises (riiziz)
wush wushiz wish wishes (wishiz)
Verbs ending in a breathed non-sibilant consonant (k, kh, t,
th, p) which add s:
S. E.
Verb 3rd pers. sing. pres. Verb 3rd pers. sing. pres.
ait aits eat (eet) eats (eets)
lik liks lick (lik) licks (liks)
pekh pekhs pant pants
sleep sleeps sleep sleeps
PRESENT TENSE OF ken (know).
S. E.
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
1st pers. Aa ken. Wee ken. I know (noa). We know.
2nd pers. Yee ken. You know.
3rd pers. Hee kenz. Dhay ken. He knows (noaz). They know.
NOTE. As already noted, although we say wee ken, yee ken,
dhay ken, yet when the subject is any other word or words
than these pronouns standing alone, the plural of the verb
generally takes the sibilant that marks the third person singular.
S. E.
Mee un yoo kenz dhaat fein. You and I know that well.
Mee un hum gaangz dhegidhur. He and I go together.
Hwun dhe kii cumz haim. When the cows come home.
Green growz dhe raashiz, Oa! Green grow the rushes, Oh!
Sum caws dhum dhaat. Some call them that.
And, as already noted, the verb sometimes takes the sibilant
ending of the third person singular even in the first person singular;
and it sometimes does so even after a single plural pronoun,
especially when it is used in narrative for the past. Examples:
S. E.
Aa sez. I said (said I).
Wee cumz utour. We came away back.
Aa nivvur seez um noo. I never see him now.
Aa nivvur putts a fut intul't. I never set foot inside it.
Aa nivvur gits. I never get there.
Aa nivvur drinks nain oa'd. I never drink any of it.
In Aa cumz. In I came.
Aa hez tay pei twaw pound. I have to pay two pounds.
Aa nivvur sleeps a wink
haardlay. I hardly ever sleep a wink.
As in E., verbs (other than the auxiliary verb bee) make no
change for number or person in any tense but the present.
The auxiliary verbs are much the same as in E. and are used
in much the same way. They are:
S. E.
Infin. Pres. Past Infin. Pres. Past
bee iz wuz be (bee) is (iz) was (woz)
hev, hay hez hed have (hav) has (haz) had
caan cood, cud can could (cood)
may mikht may might (miit)
maan, mun buid must had to
wull wud will would (wood)
suid, shuid should (shood)
dui duiz duid do (doo) does (duz) did
daur daur daurd dare dare dared
need need
wunt used
Bee, iz, wuz.
The present tense of the auxiliary verb bee is as follows after
a single pronoun:
Sing. Pl.
Full Slurred Full Slurred
1st pers. am 'm aar, ur 'r
2nd pers. aar, ur 'r
3rd pers. iz 'z, 's aar, ur 'r
Sing. Pl.
Full Slurred Full Slurred
1st pers. am 'm are (aar) 're
2nd pers. are 're
3rd pers. is 's are 're
S. E.
Heer yee aar. Here you are.
Wee'r fein hwaur wee aar. We're all right where we are.
As in E., in ordinary conversation and especially after a pronoun,
the slurred form is commonly used. Examples:
S. E.
Aa'm, shee'z, hee'z, ut's. I'm, she's, he's, it's.
wee'r, yee'r, dhay'r. we're, you're, they're.
As in E., the uncontracted form of the third person singular is
pronounced iz, but the slurred form is z or s according to the rule
which regulates the sibilant sound in the plural of nouns, i.e. after
a vowel sound or a voiced unsibilated consonant (g, ng, d, n, b,
m, r, l) it is z, and after a breathed unsibilated consonant (k, kh, t,
th, p) it is s. After a sibilated consonant the full form iz is used.
S. E.
Hee'z heer, shee'z heer. He's here, she's here.
Hwaw'z dhaat? Who's that?
Hoo'z hee duiin ? How's he doing?
Dhe shoa'z oapun. The show's open.
Dhaat dug'z meinz. That dog's mine.
Aw thing'z heer. Everything's here.
S. E.
Hur haid'z our wee. Her head's too small.
Oor laam'z daid. Our lamb's dead.
Dhe waal'z drii. The well's dry.
Dhe loak's broakun. The lock's broken.
It's heer. It's here.
Dhaat's rikht. That's right.
Dhe munth's our. The month's over.
Dhis sheep's noa weel. This sheep's ill.
Dhay aar (slurred form, dhur) is used for 'there is'. Examples:
S. E.
Dhur naybuddee in. There's nobody in.
Dhe dufrins ut dhay aar noo ! What a difference there is now!
Dhur noa mukkul raang wee
dhum. There's not much wrong with
Dhur nay idhur wei oa'd. There's no other way of it. (It
must be so.)
Dhur nay gain uthoot pain. There's no gain without pain.
Dhur noa nay teim at nikht. There's no time at night.
NOTE. Begin takes as auxiliary the verb bee instead of the E.
have. Example:
S. E.
Hee wuz begun dhe dailin. He had begun to deal.
Duin ('done', in the sense of 'finished') takes bee as its auxiliary
instead of the E. have. Examples:
S. E.
Aa'm noa duin yet. I haven't done yet.
Ur yee duin? Have you finished?
Unlike E., after any subject except a single pronoun, i. e. wee,
yee, or dhay, the plural present is the same as the third person
singular, i. e. iz, z, or s, as the case may be, in accordance with the
foregoing rule. Thus, while it is usual to say wee'r, yee'r,
dhay'r, we have such expressions as the following. Examples:
S. E.
Mee un hum'z noa cheef. He and I are not friends.
Hiz un hum'z freendz. He and we are related to each
S. E.
Dhur'z boanay floorz. These are pretty flowers.
Dhay'z fein nout. Those are fine bullocks.
Dhur'z noa moanay foak kenz
dhaat. There are not many people who
know that.
Maa haundz iz nivvur hail. My hands are never whole.
Iz dhay yoorz? Are those yours?
Dhon'z meinz. Those over there are mine.
Dhem ut cumz furst's furst
saird. Those who come first are first
The past tense of the auxiliary verb bee is wuz, both in the
singular and the plural, except that in the third person plural,
before or after the pronoun dhay, it is waar (slurred form wur).
Dhay wur is also used for dhur wuz, 'there was', or 'there
were'. Examples:
S. E.
Yoo wuz dhair. You were there.
Wuz yee noa dhair? Were you not there?
Hwaur wuz yee gaun? Where were you going?
Wee wuz gaun haim. We were going home.
Wuz wee dhair? Were we there?
Wee wuz. We were.
Hwaur d'yee think wee wuz? Where do you think we were?
Bais wuz chaipur dhaan. Beasts (cattle) were cheaper
Dhay waar dhaat. There was indeed.
Ains dhay wur a maan. Once there was a man.
Wur dhay moanay oa dhum? Were there many of them?
Dhay wur ain dhair. There was one there.
Dhay waarnay ain. There wasn't one.
Dhay wur nay Foarbus Makinzee
dhaan. There was no Forbes Mackenzie
(Act) then.
Dhay wur nay pailinz, yee see. There was no fence, you see.
Wur dhay baith dhair? Were they both there?
Dhay waar. They were.
Wuz baith oa dhum dhair? Were both of them there?
Baith oa dhum wuz dhair. Both of them were there.
NOTE. Bee for is used in the sense of 'want'. Examples:
S. E.
Hwaat ur yee for noo ? What do you want now? (What
will you take now ?)
Aa'm noa fur nay mair, I don't want any more.
The subjunctive of bee for both numbers and all three persons
is in the present bee and in the past waar or wur. It is seldom
used except in proverbs and poetry.
Hev (hay), hez, hed.
For E. 'have', both hay and hev, often slurred into 'v, are used,
the former being more common and the latter more emphatic.
As an auxiliary verb it is used in the same way as in E., except
that, in accordance with the usual rule, the present plural in all
persons is hez except after a single pronoun, when it is hey,
generally slurred into 'v; thus we say wee'v, yee'v, dhay'v.
Hez is often slurred into a mere sibilant, which is z or s according
to the same rule which applies to is. Hey is often slurred
into a. Examples:
S. E.
Aa'v been dhair aafun. I've often been there.
Hee'z gain uwaw haim. He's gone off home.
Mee un hum'z hed a gem. He and I have had a game.
Moanay oa dhe laamz hez
deed. Many of the lambs have died.
Mee un yoo hez laang been
uquent. You and I have long known
each other.
Aa cood a stuiddun dhe twaw. I could have stood the two.
Hwaw wud a thoakht ut. Who would have thought it.
Naidhur hev Ii. Neither have I.
Hee wud a cumd our hweilz. He used to come (would have
come) over sometimes.
Aa cood a tellt yee dhaat. I could have told you that.
S. E. as spoken.
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
1st pers. hay, hev, 'v hay, hev, 'v, hez, 'z, 's hav, 'v hav, 'v
2nd pers. hay, hev, 'v, hez, 'z, 's hay, 'v
3rd pers. hez, 'z, 's hay, hev, 'v, hez, 'z, 's haz, 'z, 's hav, 'v
Dui, duiz, duid; Caan, cood; May, mikht;
Maan, buid; Need; Daur, daurd.
Dui, duiz and duid, caan and cood (seldom cud), may and
mikht, maan (slurred into mun), and daur, daurd are used in the
same way as the corresponding words in English.
Buid or butt is probably connected with the English 'behoved'
and has much the same meaning as 'ought to ', 'had to'.
Dui is sometimes strengthened into div. Examples:
S. E.
Aa coodnay say. I couldn't say (I don't know).
Yee mun gaang haim. You must go home.
Ii, but yee maan. Yes, but you must.
Aa buid tay gaang.
Aa butt tay gaang. I had to go.
Aa divnay ken. I don't know.
Aa daur say. I dare say.
It mikht bee. It might be (perhaps).
Hoo div yee ken? How do you know?
Dhay div aw dhaat. They do all that.
NOTE. Caan is used, unlike E., as an infinitive in the sense of
'be able to'. Example:
Yee'll noa caan gaang dhe moarn.
You won't be able to go to-morrow.
NOTE. It is interesting to note that, like the corresponding
words in E., caan, may, maan, wull, and sometimes daur do
not add a sibilant in the 3rd pers. sing. pres.
Sometimes in interrogative sentences the past of the verb is
used where in E. the auxiliary 'did' would be used. Examples:
Hwaur haard yee dhaat?
Where did you hear that?
Hwaur goat yee yur skuilin?
Where did you get your schooling (go to school)?
Wull, wud, shuid.
Wull (often slurred into 'll) and wud (rarely pronounced waad
and sometimes slurred into 'd) are used where 'will' and 'would'
are used in E., and also where 'shall' and 'should' are used in E.,
except where 'should' is used in the sense of 'ought to', its
place being then taken in S. by suid or shuid. The word 'shall'
is not used in S. at all in ordinary conversation; hence the
difficulty a Scotchman has in knowing when to use 'shall' and
'should' in speaking E. Examples:
S. E.
Wull yoo bee dhair? Shall you be there?
Ii, but yee wull thoa. Yes, but you shall.
Aa'll gee yee'd. I'll give it you.
S. E.
Aa wud think dhaat. I should think so.
Yee suid gaang. You should (ought to) go.
Yee shuidnay dui dhaat. You shouldn't do that.
Aa'll noa say. I'll not say. (Possibly.)
Aa wudnay say but hwaat yee
may bee rikht. I shouldn't say but what you
may be right. (Perhaps you
are right.)
Aa wudnay wundur. I shouldn't wonder. (Possibly.)
Aa wull dui dhaat. I shall do that.
NOTE. There is a curious use of 'z for 'll in the phrases Aa'z
uphaad (I'll uphold) and Aa'z waarund (I'll warrant), and sometimes
in other expressions. Examples
S. E.
Aa'z waarund yee. I'll warrant you.
Wee'z noa gaang haim dhe
nikht. We'll not go home to-night.
Yee'z noa beid dhair laang. You'll not stay there long.
NOTE. Wunt takes the place of 'used' in E.
S. E.
Dhay wunt tay caw'd dhaat. They used to call it that.
Aa wunt tay gaang dhair. I used to go there.
Dhe auld foak wunt tay say
dhaat. The old people used to say that.
Hee wunt tay sing leik a
lintee. He used to sing like a linnet.
Wee wunt tay get mailay
kail. We used to get broth with oatmeal
in it.
Foak wunt tay gay tay Pairth
oan dhur feet. People used to walk to Perth.
Dhay duidnay wunt tay bee. They used not to be.
The adverb noa after an auxiliary verb is generally slurred into
nay, just as in E. the corresponding adverb not is slurred into n't.
S. E.
iznay, wuznay, waarnay. isn't, wasn't, weren't.
hevnay, hunnay, hennay, heznay,
hednay. haven't, hasn't, hadn't.
S. E.
caannay, coodnay. can't couldn't.
maynay, mikhtnay. mayn't, mightn't.
maannay. mustn't (musnt).
wunnay, wudnay. wont (woant), wouldn't (woodnt).
shuidnay. shouldn't (shoodnt).
dinnay, divnay, duiznay, duidnay.
don't (doant), doesn't (duznt).
daurnay, durstnay. daren't.
neednay. needn't.
NOTE. Am and ur (are) usually take the full form of the
adverb — aa'm non, wee'r noa, yee'r noa, dhay'r noa.
Iz noa, 's noa or 'z noa is also more common than iznay.
S. P.
Aa'm noa weel. I'm not well.
It's noa. It isn't.
Yee'r noa blait. You aren't shy.
Dhay'r noa meinz. They aren't mine.
Aa caannay cum. I can't come.
Aa coodnay say. I couldn't say (I don't know).
Aa mikhtnay bee aibul. I mightn't be able.
Yee maannay dui dhaat. You mustn't do that.
Shee wunnay cum. She won't come.
A buddee wudnay hurt dhursel.
One wouldn't hurt oneself.
Aa wudnay say. I shouldn't say no. (Perhaps.)
Aa wudnay hay thoakht ut. I shouldn't have thought so.
Yee shuidnay say dhaat. You shouldn't say that.
An divnay ken. I don't know.
Duinay dui dhaat. Don't do that.
Yee neednay gaang. You needn't go.
Hee duidnay taak ut. He didn't take it.
An daurnay tell. I daren't tell.
Aa duinay hay dhe wurdz oa
dhaat. I haven't the words of that
An duinay hay oanay uday
wee dhaat. I have nothing to do with that.
Aa hevnay met oanay buddee. I haven't met any one.
Aa'm noa cairin thoa yoo
duinnay gaang. I don't care if you don't go.
Aa'm noa verray cairin tay
gaang. I'm not very keen to go.
Aa'm noa sayin'd. I don't say so.
Aa'm noa musdootin yee. I'm not doubting you.
As in E., an interrogative sentence, unless when it begins with
an interrogative pronoun or adverb, generally begins with one of
the auxiliary verbs followed by the subject. Examples:
S. E.
Am Aa noa rikht? Am I not right?
Ur yee shuir? Are you sure?
Hwaur ur yee gaun? Where are you going?
Hwaw duid yee see? Who did you see?
Duinnay yee ken? Don't you know?
Caannay yee cum? Can't you come?
Wull yee noa gaang? Won't you go?
Wud yee leik a but? Would you like a bit?
Iz dhur yoorz? Are these yours?
Hwaw'z aw yon? Who are all those?
Iz dhe bairnz beddit yet? Have the children been put to
bed yet?
NOTE. Like dhay wur for dhur wuz (there was or there were),
we have the curious corruption ur dhay? for iz dhur ? (is there?
or are there?) Example:
Ur dhay oanay buddee in? Is there anybody in?
Regular verbs form their indefinite past tense by adding to
the present the syllable -it, which corresponds to the E. '-ed'.
S. E.
Present Past Present Past
creep creepit creep crept
droap droapit drop dropped (dropt)
flutt fluttit flit flitted
grup gruppit (or graap) grip (catch) gripped (gript)
hurt hurtit hurt hurt
keek keekit peep peeped (peept)
keep keepit keep kept
leik leikit like liked (liikt)
likht likhtit light lighted
likk likkit lick licked (likt)
look lookit look looked (lookt)
loup loupit leap leapt
luft luftit lift lifted
S. E.
Present Past Present Past
pent pentit paint painted
raap raapit rap rapped (rapt)
roat roatit rot rotted
sherp sherpit sharpen sharpened
sing singit singe (sinj) singed (sinjd)
sleep sleepit sleep slept
slup sluppit slip slipped (slipt)
sook sookit suck (suk) sucked (sukt)
soop soopit sweep swept
stoap stoapit stop stopped (stopt)
NOTE. It will be seen from the above examples that some
verbs in S. have the regular past, while the corresponding verbs
in E. form it somewhat irregularly.
Some verbs ending in l, n, s, form the past by adding t to the
present. Examples:
S. E.
Present Past Present Past
sell sellt sell sold (soald)
skell skellt spill spilt
spull spullt spoil spoilt
stail stailt steal (steel) stole (stoal)
tell tellt tell told (toald)
ken kent know (noa) knew (nyoo)
meen meent mean (meen) meant (ment)
daans daanst dance (dans) danced (danst)
loas loast lose (looz) lost
wuss wusst wish wished
Verbs ending in a vowel sound, and some ending in r, l, m,
n, v, form the past by adding d to the present:
S. E.
Present Past Present Past
gay gaid go (goa) went
lay laid lay laid
caw cawd drive drove
dee deed die (dii) died (diid)
pei peid pay paid
saw sawd saw (wood) sawed
saw sawd sow (soa) sowed (soad)
throa t.hroad throw (throa) threw (throo)
boo bood bow, bend bowed, bent
S. E.
Present Past Present Past
loo lood love (luv) loved (luvd)
poo pood pull (pool) pulled
roo rood rue (roo) rued
shoo shood sew (soa) sewed (soad)
grow groud grow (groa) grew (groo)
louz louzd loosen loosened
dui duid, did do (doo) did
gaar gaard make made
gedhur gedhurd gather (gadher) gathered (gadherd)
fair faird fear (feer) feared (feerd)
draigul draiguld draggle draggled
full fulld fill filled
kill killd kill killed
swaal swaald swell swelled
taigul taiguld hinder hindered
trevul trevuld walk walked
clum clumd climb (cliim) climbed
tuim tuimd empty emptied
lairn lairnd learn learned
daiv daivd deafen (deffen) deafened
liv livd live (liv) lived
uiz uizd use (yooz) used
NOTE. As in E., the verb uiz, 'use' (yooz) forms its past in d
with its ordinary meaning, but in t when it means `was wont to'.
S. E.
Aa ei uizd taar. I always used (yoozd) tar.
An ei uist tay gaang. I always used (yoost) to go.
As in E., many common verbs form their past irregularly, but
there is a tendency (1) to have the past end in d or t, and (2) when
the vowel sound of the verb is changed, to have in the past the
sound of aa, ai, e, oa, ui, or au. Examples (1):
S. E.
Present Past Present Past
begin begood begin began
caan cood (or cud) can could (cood)
div duid do (doo) did
gaang, ging, gay gaid go (goa) went
heer haard hear (heer) heard (herd)
hev, hay hed have (hav) had
S. E.
Present Past Present Past
maak maid make made
say sed say said (sed)
wull wud will would (wood)
aw aukht owe (oa) owed (oad)
bii boakht (or koaft) buy (bii) bought (baut)
bring broakht bring brought (braut)
burn brunt burn burnt
daur durst dare dared
may mikht may might (miit)
meind meint mind minded
mend ment mend mended
neel nelt kneel (neel) knelt
tein tint lose (looz) lost
thenk thoakht think thought (thaut)
wurk roakht work worked, wrought
Examples (2):
bind baand bind bound
brek braak break (braik) broke (broak)
cum caam come (cum) came (caim)
clum claam (or clumd) climb (cliim) climbed (cliimd)
ding daang beat (beet) beat (beet)
drink draank drink drank
furgit furgaat forget forgot
git gaat get got
greet graat weep wept
hing haang hang hung
putt paat put (poot) put (poot)
quit quaat rid, quit rid, quitted
reit raat write (riit) wrote (roat)
rin raan run ran
ring raang ring, wring rang, wrung
sing saang sing sang
speek spaak speak (speek) spoke (spoak)
spin spaan spin span
spit spaat spit spat
strik straak strike (striik) struck
sut saat sit sat
sweit swaat sweat (swet) sweated (sweted)
weet waat wet wet
wun waan get got
beid baid (or bed) stay stayed
dreiv draiv drive (driiv) drove (droav)
S. E.
Present Past Present Past
reid raid ride (riid) rode (road)
reiz raiz rise (riiz) rose (roaz)
riiv raiv split split
threiv thraiv thrive (thriiv) throve (throav)
gee gay give (giv) gave (gain)
lii lay lie (lii) lay
ait ett (or uit) eat (eet) ate (ett)
belt bet bite (biit) bit
bend bent bend bent
bluid bled bleed bled
breed bred breed bred
cleed cled clothe (cloadh) clothed (cloadhd)
faw fell fall (faul) fell
feed fed feed fed
fleit flett scold scolded
heid hed hide hid
hit het hit hit
laid led lead (leed) led
laiv left leave (leev) left
meet met meet met
redd redd arrange arranged
reed red read (reed) read (red)
bair boar bear (bair) bore (boar)
fekht foakht fight (fiit) fought (faut)
freez froaz freeze (freez) froze (froaz)
shair shoar shear (sheer) sheared
shuit shoat shoot shot
swair swoar swear (swair) swore (swoar)
tair toar tear (tair) tore (toar)
wair woar wear (wair) wore (woar)
caach cuich catch caught (caut)
cast cuist cast cast
fesh fuish fetch fetched
haad huid hold (hoald) held
laakh luikh laugh (laaf) laughed (laaft)
laat luit let let
maan buid must had to
shaak shuik shake shook
staund stuid stand stood
taak tuik take took
thresh thruish thresh threshed
waash wuish wash washed
S. E.
Present Past Present Past
blaw bloo blow (bloa) blew (bloo)
craw croo crow (croa) crew (croo)
flee floo fly (flii) flew (floo)
bid baud bid bade (baid)
find faund find (fiind) found
See saw see saw
waat wust know (noa) knew (nyoo)
Some verbs which end in t or d make no change for the past
tense. Examples:
S. E.
Present Past Present Past
bait bait beat (beet) beat (beet)
slut slut slit slit
splut splut split split
spred spred spread (spred) spread (spred)
NOTE. Sometimes, but rarely, the pa. p. is used for the past
tense in seen for saw, tain (taken) for tuik. Examples:
S. E.
Aa seen urn peer dhe-streen. I saw him here yesterday evening.
Hee tain twaw hree.He took two or three.
The present participle is formed by adding the sound in to the
present. Examples:
S. E.
Present Pres. part. Present Pres. part.
ait aitin eat (eet) eating
dee deein die (dii) dying
drink drinkin drink drinking
poo pooin pull (pool) pulling
NOTE. Gaang, ging, or gay has its present participle slurred
into gaup for gayin. Examples:
S. E.
Hwaur yee gaun? Where are you going?
Aa'm gaun tee waal. I'm going to the well.
NOTE. As in English, the present participle is often used as
a verbal noun or as an adjective. Examples:
S. E.
Plooin'z noa aizee waark. Ploughing's not easy work.
A gaun-uboot buddee. A going-about person, a tramp.
A deein maan. A dying man.
Regular verbs form their past participle in the same way as the
past tense, by adding -it (corresponding to -ed in E.) to the present.
Its form is therefore, in the case of such verbs, the same as that of
the past tense. Examples:
S. E.
Present Past part. Present Past part.
creep creepit creep crept
grup gruppit grip gripped (gript)
keep keepit keep kept
leik leikit like liked (liikt)
likht likhtit light lighted
loup loupit leap (leep) leapt
luft luftit lift lifted
raap raapit rap rapped (rapt)
sleep sleepit sleep slept
stoap stoapit stop stopped (stopt)
As in the case of the past tense, some verbs ending in g, l, n, s,
kh, sh, form the past participle by adding t to the present.
S. E.
Present Past part. Present Past part.
sell sellt sell sold (soald)
skell skellt spill spilt
tell tellt tell told (toald)
ken kept know (noa) known (noan)
lairn lairnt learn (lern) learnt (lernnt)
loas loast lose (looz) lost
laakh laakht laugh (laaf) laughed (laaft)
faash faasht bother bothered
meen meent mean (meen) meant (ment)
wuss wusst wish wished (wisht)
caach caacht catch caught (caut)
Some verbs ending in a vowel sound, or in r, 1, m, n, v, or z,
add d to the present. Examples:
S. E.
Present Past part. Present Past part.
caw cawd drive driven
craw crawd crow (croa) crowed (croad)
grow growd grow (groa) grown (groan)
pei peid pay paid
boo bood bow bowed (baud)
loo lood love (luv) loved (luvd)
poo pood pull (pool) pulled
shoo shood sew (soa) sewed (soad)
fair faird fear (feer) feared (feerd)
gaar gaard make, compel made, compelled
draigul draiguld draggle draggled
kill killd kill killed
swaal swaald swell swollen (swoallen)
cum cumd come (cum) come (cum)
daam daamd damn (dam) damned (damd)
droon droond drown drowned
liv livd live (liv) lived
shaiv shaivd shave (shaiv) shaved
louz louzd loosen loosened
As in E., many common verbs form their past participle
irregularly, with a tendency (1) to make it end in d, t, or n ; and
(2) where the vowel sound of the verb is changed, to make it u,
ui, oa, aa, or e. Examples (1):
S. E.
Present Past part. Present Past part.
begin begood begin begun
dee daid die (dii) dead (ded)
hing haangd hang hanged
heer haard hear (heer) heard (herd)
lay laid lay laid
maak maid make made
say sed say said (sed)
shui shoad shoe (shoo) shod
aw aukht owe (oa) owed (oad)
bend bent bend bent
bii boakht buy (bii) bought (baut)
bring broakht bring brought (braut)
burn brunt burn burnt
S. E.
Present Past part. Present Past part.
laiv left leave (leev) left
lend lent lend lent
neel nelt kneel (neel) knelt (nelt)
seek soakht seek sought (saut)
teech taakht, toakht teach (teech) taught (taut)
tein tint lose (looz) lost
think thoakht think thought (thaut)
wurk roakht work (wurk) wrought (raut),
ait aitun eat (eet) eaten (eeten)
bee been be been
beid biddun stay stayed
bid biddun bid bidden
blaw blawn blow (bloa) blown (bloan)
dreiv drivvun drive (driiv) driven
dui duin do (doo) done (dun)
faw faun fall (faul) fallen (faulen)
gay, gaang,
ging gain go (goa) gone (gon)
gee geen give (giv) given (givn)
haad haadun hold (hoald) held
hay, hev hain have (hav) had
heid hiddun hide hidden
hit hittun hit hit
laid laidun load laden (laiden)
lii lain lie (lii) lain
reed ruddun read (reed) read (red)
reid riddun ride (riid) ridden
reiz rizun rise (riiz) risen (rizn)
riiv rivun split split
saw sawn saw (wood) sawn
saw sawn sow (soa) sown (soan)
see seen see seen
sleid sliddun slide (sliid) slid
sut suttun sit sat
tack tain take (taik) taken (taiken)
Examples (2):
beit buttun bite (biit) bitten
bind bund bind (biind) bound
caast cuissn cast cast
drink drukkun drink drunk
find fund find (fiind) found
fleit fluttun scold (scoald) scolded (scoalded)
hing hung hang hung
S. E.
Present Past part. Present Past part.
reit ruttun write (riit) written (ritten)
ring rung ring rung
rin run run run
sing sung sing sung
spit sputtun spit spat
strikk strukkun strike (striik) struck
sweit swuttun sweat (swet) sweated (swetted)
threiv thruvun thrive (thriiv) thriven (thriivn)
weet wuttun (or
waat) wet wet
laakh luikhun laugh (laaf) laughed (laaft)
laat luittun let let
putt puittun put (poot) put (poot)
shaak shuikun shake shaken
staand stuidun stand stood
thresh thruishun thresh threshed
waash wuishun wash washed
bair boarn bear (bair) born
brok broakun break (braik) broken (broakun)
fekht foakhun fight (fiit) fought (faut)
freez froazund freeze frozen (froazn)
furgit furgoatun forget forgotten
roat roatun rot rotted
shair shoarn cut corn with a sickle
shuit shoatun shoot shot
speek spoakun speak (speek) spoken (spoakn)
swair swoarn swear (swair) sworn
tair toarn tear (tair) torn
wair woarn wear (wair) worn
quit quaat quit quit
weet waat (or
wuttun) wet wet
bluid bled bleed bled
breed bred breed bred
cleed cled clothe (cloadh) clothed (cloadhd)
feed fed feed fed
laid led lead (leed) led
meet met meet met
Some verbs, particularly those which end in d or t, make no
change for the past participle. Examples:
S. E.
Present Past part. Present Past part.
redd redd arrange arranged
spred spred spread spread (spred)
ucquent ucquent acquaint acquainted
slut slut slit slit
splut splut split split
wun wun win won
Hee'z foakhun humsel duin.
He's fought himself done. (He's worked himself out.)
Hay yee luittun'd gaang?
Have you let it go?
Hay yee louzd dhe coo?
Have you let the cow loose?
Dhe auld weif roakht stoakuns.
The old woman worked (knitted) stockings.
Sing-it sheep'z haid. Singed sheep's head.
Aa maan gaang un git begood tay ma waark.
I must go and get begun to (go and begin) my work.
Dhe dugz ull noa git foakhun.
The dogs won't get fought (won't be able to get a fight).
Aa coodnay git suttun doon. I couldn't manage to sit down.
Aa coodnay git spoakun tull um.
I couldn't manage to speak to him.
NOTE. These lists will be found useful in working out the
vocabulary of any dialect.
English Scotch
Written Spoken
head hed haid
poll poal pow
hair hair hair
brains haarnz
face fais fais, mug
brow brow broo
eye ii ee, pl. een
eyebrow iibrow ee-broo
eyelid iilid winkur
tear teer tair
nose noaz noaz, neb
mouth mouth mooth, gaab, mug
tooth tooth teeth
tongue tung tung
jaw chaaft, chouk
cheek cheek cheek
chin chin chin
lip lip lup, fuppul
ear lug
moustache mustaash mootaash
whisker wisker hwuskur
beard beerd baird
neck craig
throat hauz
windpipe thraapul
breast brest breest
back bak baak
rib rib rub
lungs likhts
heart haart hert
stomach stumak staamuk, weim
belly keit
English Scotch
Written Spoken
bowels guts
bladder bladder bledhur
rump rump rump
shoulder shoalder shoodhur
arm-pit oaxtur
arm aarm erm
elbow elboa elbay, elbuk
wrist shaakul
hand hand haund
finger fing-ger fing-ur
thumb thum thoom
little finger littul fing-ger luttul fing-ur
knuckle nukkul nukkul
palm luif
fist nev
handful nevfay
double handful goupunfay
haunch haunsh hainsh
hip hip hup
buttock hurdee
hams hunkurz
thigh hoakh
leg leg lig, shaank
knee nee tnee
knee-cap nee-cap lud ee tnee
shin shin shin
ankle cuit
foot foot fut
feet feet feet
heel heel heel
toe toa tay
big toe big toa mukkul tay
right riit rikht
left caar
left-handed caaray
breath breth braith
smell smell smell
yawn gaant
grin grin girn
scowl scoul shoul
sneeze sneez neez
snore snoar snoar
nod nod noad
cough hoast
English Scotch
Written Spoken
horn horn hoarn
tail tail tail
udder udder edhur
hoof hoof huif
cloven hoof cluit
mane main main
fetlock cuit
pastern pastern pestur
pluck draakht
liver livver livvur
lungs likhtz
maw of ruminant haagus
pudding pooding puddin
entrails haarigulz
3rd stomach of ruminant munnaypliiz
beak beek neb
feather fedher fedhur
egg egg igg
bone boan bain
knee-bone naap-bain
gristle grissul girsul
soft gristle fix-faax
lean leen lain
fat fat faat
grease grees creesh
hog's lard swein'z saim
bristle brissul burs
(See 'Names of Animals', 'Parts of the Body', 'Parts
Animals', 'Vegetables'.)
English Scotch
Written Spoken
food mait
meat flesh
beef beef beef
mutton mutton muttun
pork pork poark
ham ham haam
bacon baicon baucun
singed head sinjd hed sing-it haid
English Scotch
Written Spoken
cut of meat, rasher coalup
minced meat mins coalups
thin cut over lower ribs runnur oa beef
tripe triip treip
dish served in sheep's maw haagus
pudding sausage pooding puddin
pie pii pii
dripping kichin-fee
mutton of diseased sheep braaxay
fish fish fush
smoked haddock finnin haadee
dried herring kippurz
trout trout troot
herring herring hairin
flour flour mail, floor-mail
oatmeal oatmeel ait-mail
barley-meal baarlay-meel baurlay-mail
pease-meal peez-meel piz-mail
kiln-dried oats without the husks groats
dough levin
loaf loaf laif
bread bred laif-braid
bread not newly made a cuttin laif
small loaf taamay-roond
slice of bread shaif oa braid
thick cake toasted on girdle baanuk
biscuit biskit buskit
soft biscuit baik
soft biscuit made with butter buttur-baik
a floury roll faarul
cake of gingerbread paarlay
roll roal row
cake caik caik
scone scon scoan
flat scone made of batter droappit scoan
scone cooked on a girdle girdul scoan
small, round, plain bun cookee
reaper's loaf shairur'z baap
shortbread shoart-braid
small cakes smaw braid
thick cake made of oatmeal ait baanuk
oatcake oatcaik ait-caik
oatmeal scone ait-mail scoan
potato scone tautay scoan
pease-meal cake piz baanuk
coarse barley bread bair braid
English Scotch
Written Spoken
thick cake made of coarse barley bair baanuk
scone made of coarse barley bair scoan
butter butter buttur
fresh butter sweet buttur
salt butter saut buttur
cheese kebbuk
curds and cream crudz un raim
whey way hwii
rennet airninz
porridge porrij paarich
brose, a mixture of boiling water
and oatmeal broaz
gruel grooel grool
anything eaten with bread kichin
salt saut
pepper pepper peppur
treacle treekul traikul
sugar shoogur shoogur
soda soada soadee
jam jam jaam
jelly jelli jeelee
honey hunni hunnay
treacle roll traikul row
roly-poly roali-poali roulay-poulay
tart taart tert
a sweet curlay-aandray
black sausage blaak puddin
red sausage bluiday puddin
oatmeal sausage mailay puddin
broth made with several kinds of
vegetables hoach poach
broth kail
leavings broaks
dregs dregglinz
crumbs meeluks
scrambled eggs rummuld iggs
mashed potatoes chaapit tautayz
roasted potatoes bursuld tautayz
potatoes and gravy tautayz un dup
hash hash haash
stew styoo styoo
breakfast paarich
dinner dinner dennur
tea tee tee
E. S.

high tea toozee tee
tee un tull'd
supper suppur
half-fermented cream or butter-milk with oatmeal
added raim croudee
flummery, made from husks of oats soaunz
breadberry, sops, bread and milk saaps
mixture of potatoes and cabbage rummultay
cow or bullock fattened and killed about
Martinmas to be salted for winter use mert
English Scotch
Written Spoken
water wauter waatur
milk milk mulk
fresh milk sweet mulk
skim milk skum mulk
churn milk, butter-milk kurn mulk
cream creem raim
whey way hwii
tea tee tee
coffee coffi coafay
whisky in tea a sindur in't
whisky wiski hwuskay
ale ail ail
beer beer beer
porter porter poartur
toddy toddi toadee
small beer smaw beer
spruce beer sproosh beer
mulled porter mulld poartur
pies and porter piiz un poartur
treacle beer traikul peeree
treacle ale traikul ail
small ale smaw ail
brew broo brui
oatmeal and water cauld steer
stooree drink
mailay drink
raspberry wine cuddul-ma-deeree
stand your hand
pay for a dram staund yur haund
pay for a dram
produce your old stocking
(used as a purse) draw yur huggur
English Scotch
Written Spoken
clothes cloadhz claiz
cloth cloth claith
rag or clout clout cloot
clothes, especially old ragged clothes dudz
bits of rags buts oa cloots
dish-cloth dush-cloot
household linen naipray
blanket blaankit
shepherd's plaid raukhun
cap cap kep
broad blue bonnet bred bloo baanut
chimney-pot hat lum-haat
night-cap kilmaarnuk
coat coat coat
shirt shirt saark
waistcoat waiscoat waiscoat
jacket jaket jaikut
a short coat or blouse corsekkay
knickerbockers nikkurz
breeches brichiz breeks
trousers trouzers troozurz
spats spats spaats
collar coller coalur
cravat cravat graavut
braces gaalusiz
pocket pokit pooch
breast pocket, pocket under the arm oaxtur-pooch
hip pocket hup-pooch
mittens, glove with thumb but no
fingers mittunz
stockings without feet huggurz
stockings stockingz stoakinz
boot boot buit
shoe shoo shui
shay, pl. shuin
old boot or shoe baukhul
old slipper sclaaf
handkerchief neepkin
brooch broach broach
bead beed baid
loose jacket poalkay
petticoat coat, pêticoat
chemise shuft
English Scotch
Written Spoken
corset steiz
gown goun goon
frock frok froak
sort of blouse with tails outside
the skirt shoart goon
cap much
plain cap soobaak much
embroidered cap boardee much
small woven cloth with fringes,
used as a shawl naipyin
apron aipron aipurn
coarse working apron braat
pinafore daidul
shawl shaul shaal
plaid plad plaid
garter gaarter gertun
ribbon ribbon rubbun
frill frill frull
embroidery (flowering) floorin
linen and wool linzay woolzay
a woman's large hanging pocket waalut
leather ledher ledhur
silk silk sulk
trousseau (mounting) muntin
collection of clothes, &c., made
by a girl in readiness for her
possible marriage proveidin
cloak cluk, kyuk
hood hood huid
English Scotch
Written Spoken
house hous hoos
castle caasl caastul
manor house big hoos
parsonage maans
coal-house coal-hous coal-hoos
wash-house waashin-hoos
hen-house hen-hoos
barn baarn baarn
stable staibul stibbul
English Scotch
Written Spoken
byre (cow-shed) biir
pigsty soo'z crui
lodge loj luj
shed shed shaid
loft, gallery loft laaft
iron ii ron eirun
brass brass bress
glass glass gless
tin hweit eirun
steel steel steel
clay clay clei
lead led laid
brick brik bruk
thatch n. thaak
to thatch v. thach theek
an old thatched building an auld thaak biggin
flag, slab flag flaag
pavement flaagz, plainstainz
paved floor flaag fluir
plaster plaster plestur
kerb kerb kerb
pig's trough troff soo'z troakh
rack for holding fodder haik
pond embankment daam-haid-deik
pump pump, waal
suckers sukerz sookurz
bar baar
staple staipul steepul
cottage coatuj
avenue avenyoo uproach
wall waul waw
roof roof ruif
floor floar fluir
ceiling seeling seelun
rafter cuppul, bauk
window windoa windee, winduk
door doar doar
latch snek
small bolt of a door snib
chimney lum, vent, chumlay
tap spiggut
oven uvin oavun
shutters shutterz shutturz
shelf shelf shelf
mantelpiece lumhaid, brais,
chumlay pees
English Scotch
Written Spoken
hearth haarth herth
fire-place ing-ul
corner by the fire-place ing-ul nyuk
fireside ing-ul-seid
fire fiir fir
small cupboard in wall near fire bunkur
sink jaw-boax
cesspool jaw-hoal
dung-heap middun
gutter under eaves roan
(gutter) open drain in street streip
tannery taanaree
brewery brooeri broouree
open drain trow or staank
well, pump well waal
soot soot suit
flakes of coal dust coom
soft stone used for polishing
hearthstone caamstain
eave eev aiv
English Scotch
Written Spoken
chair chair chair
armchair _armchair erm chair
stool stool stuil
low table with leaves to fold
down buffit-stuil
low stool creepee
table taibl tibbul
piano pyano peeannay
looking-glass lookin-gless
an old kind of dresser haamuk
dresser dressur
plate-rack plait rak plait-raak
meal-bin girnul
boiler boiler beilur
ash-box ess-baakit
salt-box saut-baakit
screen screen screen
picture pictyoor pictur
cupboard open in front, used for
keeping bread, &c. aumray
English Scotch
Written Spoken
top of drawers draurz' haid
cupboard press
bed bed
box bed boax bed
mattress matréss
ticking teikin
valance paand
footstool fut cushun
cushion cushun
pillow coad
feather pillow fedhur coad
bolster boustur-coad
ewer yooer yoor
towel touel tool
towel-rail tool-rail
nail nail
ornaments oarnamints
chain chen
ring ring
link link
pot-hook cruk
swinging rod at fire for hanging
pots on swei
clock tnoak
clock with visible pendulum waag-at-dhe-waw
bar across inside of door to
fasten it steibaand
knob nob noab
door-mat baass
spoon spoon spuin
fork fork foark
knife niif tneif
cup cup cup
saucer sauser sausur
cups and saucers cups un fletts
plate plait plait
weight wait wekht
round vessel for holding corn
(like a sieve, but with a
bottom of skin) wekht
wooden bowl coag
small wooden bowl coagee
churn kirn
basin baisin baisun
bowl boal boul
small two-handled dish or cup bikkur
English Scotch
Written Spoken
flat basin in which milk is put
to cream fluttay
milk-dish, for holding cream boain
milkingpail haandee
wooden pail for milk mulk bouay
milk sieve mullsay
wooden cup with one handle luggee
mould shaip
jug joog
jug which will hold a chaapin
= 2 muchkins chaapin joog
jug with a spout pooree joog
kettle kettul
pot paat
teapot teepot teepaat
spout, of kettle or teapot stroop
spout spout spoot
pot-lid (wooden) paat broad
lid lud
handle haunul
preserving-pan jeelee paan
porridge-pot porrij-pot paarich-paat
dish dush
large meat-dish aashut
bucket bukkit
slop-pail sloap-pail
stick for stirring porridge
broth, &c. theevul, spurtul
potato-masher chaapin stuck
tautay beetul
rolling-pin roaling-pin roalin-pin
receptacle for refuse, pig's pail broak dush
tool gibbul
bottle bottul boatul
glass glass gless
tumbler tumbler tumlur
crystal cristal krustul
flagon flagon flaigun
decanter decantur dikaantur
vessel for holding liquid stoup (nerray at
dhe taap)
whisky decanter Jeroboam
toddy tumbler (like a large
wineglass) toadee rummur
toddy ladle laidul toadee laidul
tray tray servur
English Scotch
Written Spoken
whale oil wail oil hwaal eil
oil and wick lamp cruizay
uilee cruizay
rush wick raashay week
tallow candle baubee dup
candle caunul
wax waux
tinder-box tindur-boax
flint and steel flunt un steel
box of matches boax oa spunks
clothes basket claiz baaskit
washing-tub bukkit
tub tuib
mangle, wringer ringur
scrubbing-board waashin-buird
soap-suds greth (= saipay
soap saip
stick for thumping blankets poachur
to wash blankets by stamping
on them traamp blaankits
lukewarm lookwaurm loowaarm
shrunken or leaky, like a dry tub geizund
Italian iron, for goffering caps,
goffering-iron taalyun eirn fur
peipun up dhe
broom bruim
besom beezom bizzum
poker poaker poakur
tongs tongz taingz
shovel shuvel shufful
sieve riddul
bellows belloas bellusiz
bag or sack poak
fringe frinj freenj
reel purn
needle needul needul
thimble thimbul thummul
pin pin preen
pin-cushion preen-coad
tape nuttin
spectacles spektakulz speks, glessiz
razor raizor rauzur
shoehorn shoohorn shuihoarn
brush brush
comb coam reddin caim
English Scotch
Written Spoken
hoop for a barrel gird
change of abode, removal of
furniture fluttin

a fetching of water a gaang (or a raik)
oa waatur
strain, filter sii
boil beil
fry noisily frizzul
furniture, equipment plenishin
a kind of match mach fyoozee
small-toothed comb bain-caim
English Scotch
Written Spoken
dog dog dug
collie collie coalay
dog teik
poor old dog puir auld teik
puppy pup
cat cat caat, baudrinz
pussy poosi poosay
kitten kittlin
donkey cuddee
pig pig pig, grumfay, guissay
young pig greis (obs.)
sow, pig sow soo
boar boar
goat goat
poultry poaltri pootray
hen hen
clucking hen cloakin hen
chicken chikun
cock coak
tame rabbit maapay
goose goos guis (pl. gees)
duck duk dyuk
drake draik draik
turkey-cock bubblay joak
tame pigeon puddee doo
hive skep
domesticated bee skep bee
horse hors hoars (pl. hoars)
stallion staig
pony poni pounee
English Scotch
Written Spoken
small pony sheltay
colt colt cout
gelding gildin
filly filli fullay
nag nag naig
foal caast
beast, a head of horned cattle beest baist (pl. bais)
cattle (horned) caatul
horned cattle caatul baist
bull bool bull
bullock nout, stoat
a cow or bullock to be killed at Martinmas
for winter use mert
cow cow coo (pl. kii)
heifer kwei
cow (not in calf or giving milk) yeld coo
calf caaf cauf
1st-winter calf sturk
sheep sheep sheep (pl. sheep)
ram tuip
ewe yoo yow
lamb lam laam
1st-winter lamb hoag (m. or f.)
ewe in her 2nd year before lambing gimmur
castrated male sheep of any age wedhur
an old ewe past bearing croak
drove or herd droav
drover, herdsman droavur
wool oo
hair hair hair
cow dung coo shairn
horse dung hoars dung
sheep's dung sheep's purlz
fowl dung hen pen
bellow rout
neigh nikhur
howl houl youl
chirp cheep
bark bark
call to a pigeon pud, pud
„ „ hen chuk, chuk
tik, tik, tikkay
„ „ duck leg, leg
„ „ sheep suk, suk
„ „ calf proo, proo
English Scotch
call to a cow twrrooay, preechay

„ „ cat poos, poos — chee, chee
pussay, pussay
„ „ dog iskay, iskay
„ „ horse foalay poalay
„ „ pig guisay, guisay
„ „ tame rabbit maap, maap
calls to a horse —
come to left hii
stop! woa, sst
go on! (hurry up!) jee, jeeup
go to right woabaak
go faster hud up
accustomed to stay in a particular place heftit or thirld stoak
All the calves are one-year-olds after
Halloween. Aw dhe caavz iz sturks
eftur Haallayeen.
English Scotch
Written Spoken
monkey puggee
pole-cat foomurt
hare hair hair
hare, rabbit maukin
weasel hwutrik
badger broak
otter oatur
rat roatun
mouse mous moos
mole moudeewurt
hedgehog hejhog haijhug
squirrel squrrul
lark laivruk
swallow swalloa swaallay
sparrow sprug
linnet linnet lintee (red, green, gray, roaz)
owl hoolut
cuckoo gouk
thrush maivis, maivee
corncrake corncraik coarn-skreekh
swift skreekh
robin roabin
starling sturlin, stukkee
hedge-sparrow bloojennay
sand-martin saandmertin
English Scotch
Written Spoken
chaffinch shulfay
wagtail wagtail wullay waagee, waagtail
crow croa craw
raven coarbee
jackdaw cay
blackbird blaakay
hooded crow hoodee craw
bullfinch bullay
sand-piper saand-peipur
titmouse oaxee
yellow-hammer yaalay yeit
wren ren rennay, raan
wood-wren hwii-burd
water-crow waatur-craw, waatur-hen
water-hen waatur coot
wood-pigeon cushay doo
plover pluver tyukhut, pluvur
seagull seemaw, pitaarnay
curlew hwaup
buzzard gled
hawk hauk hauk
partridge paitrik
pheasant fezant faizhun
grouse grous grous
wild duck wild dyuk
bat bat baat
bee bee bee
humble-bee bumbee = fuggaybee
hweit ersay
red ersay
bee's nest fuggay's nest
wasp's nest waasp's beik
butterfly butturflee
moth moath
midge mij muj
fly flii flee
ant emmik
spider spiider netturcup, etturcup, speidur
beetle cloak
flying beetle bum cloak
daddy-long-legs spinnin maagee, jennay-laang-legz
gadfly gleg, cleg
bug bug bug
flea flee flekh
earwig foarkee tail, gouluk
a tiny red spider red soajur
English Scotch
Written Spoken
lady-bird Virjin Mairay
louse lous loos (pl. leis)
wood-louse slaitur
maggot maukh
worm wurm wurm
cobweb mooswub
striped worm braamay wurm, brummul
caterpillar hairay wurm
snail snail
snail's shell buckay
newt aask
adder edhur
fresh herring caallur hairin
herring hairin
salmon samun saumun
young salmon paar
smolt smoalt smout
roe roa raun
spawn of fish, frogs, &c. redd
foul fish kelt
trout trout troot
pike piik peik
perch perch
grilse grils gruls
haddock haadee
minnow minnoa baagee minnin
eel eel
whale wail hwaal
crab paartun
toad toad taid
frog pudduk
tadpole puddukpounee, kail laidul
English Scotch
Written Spoken
garden garden gerdun
cottage garden kail-yaird
yard or garden yaird
bush bush buss
hedge hej haij
gravel chaanul
grass grass gress, girs
green kale kail
kale or cabbage stock kail runt
English Scotch
Written Spoken
turnip neep
onion unyun ing-in
carrot caarut
pea pee pee
pea-pod peez-coad
shelling peas huilin pees
bean been been
leek leek
fruit froot fruit
pear pair pair
apple appul aipul
plum ploom
potato plum tautay bullut
rhubarb roobarb rooburt
raspberry raazberri raasp-s
red currants rizzurz
black currant blaakbairay
gooseberry groazur
flower flouer floor
rose roaz roaz
china aster cheenee aastur
marigold mairay goald
poppy poapay
weed weid
seed seed
shovel v. shuvel shuil
shovel with a shovel shuil in wee a shufful
dig delv, houk
tool gibbul
wheelbarrow baarray
hedge-bill hej-bill haij-bull
hoe hoa how
Dutch hoe duch how
saw saw saw
rake raik raik
fork foark
short fork with several prongs graip
spade spaid spaid
shovel n. shuvel shufful
dibble dibbil dubbul
trowel trouel trouin
sickle hyuk
scythe siidh siith
shears sheerz sheerz
knife niif tneif
line or cord liin lein
English Scotch
Written Spoken
oak oak aik (obs.)
acorn aicorn aikoarn
ash ash aish
elm elm ellum
fir fir fur
spruce sproos sproosh
birch birch burk
beech beech beech
larch larch lerruk (obs.), lerch
rowan, mountain ash rouan roadun
hazel haizul hizzul
alder aarn
willow saukh
elder boontree
elderberry boontreebairay
wild cherry geen
hawthorn haw-thoarn
laburnum burnum
cherry churray
lilac liilac lullayaik, Meifloor
sloe sloa slay
bramble, blackberry brummul
holly holli hoallay
wood wood wud
plantation plaantin
root root ruit
firewood broul
twig reis
branch gren
moss fug
broom broom bruim
furze, gorse hwun
heather hedhur hedhur
fern fern fairn
bracken bracken brekkun
nettle nettil nettul
dock dock doakun
earth-nut loosay aarnut
sorrel sooruk
toadstool pudduk stuil
thistle thissel thrussul
a grass with long roots quikkunz
hips and haws haups un hawz
English Scotch
Written Spoken
wild mustard
field mustard, charlock skellay, skellukh
sedge sej seg
southernwood aippul ringay
rush rush raash
blue cornflower blawward
foxglove bluidee fingurz
daid maan'z bells
crow's foot croa's foot crawtayz
speedwell caat's ee
large field daisy gouun
daisy daizi daizay
blade, leaf of a tree blaid blaid
long, coarse grass bent
ragwort weebee
bilberry blaybairay
English Scotch
Written Spoken
crop crop craap
grain grain gren
harvest harvest hairst
corn, oats corn coarn
oats oats aits
barley barley baurlay
coarse barley bair
wheat weet hweit
rye grass rii grass rii gress
clover cloaver cloavur
potato tautay, spud
potato haulms tautay shauz
mangel wurzel maangulz
mungo weesul
lea, old grass lee lei
ploughed land red laund
tares tairz tairz
ploughing plouing plooin
ridge rig
mark off ridges by ploughing feer, drawin a feerin
harrow harroa herray
sprout (e. g. corn, turnips), first
appearance above ground breer n. and v.
a good sprout a fein breer
has sprouted well hez breerd fein
English Scotch
Written Spoken
is sprouting well iz breerin fein
thinning turnips sing-lin neeps
trench turnips hyookh = shyookh neeps
stripping turnips of leaves shawin neeps
hoeing potatoes houin tautayz
broad-hoeing potatoes bred-houin tautayz
weeding by hand haund weidin
harvest home raantin kirn
reap with the sickle shair
reaping, harvest shairin
lifting and binding luftin un bindin
bundle of straw boatul oa stray
sheaves sheevs shaifs
shock of corn (12 sheaves of
wheat, 14 sheaves of oats) stook
covered shock hoodit stook
two stooks thraiv
beard (of barley, &c.) aun
bearded aunay
part of mill for removing awns aunur
knock awns off barley hummul baarlay
chaff chaff caaf
twister (for making straw ropes) thraw cruk
last corn cut on a field caach dhe maidun

Is your corn all in? Iz yur coarn aw in?
Ur yee aw led yet?
carting crops from the field Wee'r laidin dhe-day
winnowers faanurz
officially fixed average prices
of grain feerz, streikin dhe feerz
dried in the wind (as grain) wun, weel wun
foundation of stack stethul
support for stack boas
haycock made by hand haund coal
haycock coal
putting the hay into cocks coalin dhe hei
larger than a cock and smaller
than a stack traamp-coal
stack stack staak
oblong haystack soo
rick, large stack rick rukk
swing of scythe, and grain cut
by one swing swei
length of cutting bout
injured by frost froastit
fodder fudhur
English Scotch
Written Spoken
rack for fodder haik
meadow medoa meedee
strip of unploughed land between
two fields bauk
cutting peats peets caastin dhe paits
cut with an axe, chop haak
empty by upsetting coup
binder of sheaves baandstur
foreman of a gang gaafur, foarmun
farm overseer greev
youth, stripling haaflun, lauddee
odd man oaraymun
ploughman ploomun
herdsman caatulmun
market at which farm servants are
hired feein maarkit
a day's work of horse, man, and cart
or plough given without payment luv daarg
rent paid in kind cain
English Scotch
Written Spoken
trace-horse thait-hoars
trace thait
trace of a cart draakht
shaft traam
hangers hangerz hingurz
chain over saddle of a horse that
bears weight on its back rigwuddee
sliding catch of rigwuddee sleidur
saddle saddel seddul
bridle briidel breidul
bit bit but
chin-strap chouk-straap
blinkers blundurz
girth bellaybaand
round buttock under tail bruchin
hames on a horse's collar haimz hemz
collar brekhun
hearing-rein bairing-rain bairin-rain
nose-band noaz-band noaz-baand
reins rains leinz
head-stall hed-staul haid-stull
horse's shoes horsiz shooz hoars-shuin
English Scotch
Written Spoken
corn-cart coarn-kert
cart with movable body coup-kert
cart with fixed body cloas-kert, boax-kert
axle axel exul
wheel weel hweel
hoop rung
spoke spoak spoak
nave naiv naiv
swingletree mesturtree, swungultree
nails through body of cart and
axle cathul nailz
movable board put on side of
a cart to increase its capacity shellmun, shellmunt
English Scotch
Written Spoken
farm farm ferm
farmhouse fermhoos
farm buildings steddin
land attached to a mansion house,
generally encircled by a wall poalisayz
home farm mainz
croft, cottage craaft
cottage for unmarried ploughmen boathay
mill mill mull
mill-wheel mill-weel mull-hweel
granary granari grenuray
stackyard staakyaird
enclosed court for cattle caatul-reed
small sheep-fold faank
small enclosure for sheep bukht
pigsty soo'z crui
wall deik
wooden fence pailin
garret garret gaarut
trap-door trap-doar traap-doar
gap in wall, fence, or hedge slaap
back door baak doar
front door foar doar
above back door baak stikh
drain in cowshed grip
plough plow ploo
English Scotch
Written Spoken
handle of plough stult
curved side of plough buird
scythe siidh siith
sickle hyuk
grindstone griindstoan grunstain
wheelbarrow hurlbaaray
hurdle flaik
stake staik stoab
turf fail
balance for weighing bauks
ladder ladder ledhur
stump of a tree used to chop
sticks on cloag
basket for potatoes tautay creel
foot-rule foot-rool fut-ruil
pair of pincers pair oa pliiurz
pair oa nuppurz
tool for killing weeds weeduk
mallet mallet mell
crowbar guddul
drill drill dreel
axe ax aix
back of an axe houzul
muck-hoe haarl
wooden corn measure kept in
coarn kust luppay
red ochre keel
The following are among the more common Christian names,
with their shortened and diminutive forms. A child is generally
called by the diminutive form, which may cling to it through life
or be replaced by the shortened or full form as it grows older.
E. S.
Written Spoken Full Name Short Name Diminutive
Aeneas Eeneeus Eenus Aang-us Aang-ay
Alexander Alexander Aaluxaandur Aaluk Saundee
Andrew Androo Aundray Aundray
Archibald Aarchibald Erchbuld Erch Erchay
Charles Chaarlz Chairlz Chairlay
Daniel Dan yel Dainul Daan Daanay
E. S.
Written Spoken Full Name Short Name Diminutive
David Daivid Dauvud Daiv Daivee
Donald Donald Doanuld Daan Daanay
Duncan Duncan Duncun Dunk Duggee
George Jorj Joarj Joardee
Hector Hector Haictur Hek Hekkay
Henry Henry Hendray Hairay
James Jaimz Jaimz Jaim Jaimay
John Jon Joan Joak
Jekk Joakay
Laurence Laurins Laurins Lour Louree
Malcolm Malcom Maakum
Michael Miicul Mikhul Mik Mikkay
Peter Peeter Peetur Pait
Peet Paitay
Robert _Robert f Roaburt
Roabin Raab
Boab Bert
Roabee Boabee
Thomas Tommas Taamus Taam Taamay
William Willyam Weelum Wull
Beel Wullay
E. S.
Written Spoken Full Name Short Name Diminutive
Agnes Agnez Naanzay Naan Naanay
Anne Ann Aan Aanay
Barbara Barbara Baarbara Baab Baabee
Catherine Catherin Kaitrun Kait Kaitay
Christina Cristeena Kurstiina Kurstun
Teen Kurstay
Elizabeth Elizabeth Leezbuth Luz
Bess Luzzee
Euphemia Yoofeemia Yoofaimia Effay
Grace Grais Grais Girzay
Isabella Izabella Iizabella Bell Bellay
Jane Jain Jain Jeen Jeenee
E. S.
Written Spoken Full Name Short Name Diminutive
Janet Janet Jennut Jess Jinnay
Jemima Jemiima Jemiima Mem Memmay
Lily Lilly Lullay Lull Lullay
Marion Mairion Mairun
Margaret Maargaret Maargut Maag
Peg Maagee
Mary Mairy Mairay Mair Mairay
May May Mei Meizee
Minnie Minni Meenee
Robina Robeena Roabeenee Been Beenee
Sarah Saira Sairay Sairay
E. S.
Written Spoken
Bailie Bailay Beilay
Balmain Balmain Bamáin
Boag Boag Bug
Campbell Cambell Caamul
Cunningham Cunningam Cuinikum
Chalmers Chaamerz Chaumurz
Christie Cristi Creistay
Crichton Criitun Crikhtun
Douglas Duglas Dooglus
Dougal Doogal Doogul
Dunn Dun Duin
Dewar Dyooar Dyoor
Deuchar Dyookar Dyukhur
Flockhart Flokart Floakurt
Forbes Forbz Foarbus
Fulton Fooltun Fultun
Gardner Gaardnur Gairdnur
Gibbons Gibbonz Gibbunz
Gordon Gordon Goardun
Graham Grai-am Graim
Guild Gild Gild
Hally Hallay Haalay
Hogg Hogg Hugg
Leighton Laytun Likhnin
Lord Rollo Lord Rollo Loard Roallay
E. S.
Written Spoken
Leuchars Lookarz Lookhurz
Macpherson Macfersun Mucfairsun
Mackenzie Makenzee Mukinzee
Malcolm Malkum Maakum
Marshall Maarshal Mershul
Martin Maartin Mertun
Menzies Meengus Ming-us
Millar Miller Mullur
Mitchell Michel Muchull
Monteith Monteeth Muntaith
Oliphant Olifant Oalufunt
Oswald Oswald Oazit
Paton Paitun Paatun
Paterson Patersun Pettursun
Robertson Robertsun Roabisun
Ross Ross Roas
Salmon Saamun Saumun
Scott Scot Scoat
Scougall Scoogul Scoogul
Somerville Sumurvill Summurul
Sword Sord Swurd
Watt Wot Waat
Westwood -Westwood Waastwud
Wilson Wilsun Wulsun
Winton Wintun Waantun
Wright Riit Rikht
Young Yung Yung
E. S. E. S.
Egypt Aijup
America Amerikay
England Ing-lund
English Ing-lish
New Zealand Nyoo Zailund
Russian Rooshyan
Scotch Scoach
Edinburgh Aidunburray
Aberdeen Aiburdeen
Dundee Dundee
Glasgow Gleskay
London Londin
Perth Pairth
Forfar Faarfur
Fife Feif
Highlands Heelundz
Highland Heelunt
Strathearn Straathairn
Auchterarder Aakhturairdur
Brechin Breekhun
Crieff Creef
Dunning Dinnin
Dunblane Dumblain
Forgandenny Foargun
Forteviot Furtevvit
Gask Gaask
Highlandman Heeluntmun
Kinross Kinroas
Comrie Coamray
E. S.
Cultoquhey Kultohwai
Kippen Kuppun
Madderty Meddertay
Muthill Muithil
Muckart Mukkart
Monzie Munee
Scone Skuin
Trinity Gask Taarantay
Methven Meffun
River Earn Waatur Airn
Forth Foarth
River May Waatur oa Mei
Tay Tay
Loch Katrine Loakh Kaiturin
(Lochs near
Dunning) Clevij Moass
Coo'z Moass
Hweit Moass
Keltay Moass
Grampians Graampiunz
Ochils Oakhulz
Hills north of
the Earn Brayz ee Airn
Cairnie Hill Cairnay Bray
Craig Rossie
Craig Roasay
Gask Hill Gaask Bray
Dhe Gled Bray
Dhe Knoak
Dhe Tnouz
Dhe Law
and Perth) Needcessitay Bray
Dupplin) Dhe Shaw
TheBlackPool Blaak Duib
(Gorge in Roassay
Burn) Bain Kist
Rossie Law Roassay Law
Bridge of Earn Brig ee Airn
Toaray Brig
Thortur Brig
Badhead Baadhaid
Barnyards Baarnyairdz
Baldinnies Badinnis
Balgowan Bagouun
Balgour Bagour
Balquhandy Bahwandee
E. S.
Bridgefold Brigfauld
Boghall Bughaw
Broadlees Bruidleiz
The Broom Dhe Bruim
Caldhome Cauldhaim
Cockersfold Caukurzfauld
Corb Coarb
Crofts Craafts
Dalreoch Daraikh
Dragon Draigun
Duncrub Duncroob
Inverdunning Endurdinnin
Invermay Endurmei
Garvock Gaarik
Gateside Gaitseid
Gatherleys Gedhurlaiz
Granco Graankay
Haughend Haukhend
(A gorge in
the May) Hummul
Littlerig Luttulrig
Midgemill Mijmull
Mount Taabor
Muirhead Muirhaid
Pitmeadow Pitmidday
Thimble Row Thummulraw
brook burn
a wide stretch
of level land
along a river caars
common C oamun
crag craig
a small, deep,
wooded valley den
narrow valley glen
top of the hill haid ee hekht
hollow with
steep sides hyukh
hill hull
a round-topped
hill law
rocky pool linn
lake loakh
bog, marshy
pool moass
E. S.
moor muir
valley straath
spring , pool of water
in a bog waal-ee
E. S.
river waatur
village vullaij
town, village, farm
buildings toon
E. S.
Written Spoken
sky luft
clouds cloudz cloodz or cludz
blast, shower, squall blaast blaast
wind wind wund
windy day fein reevin day
thunder thunder thunnur
lightning liining likhnin
summer lightning wuldfiir
dew dyoo dyoo
hail hail hail
snow snoa snaw
snow-drift reeth
melting snow snaw-brui
ice iis eis
cold coald cauld
hot hot het
misty rookay
gleam glint
frost frost froast
freeze, froze, frozen freez, froaz, froazun
frosty froastay, reimay
keen nuppay
frost in the air to-day a nup ee air dhe-day

its a frosty morning it's a froastay (reimay) moarnin
hoar-frost reim
black frost blaak froast
fresh caalur
sharp, keen snell
thaw thaw thow
rain rain ren
wet saaft
pouring laashin
a heavy shower a doonrikht poor
shower shouer shoor
heavy fall of rain plaash
heavy fall of rain, especially
when accompanied by
thunder plout, spoot
E. S.
Written Spoken
wet day weet day
a wet day a weetee day
a wet night niit weet nikht
rather wet wee thing saaft
don't get wet duinay weet yursel
pouring hail waatur
rennin hail waatur
beating rain or snow oan ding
pretty heavy shower a but oan ding
very warm aufay waarum
close, muggy day maukhay day
very close aufay cloas

cold, wet fog (from the east) aisturlay haur
slush slush sleesh
cold weather in May when cows
go out coo-quaak
cold weather in July after shearing yow-trummul
indistinct rainbow waatur-gaw
rainbow renbow
halo round the moon brukh
E. S.
Written Spoken
day day day
morning morning moarnin
evening eevning een
night niit nikht
twilight gloamin
late evening daarknin
morning, before 12 o'clock foarnuin
afternoon efturnuin
about noon dennur-teim
week week week
month munth munth
year yeer yeer
hour ouer oor
minute minit meenut
time tiim teim
term term terrum
breakfast (porridge) paarich
dinner dinner dennur
tea tee tee
supper supper suppur
E. S.
Written Spoken
to-day dhe-day
to-night dhe-nikht
to-morrow dhe-moarn
this year dhe-yeer
now, at present dhe-noo
yesterday yesturday
yesterday evening yestreen, dhestreen
last night laast nikht
to-morrow week dhe-moarn cum ekht dayz
this week past dhis ekht dayz
harvest haarvest hairst
winter wuntur
summer summur
spring spring
late autumn baak-end
season seezun saizun
E. S.
Written Spoken
Sunday (Sabbath day) Saubuth day
Monday Munday Munnunday
Tuesday Tyoozday Tiizday
Wednesday Wenzday Wuddunzday
Thursday Thurz day Fuirsday
Friday Friiday Freiday
Saturday Saturday Setturday
Dhus iz luttul Setturday,
Dhe-moarn'z Saubay-saw;
Munnunday'z up un tull'd agen,
Un Tiizday'z caw awaw.
Wuddunzday'z dhe muddul ee week,
Or Fuirsday yee may say;
Un gin Freiday'z a guid moarnin
Yee may bee shuir oa a guid day.
E. S.
Written Spoken
January Janyooary Jaanwur
February Febrooary Faiburwurray
March March Merch
E. S.
Written Spoken
April Aipril Upréil
May May Mei
June Joon Juin
July Jóolíi Jóolay
August August August
September September Septembur
October Octoaber Oktoabur
November November Novembur
December Desember Dizembur
New Year's Day Nairzday
The first Monday after the New Year Haansul Munday
2nd February Caunulzmus, Caunulzday
15th May (legal term) Hwuttsunday
1st August Laamus
Michaelmas Mikhulmus
31st October Haalayeen
11th November for banking
28th November for removals Mertimus
31st December Huggmunay
E. S.
Written Spoken
direction, point of the compass ert
north north noarth
south south sooth
east eest aist
west west waast
E. S.
whisky jar graybaird
large vessel for whisky joarum
large tumblerful of beer scoonur oa beer
boll, a measure of capacity bow
E. S.
Written Spoken
ounce ouns uns
pound pound pund
hundredweight hundurwekht
ton tun tun
2 donnulz = 1 jull
4 jullz = 1 muchkin (taapit hen)
2 muchkinz = 1 chaapin
2 chaapinz = 1 peint
8 peints = 1 gaalun = 3 imperial gallons
4 luppayz = 1 pekk
4 pekks = 1 furlut
4 furluts = 1 bow
16 bowz = 1 chauldur
1 furlut of oats = 1.46 of imperial bushel
36 ellz = 1 faw
40 fawz = 1 ruid
4 ruidz = 1 aicur = 1.26 of imperial acre
= 6,104 square yards
E. S.
Written Spoken
foot-rule foot-rool fut-ruil
yard yaard yaird
ell ell ell
mile miil meil
E. S.
Written Spoken
pound, £1 pound
sovereign soavrun
£1 note noat
crown croun croon
half-crown haafcroun a haaf-a-croon
guinea ginni geenee
shilling shullun, boab
penny pennay
halfpenny haipni maik, haapnay, baubee
fourpence groat
farthing faardun
fistful nevfay
double handful goupunfay
pound in money
pund in weight
a haank oa yern
a hank of yarn (wool)
a cut oa wursut
a cut (one-twelfth of a hank) of worsted
E. S.
Written Spoken
weave weev weev
web, warp wub, waarp
weft, woof waaft
maker of web waarpur
weaver wubstur
reel purn
filler of purns purnay
shuttle shuttel shuttul
spool spool spuil
hand-loom hand-loom haund-luim
beam beem baim
a gap in the woof jesp
hank of yarn hesp
to miss threads in weaving scoab v.
the part of the loom which lays
the threads of the web parallel lay
shrink (of cloth) wauk in v.
bleach bleech bleich
rock rock roak
spindle spindel spunnul
spin spin spin
spinning-wheel spinnin-hweel
thread thred threed
band band baand
reel reel reel
yarn yaarn yern
bobbin bobbin boabin
cloth cloth claith
cotton cotton coatun
wincey winsay winshay
dressing dressing dressin
lint lint lint
tow toa tow
footboard board futbuird
dust of threads in weaving caadis
E. S.
Written Spoken
church officer baidul
baker baiker baikur
blacksmith blaksmith blaaksmuth
cadger, hawker caajur caajur
cooper cooper coopur
horse-dealer coupur
dealer deeler dailur
doctor doctor doaktur
schoolmaster doamunay, mestur
drainer drainer drennur
ditcher dieher duchur
butcher boocher fleshur
gardener gaardiner gairdnur
grocer groaser groasur
hedger hejer haijur
joiner joiner jeinur
carrier carrier kerriur
mason maison maisun
minister minister ministur
miller miller mullur
pedlar pedler paakmun, peddlur
seller of crockery pigmun
precentor presentor prizentur
reel-filler purnay
wright riit rikht
slater slaiter sclaitur
saddler saddler seddlur
sempstress shoostur
smith smith smuth
cobbler sootur
tailor tailer teilur
auctioneer aukshoneer ungshuneer
weaver weever weevur, wubstur
E. S.
a feat to be imitated baistay
game gem
English and French (a game) Scoach un Frensh
hop-scotch beddeez, boax dhe beddeez
hockey shintay
wrong side (in hockey) curshaamyee
blind man's buff blind-boalay
touch tig
pax, a truce while playing tig baurlay
E. S.
tig round the stacks baurlay braaks
it (in playing tig) hut
home (in playing tig) den
pitch and toss pich un toas
a children's game eelee pigz
leap-frog fut un a haaf
variations of leap-frog baanutay, tuppnay nuppnay,
saumun'z loup
knuckle stones chukkay stainz
hop, skip, and jump haap, staap, un loup
tossing the caber toassin dhe caibur
putting the stone puttin dhe stain
spinning-top peeree
to spin a teetotum burl a teetoatum
indiarubber ball gaasay baw
draughts daambroad
clear the board shuil dhe broad
pop-gun baalin-gun
potato bullets tautay bulluts
stop pushing, in swinging laat dhe caat dee
to catch hold of any one by
shoulders and feet and dump
his back on the ground benjee, gee um benjee
old maid auld maid
catch the ten caach dhe ten
knave jekk
golf gouf
fore foar
caddie caudee
tip-cat caattay un duggee
marbles boolz
line taw
variegated glass marble glessay
clay marble hard haid, brickay
little, coloured clay marbles steeneez
a game of marbles placed in a circle ringay
a game of marbles in several
holes scraped in the ground houlay dumps
play first furst dreep
play fair fair wunnay
play for stakes dreep
to play a marble sharply with
thumb and first finger nikkul
to hit the marble aimed at with
the marble played daab
hitting the marble aimed at
from the line daabur fay taw
E. S.
play marble from hollow of
forefinger poosee nikkul
keep marbles won to end of game
and then give them back funnee dreep
football futbaw
goalkeeper goalay
curling curlin
curling-stone curlin-stain
(1) a set of four a side at curling
(2) the length of ice on which a
game is played rink
captain of a rink skup
iron sheet, indented to grip the
ice, on which the curler stands
to throw his stone craamp or craamput
broom, besom cow, bruim
a line drawn across the ice seven
yards from the tee or Jack hug
pot-lid (a curling-stone played
so as to rest on the tee) paat-lud
bias on the ice twust
passageleft between two curling-stones
throw a stone so that it draws
in towards the tee from the
right-hand side play dhe foar haund
from the left-hand side baak haund
rather beyond the tee full-lay Jeck-hii
play straight up to lie near the
tee draw
cannon off a stone and lie shot wick un curl in
knock out a stone and lie in its
place chaap un lii
'sweep him up' (quicken the
speed of a stone by sweeping
the path clear in front of it) soop um up
hold up the broom, do not sweep hud up
not a bosom! (don't sweep in
front of the stone) noa a cow, nivvur a cow
let him alone! (don't sweep in
front of the stone) laa'm ulain
give me a guard (a stone placed
so as to protect another from
being dislodged) gee's a gaird
I'm as narrow as a match Aa'm az nerray'z a spunk
I'll sweep his stone out Aa'll git um
he's off the ice (has made a wide
shot) hee'z aaf dhe eis
E. S.
your stone has not come far
enough yee'r noa heer, mun
it won't come far enough ut heznay feet
you're too far out yee'r weid
you're narrow (too near the
straight line to the tee) yee'r nerray
a game in which no stone lies
near the tee a weid end
that's the shot (the stone nearest
the tee) dhaat's dhe shoat
'shake that man' — by way of
congratulation on a good shot shaak dhaat maan
you for a curler! (well played!) yoo fur a curlur
take your will of it (do as you
please) taak yur wull oa'd
that's a very bad shot for a skip
to play dhaat's an aufay-leik shoat
fur a skup tay play
to sit on one's heels sliding
down a slide kurshang
E. S.
Written Spoken
ague aigyoo aigee
rheumatism roomatism roomatizm
erysipelas dhe roaz
pleuro-pneumonia plooroa
cholera colera coaluraa
scarlet fever rush fivvur
measles meezelz mizulz
smallpox smallpox poax
pock-marked pod-markt poak-maarkit
fever feever fivvur
mumps buffits
deformed paulay
bandy-legged bouzay
lifting foot too high cleekit
blind bliind blind
deaf def daif — dull oa heerin
squinting gleid, skellay-ee'd
dumb dum dum
stutter maant
headache sair haid
toothache toothaik sair teeth, tuithik
stomach-ache sair weim
E. S.
Written Spoken
fester, suppurate bail
whitlow hwuttul bailin
heal heel hail
mole moal moal
chilblain chilblain froast-buttin, chulblain
corn corn coarn.
boil boil beil
wart raat
cough hoast
whooping-cough kink-hoast
bronchitis bronkiitis broonkaidees
croup croop Croop
sore throat claap oa dhe hauz
staggers, megrim shaakurz
a disease of poultry gaips
disease of sheep, trembling loupin ull
internal inflammation in
sheep braaxay, waaturay haid
swoon dwaam
a spasm came over my
heart a dwaam cumd our ma hert
faint faint fent
pang, intermittent pain stoond
I've had a terrible pain Aa'v hain an aufay stoond
a pain at the heart a stoondin at dhe hert
trembling aw oa a trummul
a great shock an aufay shaak
founder foonur
infectious smuttul
tired out fair wubbit
chapped hands chappt chaapit
haakit haundz
sick sik seek
decline, fall off, fade away dwein
consumption diclein
what's the matter to-day? hwaat ailz yee dhe-day?
well well weel, brawlay
ill ill ull, baadlay
E. S.
Written Spoken
baptism babtizm baabteezm
baptised babtiizd baabteezd
christening krisning crusnin
E. S.
Written Spoken
first person met on New Year's
morning or on the way to a
baptism (he gets a pees) furst fut

wedding wedding waadin
married to marrid merraid oan
messenger sent out to fetch
guests for a wedding sendz
banns called criid
fee for calling banns crii-in sullur
banns called in church criid ee kirk
certificate of banns, marriage,
or church membership leinz
licence liicense leeshuns
poor marriage (only cakes of
barley-meal) bairmail merrij
marriage to which guests contribute
food, &c. pennay waadin
who is she marrying? hwaw's shee gittin?
Shorter Catechism dhe sing-ul caarichiz
day of preparation for Communion
kept the fast-day keepit dhe faast
Sacrament, Holy Communion saikrimunt
bread and wine for Holy Communion
dhe elimunts
address before Communion fensin dhe taibulz
to attend Holy Communion for
the first time gaang foarit
metal ticket of admission to
Holy Communion toakun
bury berry buiray
funeral buiraiul
laid out streekit
corpse corps coarp
coffin coffin coafun
funeral pall paul moarclaith
symbols of mourning on hat
and sleeves baand un weepurz
Bible Biibel Beibul
Gospel Gospel Goaspul
church church kirk
Established Church Auld Kirk
Free Church Free Kirk
United Presbyterian (U. P.) Yoo ray
pray pray pray
prayer praier prair
E. S.
Written Spoken
sermon sermun sermun
precentor presenter prizentur
elder elder eldur
chief elder roolin eldur
church officer baidul
precentor's desk lattern
pew pyoo pyoo
deacon deekon deikun
bailie baili beilay
collection collekshun coalekshun
collecting-box with long handle laidul
collection plate broad, plait
heritor, landowner erritur
pulpit poolpit pooput
old metrical version of the 100th Psalm Auld Hundur
bride briid breid
bridegroom briidgroom breidgruim
best man best maan
bridesmaid best maid
When a newly-married couple go to church for the first time
after marriage it is said of them, Dhay wur kirkit dhe-day.
E. S.
Written Spoken
bad bad baad
good good guid
old oald auld
new nyoo nyoo
young yung yung
big, great grait mukkul, grait
small, little smaul, littil smaw, wee, luttul
well well weel
ill, bad ill ull
many meni moanay
few noa moanay
broad braud bred
wide wiid weid
narrow narroa nerray
thick thik thik
thin thin thin
high hii heekh
low loa laikh
E. S.
Written Spoken
long long laang, loang, laung
short short shoart
before befoar foar
behind hindur
straight strait straukht
crooked, awry gleid, skyould
hot hot het
cold coald cauld
loose loos lous
tight tiit tikht
smooth smoodh smuidh
rough ruff rukh
empty emti tuim
full fool foo
hollow boas
strong strong stroang
weak week waik
white wiit hweit
black black blaak
yellow yelloa yaalay
brown broun broon
red red rid
blue bloo bloo
green green green
grey gray gray
E. S.
Written Spoken
well well weel
strong, healthy stroang
strong, well, healthy stoot
quick, active clivvur
pretty boanay
buxom, well conditioned, pleasant--
looking soansay
comely, stately dentee
plump, buxom, handsome gausay
good-looking, sensible, sane weisleik
neat, trim trig
well-dressed woman gaash wummun
smart, well set up swaank
good-looking weel-faurd
E. S.
Written Spoken
ill ill ull
sick sik seek
unnaturally thin, shrivelled,
pinched shulpit
lean, weak sullay
delicate dweinin
thin, of little bulk, shrunken luttul-bookit
skeleton, very thin juist a rikkul oa bainz
peaked, thin-faced pyookit
corpulent foazay
ugly ull-faurd
dishevelled toozee
shuffling shaukhlin
limping, lame hurplin
bungling, useless, clumsy fuiturin
squinting gleid
dumb dum dum
blind bliind blind
deaf def daif
somewhat deaf dull oa heerin
exhausted furfoakhun
bald bauld beld
E. S.
quick, sharp, clever gleg
knowing, wide-awake
smart fellow burkay
glad, happy, cheerful bliith
merry, light-hearted likhtsum
cheerful cheeree
cosy, comfortable, familiar coothay
common sense gumshun
slow, gentle, cautious caanay
sober, respectable, honest, modest doos
precise, particular purjink
old-fashioned, sagacious, shrewd, quaint auld-faarund
a funny person coamic
exact (pointed) peintit
handy, clever with the hands haundee
E. S.
slow dull
sad, gloomy, dismal douay
sulks doadz
sulky doadee
down in the mouth hingin dhe fuppul
an easy-going person sug
without pith or strength, weak fulzhunlus, puiflus
lacking energy, strength, or purpose thaivlus
lout, blockhead, stupid sumf
fool, idiot, clown full, goamurul
nervous, excitable, not all there skeeree
mad, foolish, idiotic, silly daaft
crazy craakit
idiotic, silly, muddled, making mistakes
stupidly deitit
stupid donnurd
in a state of dotage dottul
blockhead dundurhaid
stupid lump doavay
careless, forgetful, feeble feklus
giddy girl glaik, glaikit jaud
(through other), anyhow, untidy, unmethodical
romping, hoydenish haalikit
skittish, frolicsome skeeree malinkee
capricious maagutay
rash, hasty, clumsy raamstaam
dawdling, pottering daidlin
reluctant sweer
hesitate swidhur
mean, treacherous footay
hard, obstinate, stubborn door
miserly, avaricious gruppay
shrewd, sly, tricky paukay
twisted, ill-natured, crusty, crossgrained
crabbed, cross-grained craabit
struck dumb with astonishment dumfoondurd
a dirty person clert
niggling, fussy about trifles purnikkitay, finnikin
one who abuses hospitality skunj, soarnur
unreasoning dislike, disgust scunnur
fatigued, worried traakhuld
drudge, worrying worker traakhul
mean, shabby scuffay
E. S.
disreputable waafay
sharp of speech, snappish cluppay
nasty nestay
greedy greedee-leik
light-fingered, pilfering taaray-fingurd
sulky glumshay
grumpy goulin
babbler bledhurskeit
E. S.
Written Spoken
father faadher faidhur
son sun sun
brother brudher bridhur
grandfather guchur (obs.), graandfaid
uncle uncul
nephew nevyoo neffay
father, daddy, &c. paw, daw, daadee
husband guid-maan
father-in-law guid-faidhur
son-in-law guid-sun
brother-in-law guid-bridhur
widower weedeeur
family famli faimlay
E. S.
Written Spoken
mother midhur
daughter dauter doakhtur
sister sister sustur
grandmother graanay
aunt aant aantay
niece nees
mother maw, maamay
wife wiif guid-weif
mother-in-law guid-midhur
daughter-in-law guid-doakhtur
sister-in-law guid-sustur
widow widdoa weedee
E. S.
Written Spoken
cousin cuzn cuizin
grandchild oa (obs.)
forefathers foarbeerz
relation freend
NOTE. The terms neffay and nees are not often used, the
more common mode of description of the relationship being
bridhur'z sun, sustur'z doakhtur, &c. So, too, it is more usual
to speak of sun'z doakhtur, doakhtur'z sun, &c., than to use the
terms graandsun, graanddoakhtur.
A man often speaks of his wife as hur, or hur dhair, or dhe
weif, or dhe mustris, and hardly ever mentions her by name.
A woman calls her husband dhe guid-maan, or dhe mestur, or
mii mann, or mentions him by name, or says hum dhair.
A man or woman speaking of a child says oor Joak or oor
The terms guchur and oa for grandfather and grandchild are
obsolescent. Oa is sometimes used for a nephew or niece.
One's own relations are mii foak, oor foak, maa ain foak.
The older generation are dhe auld foak.
The younger generation, dhe yung foak.
E. S.
little trout trootay
dove doo
little lamb laamay
little bird burdee
little pet dautay
darling deeree
pretty little girl boanay wee laussaikay
my little cooing pigeon maa wee croodlin doo
Who called you crab-faced,
my little lamb? Hwaw cawd yee paartun-faist,
maa wee laam?
Who stole your treacle scone,
my little lamb? Hwaw stailt yur traikul scoan,
maa wee laam?
poor little girl puir wee laussay
E. S.
girl kummur, quein, hizzee
a comely girl a dentee quein
a good-looking girl a weel-faurd kummur
a teidee kummur
an active, clever girl a clivvur hizzee
a comely girl a dentee hizzee
a good-looking person a dentee buddee
a bold, conceited, proud lass a croos laus
a woman, especially an elderly woman a lukkay
a queer one a gei lukkay
jade jaud
wild, bad woman cuttay
bad lot lummur
besom bizzum
stupid girl taupay
very wild girl hempay
idle girl, slut eidul taupay
you great stupid yee mukkul taupay
she's an empty pea-pod shee'z a tuim peez-coad
E. S.
very hard gei haard
as hard as a stone as haard'z a stain
very near (stingy) aufay neer humsel
avaricious gruppay
he would get change for a halfpenny
hee wud chenj a baubee
coining money hee'z fair keinin sullur
he's too near (stingy) to be
honest hee'z our neer tay bee eanist
he would skin a louse for its fat hee wud skin a loos for dhe
reluctant to part with cash sweer tay pert wee dhe clink
E. S.
he's been having a little whisky hee'z been taistin
he's had a good drop hee'z hed a guid draapay
half on haaf oan
well on weel oan
blind drunk blind foo
fighting drunk fekhtin foo
E. S.
weeping drunk greetin foo
mortally drunk moartul
not able to keep his feet noa aibul tay keep a fut
taking the breadth of the road
(staggering from side to side
of the road) taakin dhe breed ee road
as drunk as a pig az drunk's a soo
now and then slightly tipsy nooz un dhaanz a wee fuilish
forgets himself furgits humsel
An ken yur meenin baa yur mumpin.
I know your meaning by your mumbling.
A boanay breid's suin buskit. A pretty bride is soon dressed
A brunt bairn draidz dhe fir. A burnt child dreads the fire
A full un his sullur'z suin n pertit.
A fool and his money are soon parted.
A gaangin fut's ei gittin, un ut bee but a thoarn.
A going foot is always getting, be it only a thorn.
A geen coo shuidnay bee lookit ee moo.
A given (received as a present) cow should not be looked in
the mouth (to see its age). Eng. equivalent: Don't look a
gift horse in the mouth.
A green Yuil maaks a faat kirk-yaird.
A green Christmas makes a fat churchyard.
A guid sikht fur sair een.
A good sight for sore eyes (a pleasant sight).
A hairay maan's a gairay maan,
A hairay weif's a wuch.
A hairy man's a wealthy man,
A hairy woman's a witch.
Ain tay saw, ainn tay naw, Un ain tay pei dhe laird withaw.
One to sow, and one to gnaw,
And one to pay the laird with.
The meaning of this is, that of the gross produce of a farm,
one-third pays the expenses of cultivation, one-third the cost
of the farmer's household, and one-third goes in rent.
An auld maid's bairn'z ei weel-bred.
An old maid's child is always well-bred.
An ull shairur nair gaat a guid hyuk.
A bad reaper never got a good reaping-hook.
A rouin stain gedhurz nay fugg.
A rolling stone gathers no moss.
A shaif aaf a broakun kebbuk's nair musst.
A slice from a cut cheese is never missed.
A smaw buss iz bettur'n nay beeld.
A small bush is better than no shelter.
A smuth ull maak a pek oa mail
Az faast's hiz weif ull baik ut.
A smith will make a peck of meal
As fast as his wife will bake it.
Aw buddee hez dhur ain draaf-poak tay kerray, but sum
hingz seidur beez idhurz.
Every one has his own draff-sack to carry, but some hang
lower than others.
A weifs ay bairn, un a coatur'z ay coo,
Dhe tain'z flair weel, un dhe tidhur'z nair foo.
A woman's only child, and a cottar's only cow,
The one's never well, and the other's never full (well-fed).
Aw things hez an end, un a puddun hez twaw.
All things have an end, and a sausage has two.
Ay maan'z mait's unidhur maan's poozhun.
One man's meat is another man's poison.
Az blaak's a slay. As black as a sloe.
Az blind'z a baat. As blind as a bat.
Az boas az a baarul. As hollow as a barrel.
Az daark az pik. As dark as pitch.
Az daif's a doer-nail. As deaf as a door-nail.
Az dhe soo fulls dhe draukht soorz.
As the pig fills the swill sours.
Az drii'z a hwussul. As dry as a whistle.
Az drii'z a rid hairin. As dry as a red herring.
Az foo'z a fiddlur. As drunk as a fiddler.
Az queit az dhe cruk hingz. As quietly as the hook hangs.
Az tuim's a hwussul. As empty as a whistle.
Az tyukh's dhe wuddee. As tough as the hangman's rope.
Az weel bee haangd fur a sheep uz a laam.
As well be hanged for (stealing) a sheep as a lamb.
Bettur a fingur aaf nor ei waagin.
Better a finger off than always wagging.
Bettur an auld maan'z dautay nor a yung maan'z dunt-aboot.
Better an old man's pet than a young man's slave (knock-about).
Bettur a tuim hoos nor an ull tainunt.
Better an empty house than a bad tenant.
Bettur suin nor sein. Better soon than late.
Bettur wair shuin dhun sheets.
Better wear out shoes than sheets.
Beitin un scaartin'z guid Scoach ooin.
Biting and scratching are good Scotch wooing.
Boad fur a sulk goon un yee'll mebbee git dhe sleev oa'd.
Aim at a silk gown and you'll perhaps get its sleeve.
Burdz un bairnz maan ei bee pikkin.
Birds and children must always be picking.
'Caan dui' is aizee kerraid uboot.
'Can do' is easily carried about.
Cauld kail het ugen. Cold broth heated up again.
Caw saut tay Diizurt.
Drive salt to Dysart (Carry coals to Newcastle).
Chenjiz iz likhtsum, az dhe weifee sed hwun hur maan deed.
Changes are pleasant, as the woman said when her husband
Chenjiz iz likhtsum, un fuilz iz ei foand oa dhum.
Changes are pleasant, and fools are always fond of them
(Variety's pleasing).
Claw yoo mii baak un Aa'll claw yoorz.
Scratch you my back and I'll scratch yours.
Clivvur midhurz maaks daidlay doakhturz.
Active mothers make dawdling daughters.
Coantentit wee luttul un caantay wee mair.
Contented with little and cheerful with more.
Coarbeez duiznay peik oot coarbeez' een.
Ravens don't pick out ravens' eyes.
Creep ufoar yee gaang. Creep before you walk.
Daansin leik a hen oan a het girdul.
Dancing like a hen on a hot baking-pan (restless).
Dhay'r aw guid ut geez. They are all good who give.
Dhay wur waur loasiz at dhe Shurraymuir.
There were worse losses at the (battle of) Sheriffmuir.
Dhe auld weif ut tuik hwaat shee hed un nair waantit.
The old woman who took (used) what she had and never was
in want of anything.
Dhe claurtayur dhe coazeeur. The dirtier the cosier.
Dhe fiir'z dhe best floor ee gairdun.
The fire is the best flower in the garden.
Dhe keeng may cum i dhe caajur'z gait.
The king may come in the cadger's way.
Dhe laussaiz iz aw guid, but hwaur div dhe ull weifs cum fay?
The girls are all good, but where do the bad wives come from?
'Dhe mair hurray dhe less speed,'
Koa dhe wee teilur tee laang threed.
'More hurry, less speed,'
Quoth the little tailor to the long thread.
Dhem ut aits laangist livz laangist.
Those who eat longest live longest.
Dhem ut biiz beef biiz bainz,
Dhem ut biiz laund biiz stainz.
Those that buy beef buy bones,
Those that buy land buy stones.
Dhem ut cumz furst's furst saird.
Those that come first are first served.
Dhe neerur dhe kirk, dhe faarur fay grais.
The nearer the church, the farther from grace.
Dhe pruif ee puddin'z dhe preein oa'd.
The proof of the pudding is the tasting of it.
Dhe shuimaakur'z weif's ei waarst shoad.
The shoemaker's wife is always the worst shod.
Dhur ei sum waatur hwaur dhe sturkay'z droond.
There is always some water where the young bullock is
Dhur nay fuil leik an auld fuil. There's no fool like an old fool.
Dhur nay gain weeoot pain. There's no gain without pain.
Dhur'z a sluppay stain afoar dhe haw door.
There's a slippery stone before the door of the hall.
Dhur'z an unkay uday hwin caajurz reid.
There's a great to-do when hawkers ride.
Dhur'z ei a mukkul sluppay stain at ulkay buddee'z doar.
There's always a big slippery stone at everybody's door.
Dhur'z luttul wut intul dhe pow
Dhut likhts dhe caunul at dhe low.
There's little sense in the head that lights a candle at the flame.
Dhur'z moanay a lee tellt at dhe neb oa a pen.
There's many a lie told at the point of a pen.
Dhur'z nay reek ee laivruk's hoos dhe-nikht.
There's no smoke in the lark's house to-night (said when the
night is cold and stormy).
Dugz un bairnz kenz hwaw'z guid tay dhum.
Dogs and children know who's good to them.
Duinay bii a pig in a poak. Don't buy a pig in a sack.
Duinay draid dhe day yee nivvur saw.
Don't dread the day you never saw (the future).
Duinay hing ee brichin.
Don't hang on the brichin (tail-strap). Don't hang back.
Duinay scaud yur tung wee idhur foak's kail.
Don't scald your tongue with other people's broth.
Ei gaar dhe haid ee soo meet dhe tail ee greis.
Always make the head of the pig meet the tail of the young
pig (in arranging household expenditure).
Ei hay yur coagee oot hwin ut renz kail.
Always have your bowl out when it rains broth.
Fair play tellz dhe sel oa'd.
Fair play tells the self of it — its own self (speaks for itself).
Flee laikh, flee laang. Fly low, fly long.
Fuilz un bairnz shuidnay hay chaapin-stuks.
Fools and children shouldn't have potato-mashers.
Fuilz un bairnz shuidnay see haaf-duin waark.
Fools and children shouldn't see half-done work.
Gaantin'z waantin sleep, mait, or maakin oa.
Yawning (means) being in need of sleep, food, or being made
of (attention).
Giff gaaf maaks guid freendz.
Exchange of presents (or civilities) makes good friends.
Gin Caunulzday bee daark un duil,
Haaf dhe wuntur'z bii at Yuil.
Gin Caunulzday bee cleer un fair,
Haaf dhe wuntur'z tay cum, un mair.
If Candlemas be dark and gloomy,
Half the winter's past at Christmas.
If Candlemas be clear and fine,
Half the winter's to come, and more.
Gin dhe luft wuz tay faw, dhe laivruks wud bee smuird.
If the sky were to fall, the larks would be smothered.
Gin yee caanay dui a buddee a guid turn, duinay dui dhum
an ull.
If you can't do one a good turn, don't do him an ill.
Gin yee frii stainz in buttur, dhe brui ull bee guid.
If you fry stones in butter, the sauce will be good.
Gin yee'r seekin a guid neep, ei weil a cleen shaw.
If you're looking for a good turnip, always choose a clean
Glour ee muin un likht ee middun.
Gaze at the moon and fall into the dung-heap.
Guid foak's scairs — taak tent oa yursel.
Good people are scarce — take care of yourself.
Guid gair'z luttul-bookit. Good gear has little bulk.
Haarknurz nair haard a guid tail oa dhurselz.
Listeners never heard a good account of themselves.
'Hay' gaar'z a daif maan heer.
'Take this' makes a deaf man hear.
Hee hez a bee in his baanut.
He has a bee in his bonnet (a screw loose).
Heekh hoosiz iz oafun tuim ee taap stoaray.
High houses are often empty in the top story.
Hee'll aidhur maak a spuin or spull a hoarn.
He'll either make a spoon or spoil a horn.
Hee'll nair liv tay scaart un auld pow.
He'll never live to scratch an old head.
Hee'll riiv hiz faidhur'z baanut yet.
He'll split his father's cap yet (i.e. he'll be cleverer than his
Hee needz a laang spuin ut sups wee deel.
He needs a long spoon who sups with the devil.
Hee wuz naidhur tay hud nor tay bind.
He was neither to hold nor to bind (uncontrollable).
Hee'z our auld a caat tay draw a stray ufoar.
He's too old a cat to draw a straw before.
Hee'z waur tay sloakhun nor tay coarn.
He's worse to water (slake) than to corn (feed).
Hum ut wull tay Coopur, maan tay Coopur.
He that will to Cupar, must to Cupar.
Hungur'z guid kichin. Hunger is good seasoning.
Hwaat caan ye expek oa a soo but a grum? What can you expect of a pig but a grunt?
Hwaur dhe gray mair foald dhe fiddlur.
Where the grey mare foaled the fiddler (at the back of beyond).
Hwaur dhe coo cauvd dhe cuddee.
Where the cow calved the donkey (at the back of beyond).
Hwaur dhe Heeluntmun faand dhe taingz.
Where the Highlander found the tongs (in the fender).
Jook un laat dhe jaw gay bii. Duck and let the splash go past.
Keep a caum sookh.
Keep an even mind (take things quietly) (lit. a calm breath).
Keep a thing saivun yeer un yee'll find a yuis fur'd.
Keep a thing for seven years, and you'll find a use for it.
Keep yur ain fush-guts tull yur ain seemawz.
Keep your own fish-guts for your own seagulls. (Don't wash
your dirty linen in public.)
Laakh un grow faat. Laugh and grow fat.
Laang may yur lum reek. Long may your chimney smoke.
Laat dhaat flee stuk faast tee waw.
Let that fly stick fast to the wall.
Laat dhe bairnz fend fur dhurselz.
Let the children provide for themselves.
Laat dhe tow gaang wee bukkut.
Let the rope go with the bucket (down the well).
Leik drawz tay leik — an auld hoars tull a fail deik.
Like draws to like — an old horse to a turf wall.
Livin at heck un mainjur.
Living at rack and manger. (Having the run of his teeth.)
Maa sun'z maa sun or hee gits um a weif;
Maa doakhtur'z maa doakhtur aw dhe dayz oa hur leif.
My son's my son till he gets him a wife
My daughter's my daughter all her life.
Mair baa guid luck nor guid geidin.
More by good luck than good management (guiding).
May a moos nair rin our yoor girnul wee a tair in uts ee.
May a mouse never run over your meal-chest with a tear in
its eye.
Mei burdz iz ei cheepin,
Mei breidz iz ei greetin.
May birds are always chirping;
May brides are always weeping.
Moanay a breid breks hur elbay oan dhe kirk lintul.
Many a bride breaks her elbow on the church door-post
(grows lazy after marriage).
Moanay haundz maaks likht waark.
Many hands make light work.
'Mukkul crii un luttul oo,'
Koa dhe deel hwun hee cluppit dhe soo.
'Much cry and little wool,'
Quoth the devil when he clipped the sow.
Naidhur fush nor flaish nor guid rid hairin.
Neither fish nor flesh nor good red herring.
Nair caast a cloot or Mei bee oot.
Never cast a bit of clothing till May be out. (Don't leave off
wearing winter things till the end of May.)
Nair kep a fawin tneif.
Never catch a falling knife.
Naithing'z goattun uthoot painz but durt un laang nailz.
Nothing's got without pains but dirt and long nails.
Nivvur leet, but laakh. Say nothing, but laugh.
Oo-biiurz kenz oo-sellurz. Wool-buyers know wool-sellers.
Proaviduns ei taaks tent oa bairnz, fuilz, un foo foak.
Providence always takes care of children, fools, and drunk
Pukkul un pukkul maaks a mukkul.
Little and little make much.
Quik at mait, quik at waark. Quick at food, quick at work.
Set a stoot hert tull a stei bray.
Set a stout heart to a steep hill.
Shee wudnay taak dhe waukurz un dhe reidurz gaid bii.
She wouldn't take the walkers and the riders went past.
Shee'z bettur un shee'z boanay. She's better than she is pretty.
Shee'z cut dhe crookit stik at laast.
She's cut the crooked stick at last (i. e. taken the inferior
Steek dhe aumray, loak dhe kist,
Or ains sum gair may weel bee mist.
Shut the cupboard, lock the chest,
Or else some stuff may well be missed.
Stuks un stainz ull brek yur bainz,
But naimz ull nivvur herm yee.
Sticks and stones will break your bones,
But names will never harm you.
Sullur'z haundee fur gaun an airund wee.
Money (silver) is useful for running messages with.
Taip dhe mooth ee poak, un dhe tail ull taip dhe sel oa'd.
Economize the mouth of the sack and the bottom will
economize itself (the self of it).
Tell dhe truith un shaim dhe deel.
Tell the truth and shame the devil.
Ulkay coak crawz croos oan hiz ain middun-haid.
Every cock crows boldly on its own dungheap.
Ulkay maan fur hissel, un dhe deel taak dhe hinmust.
Every man for himself, and the devil take the hindmost.
Ut's an ull burd ut feilz uts ain nest.
It's a bad bird that fouls its own nest.
Ut's an ull wund ut blawz nay guid.
It's an ill wind that blows no good.
Ut's awbuddee fur dhurselz i dhus waurld.
It's every man for himself in this world.
Ut's braw un aizee craakin,
But noa say aizee aakin.
It's fine and easy to talk,
But not so easy to act.
Ut's braw tay bee boanay un weel leikit.
It's a good thing to be pretty and well liked (popular).
Ut's braw tay bee hungray un ken oa malt.
It's nice to be hungry and know of food.
Ut's cumin wee dhe blind kerrayur.
It's coming by the blind carrier (not coming at all).
Ut's noa fur noakht dhe gled hwussulz.
It's not for nothing that the buzzard whistles.
Ut's noa loast a freend gits.
It's not lost a friend gets (what a friend gets is no loss to
Ut's ull bringin but hwaat's noa ben.
It's difficult to bring out what's not inside.
Ut's ull taakin dhe breeks aaf a Heeluntmun.
It's difficult to take the trousers off a Highlandman (because
he has none on).
Ut's ull waitin fur daid men'z shuin.
It's bad to wait for dead men's shoes.
Ut wuznay dhe baanut, but dhe haid ut wuz in ut,
Gaard awbuddee speek oa Raab Roarisun'z baanut.
It wasn't the cap, but the head that was in it,
That made everybody speak of Rob Rorison's cap.
Weemin'z kittul caatul. Women are ticklish customers (cattle).
Wulfay waist maaks waifay waant.
Wilful waste makes woeful want.
Wuntur'z thunnur'z summur'z hungur.
Winter's thunder is summer's hunger.
Yee caannay hwussul un chow mail.
You can't whistle and chew meal (at the same time).
Yee caannay maak a sulk purs oa a soo'z lug.
You can't make a silk purse of a sow's ear.
Yee hay baith yur mait un yur mens.
You have both your food and your reputation for hospitality.
(Said when an invitation has been declined.)
Yee hay dhe raang soo bee lug.
You have the wrong sow by the ear.
Yee'll gaang faarur un fair waur.
You'll go farther and fare worse.
Yee'll liv laang eftur yee'r laakht at.
You'll live long after you're laughed at.
Yee may leik dhe kirk weel inyukh, un noa ei reid oan dhe
riggin oa'd.
You may like the church well enough without always riding
on its roof (ridge).
Yee neednay ait dhe coo un wurray oan dhe tail.
You needn't eat the cow and trouble about the tail.
Yee neednay keep a dug un baark yursel.
You needn't keep a dog and bark yourself.
Yee nivvur see green cheez but yur een reelz.
You never see green cheese without your eyes dancing. (You
wish for anything you see.)
Yee'r ei weis uhint dhe haund.
You're always wise when it's too late (behind the hand).
Yee'r luppnin yur baak tull a slaap.
You're trusting your back to a gap in the wall.
Yee'r mair baadhur nor yee'r wurth.
You're more bother than you're worth.
Yee'v a craap fur aw coarn. You've a crop for all corn.
Aa caannay bee faasht. I can't be bothered.
Aa caannay meind. I can't remember.
Aa caannay meind oa'd. I can't remember it.
Aa caannay see a steim. I can't see the least bit.
Aa coodnay caw a bumbee aaf a daizay.
I couldn't knock a humble-bee off a daisy.
Aa coodnay git quaat oa dhum. I couldn't get rid of them.
Aa coodnay git uwaw wee'd.
I could not get away with it (get it started).
Aa divnay see nay oadz oan um. I see no difference in him.
Aa doot it. I suppose so. (I doubt it.)
Aa duinay leik. I'm too shy. (I don't like.)
Aa duinay see mukkul oadz. I don't see much difference.
Aa felt (or faand) a stink. I noticed a smell.
Aa gaat a staang wee a bee. I was stung by a bee.
Aa gaat ut in a praizunt. I got it as a present.
Aa gaid dhair a grait dail fur hwii.
I often used to go there for whey.
Aa gay dhum a rid fais. I gave them a red face (startled them).
Aa hed a laud swaald heer — hee swaald sair.
I had a boy (a tooth) swollen here — he (it) swelled badly.
Aa hennay hed teim tay cleen masel.
I haven't had time to wash (clean myself).
Aa juist draank dhe hwuskay un luit ut seip tee sair.
I just drank the whisky and let it soak through to the sore.
Aa'll gee yee a but on maa haapnay.
I'll give you a bit of my halfpenny.
Aa'll gee yee a vairs on Aanay Louree.
I'll give (sing) you a verse of 'Annie Laurie'.
Aa'll haark ut i yur lug. I'll whisper it in your ear.
Aa'll hay tay lay bii noo. I must stop work now (lay by).
Aa'll neefur wee yee, gin yee leik.
I'll exchange with you, if you like.
Aa'll noa seek. I shan't try.
Aa'll tank a shaif aaf dhe laif. I'll take a slice from the loaf.
Aa'm duin. — Aa'm throo. I've finished.
Aa meind on dhaat fein. I remember that well.
Aa'm no dhaat faar ben wee um. I'm not so familiar with him.
Aa'm noa seekin tay gaang. I've no wish to go.
Aa'm noa weel uquent wee um.
I'm not well acquainted with him.
Aa'm sair furfoakhun wee traukhlin up un doon.
I'm thoroughly worn out from dragging myself up and down.
Aa'm sair haadun doon wee yoan bubblay-joak.
I'm greatly oppressed by that turkey-cock.
Aa nair haard tell oa'd. I never heard of it.
Aa nivvur fell in wee dhe leik oa um. I never met his like.
Aa nivvur laat oan An haard um.
I never showed I heard him. (I pretended not to have
heard him.)
Aa nivvur meindz oa ivvur gittin tee i maa midhur's hoos.
I do not remember ever getting tea in my mother's house.
Aa nivvur taist. I never take whisky.
Aa putt a pee i dhur lug
I put a pea in their ear. (Said something unpleasant.)
Aa putt uwaw a letter tull um. I sent him a letter.
Aa saat undur um, moanay a day.
I attended his church for many a day.
Aa soopit dhe poopit. I swept the pulpit.
Aa thoakht a wunnur. I wondered.
Aa thoakht shaim tay bee seen wee um.
I was ashamed to be seen with him.
Aa took maa twaw nevz tull um. I took my two fists to him.
Aa wud shuinur muss dhe hail sermun nor dhe cleesh-maa-claivur
at dhe kirk-doar.
I would rather miss the whole sermon than the gossip at the
Aa wuss Aa saw um. I wish I could see him.
Aa wuz fair stawd wee'd. I was fed up (surfeited) with it.
Aa wuz finnisin tay wun uwaw. I was fidgetting to get away.
Aa wuz in a fair haabul. I was in a regular quandary.
Aa wuz in a guid meind tay gaang. I was much inclined to go.
Aa wuz juist gaun uwaw tay waash masel.
I was just going to have a wash.
An wuz juist wutturin tay git dhum tee doar.
I was just scheming to get them to the door (to go away).
An wuz needin maa waark. I wanted to get to work.
A been buddee. A well-to-do person.
A cairt oa coalz. A cart-load of coals.
A fais leik a noar-waast muin wee ridness.
A face as red as a north-west moon.
A free coup.
A place where rubbish may be emptied out without charge.
A maan cuist up fay Amerrikay.
A man turned up from America.
A meldur oa mail cumin fay dhe mull.
A milling of meal coming from the mill.
An auld bunk oa a thaak hoos un twaw endz.
An old box of a thatched house with two ends.
An auld thaak biggin. An old thatched building.
A sair fut or dhe leik oa dhaat.
A pain in the foot, or something of the sort.
A see soajur. A marine.
Ask a blissin. Say grace.
Aw hekhts un howz.
All heights and hollows. (Very uneven ground.)
Az faak's oakht, Aa wuz dhair.
As a matter of fact, I was there.
Az shuir'z daith. As sure as death.
Az shuir'z oakht. As sure as anything.
Caw caanay. Drive gently. (Take time.)
Chaapit tautayz. Mashed potatoes.
Cood yee gee's a hurl haim? Can you give me a drive home?
Cum in, gin yur feet's cleen.
Come in, if your feet are clean (welcome).
Cum inbii un shuft yur feet.
Come inside and change your shoes and stockings.
Cum inbii un scoog dhe shoor.
Come inside and take shelter from the shower.
Cum uwaw un cleen yursel. Come along and have a wash.
Cum uwaw unour un gee's yur craak.
Come inside and give me your chat.
Cur oan yur hunkurz.
Crouch on your bent legs. (Resting the thighs on the calves.)
Dee yee wush tee? Will you have tea?
Dhaat baits aw. That beats everything.
Dhaat bringz mee in meind oa a stoaray.
That reminds me of a story.
Dhaat couz aw. That beats everything.
Dhaat couz dhe gou-un. That beats the daisy (everything).
Dhaat daurz dhe thrussul shaw tay peel.
That dares to strip the thistle of its leaves.
Dhaat dingz aw. That beats everything.
Dhaat gaarz mee meind oa um.
That makes me remember him (reminds me of him).
Dhaat gaarz yur teeth waatur. That makes your mouth water.
Dhaat putt um fay dhe fekhtin.
That stopped him from fighting.
Dhaat's dhe tukkut fur tautay-soop.
That's the ticket for potato-soup. (That's right.)
Dhaat's gei neer dhe but.
That's pretty near the bit. (Nearly right.)
Dhaat's noa dhe wei oa'd noo. That's not what happens now.
Dhay caud um faaktur baa hiz naim.
They called him factor by name.
Dhay twaw hay faun oot (or cuissun oot) uboot naithing uvaw.
Those two have fallen out (quarrelled) about nothing at all.
Dhay wur nay staitit thing oa'd.
There was nothing fixed about it.
Dhe aufayist rig ut ivvur yee saw.
The greatest joke that you ever saw.
Dhe beef's ee daid-thrawz.
The beef is getting cold (in the death-struggle).
Dhe burn's doon. The brook is in flood.
Dhe claash ut's gaun uboot. The gossip that's going about.
Dhe coarn wudnay shair. The corn wouldn't cut.
Dhe hoars wuz luittun lous. The horses were let loose.
Dhe kail-paat's juitlin our. The broth-pot is running over.
Dhe kirk's skelt gei shuin dhe day.
The church has dispersed (service is over) rather soon to-day.
Dhe knoak chaapit twel. The clock struck twelve.
Dhe maidsun wudnay beid waast fur aw Aa cood dui.
The medicine wouldn't stay west, for all I could do. (Said
by a patient lying with head to the east.)
Dhem ut foalayz fraits, fraits ull foalay dhem.
Those who are on the look-out for omens will be followed by
Dhe skii wuz verray staarnay dhe-nikht.
The sky was very starry to-night.
Dhe waal'z aaf dhe faang. The pump doesn't work.
Dhe waasps iz verray thik eenoo.
Wasps are very plentiful just now.
Dhon'z a graund mait-hoos.
That's a grand food-house. (A house where you get a good
Dhur scoanz iz haimuld maid. These scones are home-made.
Dhuez nay idhur wei oa'd.
There's no other way of it. (No alternative.)
Dhur'z sumthing oancaanay uboot ut.
There's something supernatural about it.
Dinnay gaang ainz airund. Don't go for that purpose only.
Dinnay temp Proaviduns.
Don't tempt Providence (by running into unnecessary danger).
Draw in bii. Draw your chair farther in.
Duinay daiv mee wee yur din. Don't deafen me with your noise.
Dui yee noa feel (or find) a smell? Don't you notice a smell?
Dung gaars dhe bair grow — un bair maaks gair.
Dung makes the barley grow — and barley makes wealth.
Dup in un shaak aaf.
Dip (your bread) in (the dish) and shake off (the dripping).
Durl un ding dhe Soodhurn cheel.
Hammer and beat the Southern fellow.
Ei hudd waast. Always keep (going) west.
Ei plesturin uwaw, noa maakin naithing oa'd, leik a bee
amoan taar.
Always floundering along, not making anything of it, like a
bee among tar.
Fesh unour dhe boatul, auld weif, un laat's hay a draam.
Bring over the bottle, old woman, and let us have a drink.
Gaang yur ain gait. Go your own way.
Gaang yur weiz. Go your ways. (Off you go.)
Gee's a vairs oa'd. Give us a verse of it.
Haark in tull um. Whisper to him.
Haarknin at dhe wundee. Listening at the window.
Hay oanay oa yee oanay oan yee?
Have any of you any about you?
Hay yee a likht oan yee? Have you a match about you?
Hee daurnay gee a cheep. He daren't chirp — say a word.
Hee hez a sclait lous. He has a slate loose (a mental want).
Hee hez dhe guft ee gaab.
He has the gift of the mouth. (He's a great talker.)
Hee keind oa gaid uwaw tay taak a weif.
He went away as if to take a wife.
Hee laid hiz lugz uboot um.
He laid his ears about him. (Had a good tuck in.)
Hee'll smut yee. He'll infect you.
He'll speer dhe guts oot oa ye.
He'll turn you inside out with his questions.
Hee nivvur sent a scraip. He never sent a letter (scrape).
Hee sluppit uwaw laast nikht. He died last night.
Hee snufft coanstunt; dhe boax wuz nivvur oot ee'z haund.
He was constantly taking snuff; the box was never out of
his hand.
Hee staapit hiz lum-haat uneth hiz oaxtur.
He stuffed his chimney-pot hat under his arm.
Hee waan hiz hinmust baanuk.
He earned his last cake. (He worked till he died.)
Hee wud hay caw'd dhe verray ruif aaf.
He would have driven the roof itself off.
Hee wud skin a loos fur dhe heid un taalay.
He would skin a louse for its hide and tallow.
Hee wuz a droothay neebur — leikit a draam, yee ken.
He was a thirsty neighbour — liked a dram, you know.
Hee wuz aufay ull at it. He was very much displeased with it.
Hee wuz dhe aufayist singur yee ivvur haard i yur leif.
He was the worst singer you ever heard in your life.
Hee wuz driivin coalz. He was carting coals.
Hee wuz ettlin tay gaang dhair.
He was intending to go there (making for that place).
Hee wuz hiizin haim. He was making for home.
Hee wuz sweer tay pert wee dhe clink.
He was reluctant to part with cash.
Hee wuz taakin dhe breed ee road.
He was taking the breadth of the road (staggering from side
to side of the road).
Hee'z a gei taaray-fingurd buddee.
He's a very light-fingered, pilfering person.
Hee'z a luttul wurth craitur. He's a useless creature.
Hee'z an auld-faarund cheeld. He's a quaint old fellow.
Hee'z a rail divert. He's a real diversion (great fun).
Hee'z a rikht trait, yon laud. He's a real treat, that fellow.
Hee'z a thraun loon. He's a cantankerous fellow.
Hee'z aufay dull ee up-taak.
He's dreadfully slow in understanding (in the up-take).
Hee'z hirdin wee a fremd buddee — wee fremd.
He's working as a herd with a non-relative.
Hee'z noa tay luppin tull. He's not to trust to (to be trusted).
Hee'z noa wurth hiz mait. He's not worth his food.
Hee'z noa wurth saut tull hiz kail.
He's not worth salt to hiss broth.
Hee'z can dhe shoart leet.
He's on the list of selected candidates.
Hee'z shuirlay fei; oot oa hiz oardnur; raang wee hiz meind.
He's surely bewitched; out of his ordinary state of mind;
wrong in the mind (acting strangely).
Hee'z tain dhe doadz. He's taken the sulks.
Hee'z uwaw tee fremd. He's gone away from home.
His burs wuz up dhe-day.
His bristles were up to-day. (He was in a bad temper.)
Houp wuz thin hwin yee bait um.
Hope felt small when you beat him.
Hud yur goupun un Aa'll full'd.
Hold your hands together, and I will fill them.
Hur fais wuz aw begruttun, leik.
Her face showed some marks of weeping.
Hwaat gaarz yee hing yur fuppul dhe-day?
What makes you hang your under-lip to-day? (Why are you
so down in the mouth?)
Hwaat ur yee seekin dhe-day? What do you want to-day?
Hwaat's cum our yee?
What's come over you? (What's wrong?)
Hwaw'll bee aukht dhis hoos a hundur yeer eftur dhis?
Who'll be owner of this house a hundred years after this?
Hwaw wuz aukht you dyuks ut gaid throo dhe burn?
Whose were (who owned) those ducks that went through the
Hwaw'z shee gittin? Who is she going to marry?
It duidnay wait loang at a shullin.
It didn't stay long at a shilling.
It ei juist goat dhaat. It was always just called so.
It gaid aw tay spunks. It all went into splinters.
It's a faak. It's a fact. — It's true.
It's a rikht brikht muinlikht nikht dhe-nikht.
It's a fine bright moonlight night to-night.
It wad tair dhe claiz aaf dhe vaaray deel.
It would tear the clothes off the devil himself.
It wuz ull gittin at dhe plais.
It was difficult to get at the place.
Iz dhe tee infuizd yet?
Is the tea made (infused) yet?
Jentul un sempul. Gentle and simple. (High and low.)
Juist a but un a ben.
Only two rooms — a kitchen and a bedroom.
Juist a loat oa bledhurz. Just a lot of nonsense.
Juist a loat oa weemin foak. Just a lot of women.
Juist sair yurselz noo. Just help (serve) yourselves.
Juist sair yursel or yur bairnz grow up.
Just do for yourself till your children grow up.
Keep tay dhe but. Keep to the point.
Keep twaw soups gauin.
Keep two sups (spoonfuls) going. (Sup fast.)
Laat ma weim seg a wee. Let my stomach shrink a little.
Leik buttur ee blaak dug'z hauz.
Like butter in the black dog's throat.
Leik snaw aaf a deik. Like snow off a wall.
Loot yee doon a wee. Stoop a little.
Maa midhur nivvur wuz sweer tay likk.
My mother was never reluctant to flog.
Maan, ut wuz an aufay sain.
Man, it was an awful scene (an extraordinary affair).
Maan, yee'r aufay doadee. Man, you're very sulky.
Ma een'z noa neeburz.
My eyes are not neighbours. (I don't see clearly.)
Mii cauf-cuntray'z Feif. My call-country's Fife (native place).
Nain oa yur caipurz! None of your nonsense!
Nay moochin! No pilfering!
Nivvur laat daab. Don't mention it.
Nivvur leet, but laakh. Don't let on — don't tell — but laugh.
Noa wurth a snuff. Not worth a snuff.
Oan dhe chaap oa twel. On the stroke of twelve.
Oor ministur hed un unkay poor oa waatur; he graat un
spaat un swaat leik muscheef.
Our minister had an extraordinary power of water (a good
supply of moisture); he wept and spat and perspired like
Oor swein'z our sib bred. Our pigs are too much in-bred.
Putt dhaat i yur boddum draur.
Put that in your bottom drawer. (Girls are said to keep a
collection of clothes, &c., in a 'bottom drawer', in readiness
for possible marriage.)
Reip yur pooch. Search your pocket.
Hee reipit maa pooch. He rifled my pocket.
Reip dhe rubz. Clear out the bars (of a grate).
Say uwaw. Say away. (Say grace.)
Say uwaw tay yurselz. Say grace to yourselves.
Say ut fell oot. So it befell.
See a spunk. Give me a match.
See un bring'd haim wee yee.
Take care that you bring it home with you.
See un full yur weim noo. See that you fill your stomach now.
See un noa faw. Take care you don't fall.
Shee caanay fleip hur huggurz.
She can't turn her stockings inside out. (Is good for nothing.)
Shee ei gits Jeenee. She is always called Jeanie.
Shee goat ut fur haaf naithing.
She got it for half nothing (very cheap).
Shee hed hain mair dayz.
She had had more days; had longer to live.
Shee hednay a saark tull hur baak.
She hadn't a chemise for her back. (She was badly supplied
with a trousseau.)
Shee held dhe laussay traakhlin dhe hail day our, nikht un
moarnin, haundz mebbee bluidin.
She kept the girl drudging the whole day long, morning and
evening, perhaps with bleeding hands.
Shee hez nay gumshun uvaw. She has no common sense at all.
Shee'll bee suttin wutturin oan hur tee.
She'll be sitting longing for tea.
Shee maitit hursel. She provided her own food.
Shea nair divauldit — juist spaak aivun oan.
She never ceased — just spoke without a stop.
Shee raizd oan mee leik a liiun. She turned on me like a lion.
Shee staartit oan um. She began to scold him.
Shee wuz aufay ull at um. She was very angry with him.
Shee wuz aw in a curfufful.
She was in a great state of excitement.
Shee wuz fair geizund fur hur tee.
She was quite leaky (like a dry barrel) for her tea.
Shee wuz gaun uboot dhum hweilz.
She sometimes visited them.
Shee wuz juist juiturin uwaw; duiin juitray waark.
She was just putting off time; doing odds-and-ends of work.
Shee wuz laidund leik a cuddee. She was laden like a donkey.
Shee wuz sair left tull hursel.
She was very much left to herself. (Acted on a foolish impulse.)
Shee'z a rail weel duiin buddee.
She's a really excellent woman (well-doing person).
Shee'z caw'd hur hugz tull a puir hull.
She's driven her sheep to a poor hill (made a poor marriage).
Shee'z fair kerraid uboot it.
She's just full of it; obsessed with it.
Shee'z juist a traakhul, ei in a haarukh, nivvur gittin hur
waark duin.
She's just a worrying worker, always in a fuss, never getting
her work done.
Shee'z unkay ull tay dui wee.
She's very ill to do with (get on with).
Sik a caipur; sik a kerray oan! What a to-do!
Sik a stoor uboot naything.
Such a hullabaloo (dust) about nothing.
Sin dhe ministur caam, hee'z dung the guts oot oa twaw
Since the minister came, he's thumped the inside out of two Bibles
Singin leik a lintee. Singing like a linnet.
Smeilin leik a beild tautay. Smiling like a boiled potato.
Staap yur mooth wee yur mait.
Stuff your mouth with your food.
Steek dhe doar. Shut the door.
Suttin oan hiz hunkurz. Sitting on his bent legs.
Sut yoant a but, un noa burz mee intee coarnur.
Sit along a bit, and don't squeeze me into the corner.
Taak ut a cloor wee houzul ee ex.
Give it a blow with the back of the axe.
Taip dhe mulk. Use the milk sparingly; make it last.
Tummur tay tummer.
Timber to timber. (Said when two people knock their heads
Twel oa cloak oan dhe knoak. Twelve o'clock by the clock.
Ut'll bee faar bettur tay putt hur tee fremd (tay dhe fremd).
It'll be far better to send her away from home (among
Ut's a peetee yee coodnay fleip ur.
It's a pity you couldn't turn her inside out.
Ut's our loang tay meind. It's too long to remember.
Ut waamuld i ma weim aw nikht.
It rumbled in my stomach all night.
Ut wud hay teendit yee tay see dhum.
It would have made you jealous to see them.
Ut wuz an aufay rig — waark — sain..
It was an extraordinary sight (joke, work, scene).
Ut wuz a toon'z craak. It was the talk of the village.
Ut wuz laid tull um.
It was ascribed to him. (He was accused of it.)
Ut wuz oan dhe baak oa twaal.
It was a little past twelve (o'clock).
Waisturz cumz ei tay waant. Wasters always come to want.
Wee dinnay waant nain oa yur laang-nebbit wurdz.
We don't want any of your long-nosed words.
Wee draikit dhe claiz wee hen-pen.
We soaked the clothes with hen's dung.
Wee ei cleend steel wee smuddee spaarks.
We always cleaned steel with sparks from the smith's anvil.
Wee hennay mukkul troak wee dhem.
We haven't many dealings with them.
Wee'r puttin fay'd. We're put from it (turned away from it).
Wee tuik dhe law oan'd. We went to court about it.
Wee'v hed nivvur a cheep fay um.
We've never had a chirp from him (not heard a word).
Wee wuz traampin dhe blaankuts. We were treading blankets.
Wull Aa yoak dhe misheen? Shall I put the horse to?
Wull yee taist? Will you have a little whisky?
Wull yoo raiz dhe tyuin? Will you start the tune?
Wumman, yee'v a tung ut wud clup cloots.
Woman, you have a tongue that would clip clouts (a sharp
Wuz yee laidin dhe-day?
Were you leading (bringing in the corn) to-day?
Yee'd bettur be dui-in wee'd.
You'd better be doing (content) with it.
Yee'll daiv foak wee yur din.
You'll deafen people with your noise.
Yee'll git dhe nikk. You'll be put in the police-cells.
Yee'll git yur paiks. You'll get a licking.
Yee'll noa taak a tellin. You won't take warning (advice).
Yee'll set hiz daundur up. You'll rouse his temper.
Yee'll taak an eek. You'll take a little more.
Yee'll taak a taist. You'll take a little whisky.
Yee'll taak beit un soup wee oos.
You'll take bite and sup with us.
Yee neednay cum heer seekin sullur.
You needn't come here asking for money.
Yee neednay faash yur thoom.
You needn't trouble your thumb (worry about it).
Yee neednay thraip ut doon maa throat.
You needn't force your opinion down my throat.
Yee'r crawin gei croos dhe-day.
You're crowing quite boldly to-day.
Yee'r noa our kirk-greedee.
You're not particularly keen about going to church.
Yee'r rikht full dhe-day. You're very proud to-day.
Yee'r shuirlay fei dhe-day. You're surely bewitched to-day.
Yee'v droond dhe mullur.
You've drowned the miller (put in too much water).
Yee'v hed a laung sidairunt.
You've had a long sederunt (sitting).
Yur fingurz iz aw thoomz. Your fingers are all thumbs.
Scotch English
C. Oo? C. Wool?
D. Ii, oo. D. Yes, wool.
C. Aw oo? C. All wool?
D. Ii, aw oo. D. Yes, all wool.
C. Aw ay oo? O. All one wool?
D. Oa ii, ei aw ay oo. D. Oh yes, always all one wool.
Aa'm gled tay see yee'v goatun our'd.
I am glad to see you have got over it.
Hee'z az hweit's a dush-ctoot. He's as white as a dish-cloth.
Hoo'r yee keepin? How are you keeping?
Hoo ur yee dhe-day? How are you to-day?
Hoo'z aw wee yee? How are all with you? (How are you all?)
Hwaat's leik dhe mettur? What's the matter with you?
Iz hee bii hiz oardnur? Is he out of his usual health?
Ur yee brawlay? Are you well?
Yee'v goatun a fell but shaak.
You've got a pretty severe shake (had a pretty bad time).
Aa caanay cumplen. I can't complain. (I'm not very bad.)
Aa'm brawlay; hoo'z yursel? I'm well; how are you yourself?
Aa'm rail weel dhe-day. I'm wonderfully well to-day.
Aa'm ei gaun uboot. I'm always (still) going about.
Aa'm ei huddin foarut.
I'm always holding forward (improving).
Aa'm ei tee foar. I'm always to the fore (still alive).
Aa'm keepin bettur. I'm keeping better.
Aa'm noa cumplenin. I'm not complaining. (I'm pretty well.)
Thenk ye, Aa'm waarslin oan. Thank you, I'm struggling on.
Wee'r aw in oor oardnur. We're all in our usual health.
Aa caanay git quaat oa'd. I can't get quit (rid) of it.
Aa'm gei faar throo. I'm pretty far gone.
Aa'm geiun soabur. I'm rather poorly.
Aa'm juist gei middlin. I'm just pretty middling.
Aa'm noa dhaat weel. I'm not so well. — I'm not very well.
Aa'm noa varray braw, but Aa maanay complen.
I'm not very brisk, but I mustn't complain.
Aa'v a sair haid — a sair teeth — a sair hoast — a sair weim.
I've a headache — a toothache — a bad cough — a stomach-ache.
Hee'z sair aulturd; yee wud haardlay ken um.
He's much changed; you could scarcely recognize him.
Juist a but glusk ee cauld. Just a little touch of (the) cold.
Maan, Aa'v an aufay hoast. Man, I've a bad cough.
Shee'z gei caanay. She's rather quiet (poorly).
Aa'll bring yee tay yur hunkurz.
I'll bring you to a squatting position.
Aa'll claash yur mooth. I'll smash your mouth.
Aa'll cloor yee. I'll smash you.
Aa'll cum our yur hurdeez wee maa baukhul.
I'll come across your buttocks with my old shoe.
Aa'll dikht yur neb fur yee. I'll wipe your nose for you.
Aa'll ding yur haarnz oot. I'll knock out your brains.
Aa'll gee yee a lik ee chaafts — a sclaaf ee lug.
I'll give you a crack on the jaws — a slap on the ear.
Aa'll gee yee a skeit ee ee. I'll give you a blow in the eye.
Aa'll hay law oan yee. I'll have the law against you.
Aa'll nair look yoor ert agen. I'll never look your way again.
Aa'll plunk yee ee burn. I'll plump you into the brook.
Aa'll raax yur craig fur yee. I'll stretch your neck for you.
Aa'll scoar yur hups un putt saut oan dhum.
I'll score your hips, and put salt on them.
Aa'll steek yur gaab fur yee. I'll shut your mouth for you.
Aa'll taak dhe coat aaf yur baak.
I'll take the coat off your back.
Aa'll taak dhe skin aaf yee. I'll take the skin off you.
Aa'll taak yee a ring ee lug. I'll give you a blow on the ear.
Aa'll thraapul yee. I'll throttle you.
Aa'll thraw yur nek. I'll twist your neck.
A haundlus bizzum. A handless besom (clumsy creature).
Cum oot oa dhaat. Come out of there.
Dikht yur neb un flee up.
Wipe your nose and fly up (like a hen roosting for the night).
E, yee luttul rulyun, Aa'll gee yur lug a reeshul.
Oh, you little wretch, I'll give your ear a sounding blow.
Gawaw haim un redd yur hair.
Go along home and tidy your hair.
Hud yur mooth. Shut (hold) your mouth.
Hud yur weesht. (Hold your silence) be quiet! shut up!
Mii saang, Aa'll gee yee yur paiks, gin Aa git a hud oa yee.
By my faith, I'll give you a licking if I get hold of you.
Mii saang, yee'll git yur thraapul raaxt yut.
By my faith (blood), you'll get your throttle stretched yet (be
Rin awaw haim. Run along home.
Steek yur gaab. Shut (stitch) your mouth.
Un Aa wur at yee, daagoan yee. If I were at you, damn you.
Un Ii cum tee yee. If I come to you.
Uwaw un hud yur tung. Go along and hold your tongue.
Uwaw wee yur haivurz. Go along with your nonsense.
Yee baiz luttul cuttay. You bad little girl.
Yee grait mukkul claurtay soo! You great big dirty pig!
Yee haundlus jaud; yur fingurz iz aw thoomz.
You clumsy jade; your fingers are all thumbs.
Yee laizee hwulp. You lazy whelp.
Yee laizee taid. You lazy toad.
Yee'll git dhe nikk. You'll be put in the police-cells.
Yee luttul braat ut yee aar. You little brat (that you are).
Yee mukkul soo! You great pig!
Yee'r a fuizhunlis doakin.
You're a pithless dock (a weak creature).
Yee'r an impidunt puggee. You're an impudent monkey.
Yee stinkin broak. You stinking badger.
Yee'r juist a bizzum. You're just a besom.
Dhe durt gaangs afoar dhe bizzum.
The dirt goes before the besom.
Gin Ii'm dhe bizzum yoo'r dhe shaank,
Ii caan sweep, un yoo caant.
If I'm the besom, you're the shank,
I can sweep, and you can't.
Git oan dhe baw. Get on the spree, on a drinking bout.
Hee taaks a gless. He takes a little too much whisky.
Hee turns up his luttul fingur our oafun.
He turns up his little finger too often (is given to tippling).
Hee wuz az foo'z a coapur stoup cood maak um.
He was as drunk as a copper tankard could make him.
Maan, Aa'm leim drii. Man, I'm as dry as lime.
moarnin, morning glass of whisky.
oan dhe spree, on a drinking bout.
speeruts, whisky (spirits).
taist, a nip (taste) of whisky.
Yee'll taak a draam. You'll take a dram (a drink of whisky).
Yee'll taak an eek. You'll take a little more (whisky).
Yee'll taak a sindur in't.
You'll take a cinder (a little whisky) in it.
Aist, waast, noarth, sooth. These words (east, west, north,
south), and especially the first two, are very often used in S. in
describing direction, where they would not be used in E. E.g.
Hee'z waast ee haw (He's west in the hall). Shee gaid aist
dhe toon (She went east through the village). Hee'z awaw
noarth tay Gaask (He's away north to Gask). Aa saw um
waast dhe road (I saw him on the road to the west).
An old lady, describing how she could not keep her medicine
down, said: It wudnay beid waast, fur aw Aa cood dui' (It
wouldn't stay west, for all I could do).
Aufay (adj. or adv.), awful, very. This word is in even more
common use in S. than 'awfully' in E., in the sense of 'very ',
'excessive'; e.g. Maan, yee'v been an aufay hweil (Man,
you've been a long time).
Aukht (verb), owed, is used in the ordinary sense of owed ; pa. p.
of aw (owe); e. g. Hee aukht mee four shullin (He owed me
four shillings); but it is also used in the sense of belonging; e.g.
Hwaw'z aukht dhis baanut? (Who is owed this cap? i.e. To
whom does this cap belong?)
Bray (noun) means the slope of a hill, either up or down; e.g.
Up dhe bray (uphill); doon dhe bray (downhill); dhe brays oa
Bahwidhur (the hill-slopes of Balquhidder); Loudun'z boanay
wudz un brayz (Loudon's lovely woods and slopes).
Buddee (noun), body, person. This word is in very common
use in S., usually with a diminutive, affectionate, pitying, or
disparaging sense attached to it; e.g.
Puir buddee! Poor thing!
A puir buddee. A poor man or woman.
Guid auld buddeez. Good old people.
A daaft buddee. An idiot.
A gaun-uboot buddee.
A going-about person; a gipsy or tramp.
A shaukhlin buddee. A shuffling, jointless person.
A haivurin buddee. A talker of nonsense.
Caanay (adj.), slow, gentle, cautious; e.g.:
Caanay wee thing. Gentle little thing.
Caw caanay wee dhe buttur.
Deal gently with the butter; lit. drive gently. (Don't flatter
too much.)
A caanay cheeld. A cautious fellow.
Caw caanay wee dhe waatur.
Be cautious with the water, i. e. don't put in too much.
Caw (verb). There are in S. two distinct meanings for this verb:
(1) 'Call' (caul), with much the same meaning as in E. NOTE.
In E. we say 'call on' a person, in S. 'caw for' a person. In E.,
to call for a person means to call and take him on with you.
(2) Caw means 'drive', 'make to go', 'set to work' ; e. g.
Caw dhe waal. Work the pump.
Caw dhe yowz tay dhe tnouz.
Drive the ewes to the hillocks.
Caw awaw. Drive away; go ahead.
Caw caanay. Drive gently, take it easy.
Caw dhe kirn. Work the churn.
Complen (verb), complain, is used much as in E., but is also
used in the sense of to be out of sorts ; e. g.
Hee'z been complenin dhis laang teim.
He's been ailing for a long time. Cf. E. 'complaint' = illness.
Craitur (noun), creature, is frequently used in much the same
way as buddee, with a sense of pity or contempt; e.g.:
A daaft craitur. A silly creature.
Find (verb). In S. we find a smell or a stink ; in E. we notice it.
Fluttin (noun), removal; a change of residence, with removal of
one's household goods; e.g.:
A muinlikht fluttin. A clandestine removal.
Foo (adj.), full, satisfied, drunk; e.g.
Dhe poak's foo. The sack is full.
Aa'm foo. I'm satisfied. — I've had enough.
Hee'z blind foo. He's blind drunk.
Az foo'z a fiddlur. As drunk as a fiddler.
Freend (noun), friend (frend), is also used in the sense of
relative; e. g.
Hee'z a freend oa meinz. He's a relative of mine.
In the plural it is used in the sense of friendly, like the S. word
cheef; e.g.:
Hee'z noa freendz (or cheef) wee oos dhe noo.
He's not on good terms with me at present.
Gaar (verb), make, in the sense of 'compel' (make, in the
sense of 'construct', is maak in S.) ; e. g.
Hwaat gaard yee dui dhaat? What made you do that?
Hwaw gaard yee greet? Who made you cry?
Aa'll gaar yee gaang. I'll make you go.
Gin (adv.), if; e. g.
Gin a buddee meet a buddee.
If one meet somebody; e. g.: if a girl meet a man.
Git (verb intrans.), get, is often used in the sense of 'reach',
'arrive', 'be able to go '; e.g.
Aa coodnay git. I wasn't able to go.
Yee'll noa caan git. You won't be able to go.
It is also used with the past participle of a verb in the sense of
'be able to'; e.g.:
Aa coodnay git sleepit wee dhe dugz youlin.
I couldn't go to sleep because of the dogs howling.
Aa coodnay git spoken wee ur.
I couldn't get a chance of speaking to her.
Yee'v goatun quaat oa dhaat hoast.
You've got rid of that cough.
Git is also used in the sense of 'be called'; e.g.
Hee ei goat 'Raabut'. He was always called Rabbit
Hindur-end (noun), foar-end (noun), baak-end (noun). S. distinguishes
between the two ends of a thing; e.g.: The 'foar-end'
and the 'hindur-end', is the end in front, and the end behind.
'Dhe baak-end ee year', or simply 'Dhe baak-end', means the
late autumn or early winter.
Lern (verb) means 'teach ' as well as 'learn'; e.g.
Shee lernt dhe laiv at dhe luim.
She taught the rest at the loom.
Mait (noun), meat (meet), means food in general, not only
butcher-meat, which is flaish (flesh), a butcher being known as
a flaishur; e. g.
Dinnay quaarul wee yur mait.
Don't quarrel with your food.
Meind (verb) is used like 'mind' in the sense of 'take care'
e. g.: Meind yursel (take care of yourself); also in the sense of
'intend', e.g.: Aa wuz meindin tay gaang (I was intending to
go); also very commonly meind oa is used in the sense of
'remember'; e. g.: Aa meind oa hum fein (I remember him
well); Aa caanay meind (I can't remember). A common interjection
is Meind yee (Remember, take note).
Oaxtur (noun) is the armpit; e.g.
Putt dhaat i yur oaxtur. Put that under your arm.
Dhay gaid oaxtur un oaxtur, or Hee oaxturd ur haim means
'He had his arm round her waist', while Dhay cleekit (hooked)
means 'They went arm in arm'.
Pees (noun), piece (pees); snack. A pees means a piece of
bread, scone, or cake, generally with something added to it, such
as butter, cheese, jam, or meat. It means a snack of something
to eat; e.g.:
Hay! dhair'z a pees tee yee.
Here! there's something for you to eat.
An hed a pees ee pooch.
I had something to eat in my pocket.
Skell (verb), spill ; e. g.:
Maan, yee'r skellin aw dhe waatur.
Man, you're spilling all the water.
It is also used of a meeting dispersing; e.g.: Dhe kirk's
skellin (The church is spilling, i.e. The people are coming out
of church). We also say, Dhe kirk's cumin oot — gaun in,
meaning, The people are coming out of church, or going in to
church; service is over or beginning.
Tairubul (adj. or adv.), terrible, terribly, is used much in the
same way as E. awful, awfully, to mean excess of any kind; e.g.
A tairubul craap. A very heavy crop.
Thraw (verb and noun), twist, literally and metaphorically; e. g.:
Aa'll thraw yur craig. I'll twist your neck.
A thrawn teik. A twisted dog; an ill-natured beast.
Dinnay thraw wee ur. Don't quarrel with her.
Hee'z tain dhe thraw. He's taken the sulks.
Wun (verb), is used like the E. 'get' to mean 'arrive',
'reach', e. g.
Duid yee wun dhair i teim? Did you get there in time?
Mann, Aa coodnay wun. Man, I couldn't go — or come.
Yee caanay wun intul't. You can't get inside it.
NOTE. In S. we say Aa coodnay git, but it is not E. to say
'I couldn't get', without some word after it.
Wurd (noun), is used in the sense of 'news'; e.g.
Hay yee oanay wurd oa ur? Have you any news of her?
Aa goat wurd oa hur daith. I got news of her death.
Aa nivvur haard wurd oa dhaat. I never heard of that.
Aa gaid utween twaw wudz, un Aa caam utween twaw
I went between two woods, and I came between two waters.
Answer. Going to the well carrying two wooden pails
empty, and bringing them back full.
Aa gaid un Aa goat ut,
Aa saat un Aa soakht ut,
Un hwun Aa coodnay find ut
Aa caam awaw haim wee'd.
Ans. A thoarn i yur fut.
I went and I got it,
I sat and I sought it,
And when I couldn't find it
I came away home with it.
Ans. A thorn in the foot.
A luttul wee hoosay, foo foo oa mait,
Wee naidhur dour nor wundee, tay laat mee in tay ait.
Ans. An igg.
A tiny little house, full of food,
With neither door nor window to let me in to eat.
Ans. An egg.
A luttul wee maan wee a tummur haat,
Un aw dhe weim oa urn waamlin.
Ans. Dhe paat oan dhe fiir.
A tiny little man with a wooden hat (pot-lid),
And all the belly of him rumbling.
Ans. The pot on the fire.
Az hweit's mulk — nt's noa mulk aidhur;
Az green'z gress — ut's noa gress aidhur;
Az blaak's coal — ut's noa coal aidhur.
Ans. A slay-berray.
As white as milk — it's not milk, however;
As green as grass — it's not grass, however;
As black as coal — it's not coal, however.
Ans. A sloe.
Az roond'z dhe muin, az blaak's a coal,
A laung tootoo, un a pumpin hoal.
Ans. Dhe stroop oa a kettul.
As round as the moon, as black as a coal,A long bent pipe, and a pumping hole.
Ans. The spout of a kettle.
As roond'z dhe muin, as yallay'z oakur;
Gin yee duinay tell mee dhaat, Aa'll gee yee a craak wee
Ans. An oarunj.
As round as the moon, as yellow as ochre;
If you don't tell me that, I'll give you a blow with the poker.
Ans. An orange.
Cum a riddul, cum a riddul, cum a roat, toat, toat;
A wee, wee maan wee a rid, rid coat,
A staaf in hiz haund, un a stain in hiz throat.
Cum a riddul, cum a riddul, cum a roat, toat, toat.
Ans. A churray.
A small, small man with a red, red coat,
A staff in his hand, and a stone in his throat.
Ans. A cherry.
Hikkay bikkay oan dhus seid ee waatur,
Un Hikkay bikkay oan dhaat seid ee waatur;
Un yee tuch Hikkay bikkay, ut'll beit yee.
Ans. Nettles.
Hikkay bikkay on this side of the water,
And Hikkay bikkay on that side of the water
If you touch Hikkay bikkay, it will bite you.
Hwaat gayz intee burn hweit, un cumz oot blaak?
Ans. Dhe mullur'z shui.
What goes into the brook white, and comes out black?
Ans. The miller's shoe.
Hwaat'll ging up dhe lum doon, but ull noa cum doon
dhe lum up?
Ans. An umburellay.
What will go up the chimney down, but will not come down
the chimney up?
Ans. An umbrella.
Laung ligz un nay tneez,
Roond feet leik baubeez.
Ans. Dhe taingz.
Long legs and no knees,
Round feet like ha'pennies.
Ans. The tongs.
Throo dhe wud, un throo dhe wud, un throo dhe wud Aa
Un for uz luttul'z Aa wuz, Aa kull'd a mukkul maan.
Ans. A bullet.
Through the wood . . . I ran,
And though I was so little, I killed a big man.
Throo dhe wudz, un throo dhe wudz, un throo dhe wudz
Aa raan,
Un ulkay buss Aa caam tull, Aa left ma raagz un raan.
Ans. A sheep.
Through the woods . . . I ran,
And every bush I came to, I left my rags and ran.
A geenee goud waach tay tell hiz naim, tay tell hiz naim,
tay tell hiz naim
A geenee goud waach tay tell hiz naim, a haansul murraymun
A guinea gold watch to tell his name, a hansel merryman tanzy.
Az Ii gaid up dhe gairdun,
Aa faand a luttul faardun;
Aa geen ut tay maa midhur,
Tay bii a luttul bridhur.
Maa bridhur wuz a sailur,
Hee saild acroas dhe see,
Un aw dhe fush dhut hee cood caach
Wuz ain, twaw, three.
As I went up the garden, I found a little farthing
I gave it to my mother, to buy a little brother.
My brother was a sailor, he sailed across the sea,
And all the fish that he could catch were one, two, three.
Baibee, baibee, buntin, Daadee'z awaw tee huntin,
Tay git a wee but laamay-skin, tay row hiz baa buntin in.
Baby, baby, bunting, Daddy's away to the hunting,
To get a little lamb-skin, to wrap his baby bunting in.
Baik a puddin, baik a pii;
Send ut up tay Joan Mukii.
Joan Mukii's noa in;
Send ut up tee maan ee muin.
Dhe maan ee muin'z maakin shuin,
Tuppins dhe pair un dhay'r aw duin.
Bake a pudding, bake a pie
Send it up to John Mackay.
John Mackay's not in;
Send it up to the man in the moon.
The man in the moon's making shoes,
Twopence the pair, and they're all done.
Dizzay Dizzay daandee,
Blaak shoogur caandee.
Gee yur bairnz hwaat yee leik,
But nivvur gee dhum braandee.
Dizzy dizzy dandy,
Black sugar candy.Give your children what you like,
But never give them brandy.
Eenitay, feenitay, fikkitay fay,
Ell, dell, doamun ay,
Urkay burkay stoaray roak,
Aan taan toozee Joak.
(A nonsense rhyme for counting out at games.)
Eez oaz maan's broaz, eez oaz oot.
(The same.)
Hei, Joak Macuddee,
Macuddee'z oan dhe deik.
Un if yee middul Macuddee
Macuddee ull gee yee a beit.
Ho! Jock Macuddee,
Macuddee's on the wall,
And if you meddle with Macuddee
Macuddee will give you a bite.
Hikkuray dikkuray doak,
Dhe moos raan up dhe tnoak.
Dhe tnoak straak waan,
Doon dhe moosee raan.
Hikkuray dikkuray doak.
Hickory dickory dock,
The mouse ran up the clock.
The clock struck one,
Down the mousie ran.
Hickory dickory dock.
Hushay baa, loo laam, tay yur craidul yee maan
Hush-a-bye, loo lamb, to your cradle you must go.
Hwaw'll cum intay mii wee ring, tay mii wee ring, tay mii
wee ring?
Hwaw'll cum intay mii wee ring, tay maak ut a wee thing
Who'll come into my wee ring, to make it a little bigger?
Joan Smuth — a faallay fein,
Caan yee shut dhus hoars oa mein?
Yais, Aa wull, un dhaat Aa caan,
Juist az guid az oanay maan.
Putt a butt upoan dhe tay,
Tay gaar dhe pounee clum dhe bray.
Putt a butt upoan dhe heel

Tay gaar dhe pounee pais weel, pais weel.
skup dhe dubz.
Dhair'z a nail, un dhair'z a noad,
Dhair'z a pounee weel shoad.
John Smith — a fellow fine,
Can you shoe this horse of mine?
Yes, indeed, and that I can,
Just as well as any man.
Put a bit upon the toe,
To make the pony mount the hill.
Put a bit upon the heel
To make the pony pace well.
skip the puddles.
There's a nail, and there's a nod,
And there's a pony well shod.
Neevee, neevee, nikk-naak,
Hwaatnay haund wull yee taak?
Bee'd dhe rikht or dhe raang
Aa'll begeil yee gin Aa caan.
Fisty, fisty, nick-nack,
Which hand will you take?
Be it the right or the wrong
I'll beguile you if I can.
(Said when offering the choice of two closed hands, one containing
something and the other empty.)
Taam, Taam, dhe funnay wee maan,
Waasht hiz fais in dhe friiin-paan;
He caimd hiz hair wee dhe ligg oa a chair,
Taam, Taam, dhe funnay wee maan.
Tom, Tom, the funny little man,
Washed his face in the frying-pan
He combed his hair with the leg of a chair,
Tom, Tom, the funny little man.
A common prayer taught in English to children in Stra
This night when I lie down to sleep
I pray the Lord my soul to keep;
If I should die before I wake,
I pray the Lord my soul to take.
Bless father and mother,
Sister and brother,
And make me a good boy (or girl).
Az Ii gaid bii maa graanay's dour
Aa faand dhe smell oa bun.
Aa gaid in un soakht a but;
Shee wudnay gee's a crum.
Say Ii tuik up dhe bellusiz
Un blawed hur up dhe lum.
As I went past my grannie's door
I noticed a smell of bun.
I went in and asked for a bit;
She wouldn't give me a crumb.
So I took up the bellows
And blew her up the chimney.
Address to a bat:
Cheez un braid fur dhe baat, baat, baat.
Cum intay maa haat, haat, haat.
Cheese and bread for the bat, bat, bat.
Come into my hat, hat, hat.
Cruppul Dick upoan a stik,
Saundee oan a soo,
Reid uwaw tay Alloaw
Un bii a pund oa oo.
Cripple Dick upon a stick,
Sandy on a sow,
Ride away to Alla
And buy a pound of wool.
Dhe broon bull oa Baaburtun
Gaid our dhe hull tay Haaburtun,
Un daasht uts haid ukween kwaw stainz
Un caam hweit mulk haim.
The brown bull of Baberton
Went over the hill to Haberton,
And dashed its head between two stones
And came white milk home.
Dhe lintee un dhe laivruk, dhe roabun un dhe raan,
Gin yee herray oanay oa dhay burdz' nests, yee'll nivvur
threiv ugen.
The linnet and the lark, the robin and the wren,
If you harry any of these birds' nests, you'll never thrive again.
Dhe laussayz oa Turnaaway, nay wunnur un dhay bee dun,
Tween Mertimus un Caunulzmus dhay nivvur see dhe sun.
The girls of Turnaway, no wonder if they are sallow,
Between Martinmas and Candlemas they never see the sun.
Dhe low oa Louree'z lum'z reekin,
Reek, lum, reek.
The flame of Laurence's chimney's smoking,
Smoke, chimney, smoke.
(To be said fast.)
Dhe oo'z our fein,
Un dhe saark's our coors,
Aa caannay wun uwaw,
Fur a grait mukkul loos.
The wool's too fine,
And the shirt's too coarse
I can't get away
For a great big louse.
Duggeez tee mull, caatayz tee kull,
Un laussayz tee maarkit-day, day, day.
Dhay tain a lik oot oa dhus weirs poak,
Un a lik oot oa dhaat weif's poak,
Un a lik oot ee mull-ring
Un a drink oot ee mull-daam,
Un dhay caam aw aist dhe toon,
Skuppin un loupin un lukkin dhur lups.
Little dogs to the mill, little cats to the kiln,
And girls to the market-day.
They took a lick out of this woman's sack,
And a lick out of that woman's sack,
And a lick out of the ring round the mill-stones,
And a drink out of the mill-pond,
And they all came east through the village,
Skipping and jumping and licking their lips.
Gee Broonee coat, gee Broonee saark,
Yee'll git nay mair oa Broonee's waark.
Give Brownie coat, give Brownie shirt,
You'll get no more of Brownie's work.
(This expresses the superstition that the little brown elf, who
sometimes does the work of the farmer or housekeeper by night,
is offended if offered any remuneration for his friendly help.)
Hay, dhe buttun — hoa, dhe buttun,
Gais yee hwaw hez dhe buttun.
Hay, the button — ho, the button,
Guess you who has the button.
Hwun Craig Roassay gits a taap,
Dhe Loalundurz iz shuir oa saap.
When Craig Rossie gets a top (of cloud),
The Lowlanders are sure of sap (rain).
Leddee Munnay floo uwaw
Our dhe deiks un faar uwaw.
Lady Money flew away
Over the walls and far away.
Address to a hail-storm
Rennay, rennay raatul-stainz,
Duinay ren oan mee.
Ren oan Joanay Groat's hoos,
Faar uyont dhe see.
Rainy, rainy, rattle-stones,
Don't rain on me.
Rain on John o' Groat's house,
Far over the sea.
Roabun, Roabun rid-breest, dhe laivruk un dhe ren,
But hwaw'll herray mii nest, ull nivvur threiv ugen.
Robin, robin red-breast, the lark and the wren,
But who will harry my nest, will never thrive again.
Saandee Kuldaandee, dhe laird oa Kulnaap,
Suppit hiz broaz un swaalayd hiz caap,
Un eftur aw hoe wuznay foo,
He gaid tee biir un swaalayd dhe coo.
Sandy Kildandy, the owner of Kilnap,
Supped his brose and swallowed his wooden bowl,
And after all he wasn't satisfied,
He went to the cow-house and swallowed the cow.
Scaartay, beitay Aiburdeen
Sellt hiz faidhur fur a preen,
Sellt hiz midhur fur a needul,
Scaartay, beitay Aiburdeen.
Scratching, biting Aberdeen
Sold his father for a pin,
Sold his mother for a needle,
Scratching, biting Aberdeen.
Snail, snail, put oot yur hoarn,
Ut'll bee a fein day dhe-moarn.
Snail, snail, put out your horn,
It will be a nice day to-morrow.
Sum sez dhe Deel'z daid
Un buirraid in Kircaudee.
Sum sez hee'll reiz ugen,
Un fligg dhe Heelunt laudee.
Some say the Devil's dead
And buried in Kirkcaldy.
Some say he'll rise again,
And frighten the Highland laddie.
Giizur'z vairs at Hugmunay.
Dhe-nikht's Hugmunay,
Dhe-moarn'z Hugmunaanay.
Faar acroas dhe see,
Tay see maa Soozeeaanay.
Sum foaks sez Aa'm daaft,
Sum foaks sez Aa'm craakit:
Oafur mee a haaf-a-croon
Un see if Aa'll noa taak it.
Aa tuik hur tay a baw,
Aa tuik hur tay a suppur;
She fell our dhe tibbul
Un stuk hur noaz ee buttur.
To-night's Hugmunay,
To-morrow's Hugmunaanay.
Far across the sea,
To see my Susiana.
Some people say I'm mad,
Some people say I'm crazy:
Offer me half-a-crown
And see if I won't take it.
I took her to a ball,
I took her to a supper;
She fell over the table,
And stuck her nose in the butter.
Reiz up, guidweif, un duinay bee sweer,
Un dail yur gair az laang'z yee'r heer.
Dhe day ull cum hwun yee'll bee daid,
Yee'll naidhur dhaan need mail nor braid.
Rise up, good woman, and don't be reluctant,
And deal out your goods as long as you're here.
The day will come when you'll be dead,
You'll then need neither meal nor bread.
Reiz up, guidweif, un shaak yur fedhurz,
Yee neednay thenk ut wee ur beggurz.
Wee'r oanlay bairnz cum oot tay play,
Reiz up un gee'z maa Hugmunay.
Rise up, good woman, and shake your feathers,
You needn't think that we are beggars.
We're only children come out to play,
Rise up and give me my Hugmunay gift.
Heerz tay yoo un yoorz,
Un hwun yoo un yoorz cumz tay oos un oorz,
Oos un oorz ull bee uz keind tay yoo un yoorz
Uz ivvur yoo un yoorz wuz tay oos un oorz.
Here's to you and yours,
And when you and yours come to us and ours,
We and ours will be as kind to you and yours
As ever you and yours were to us and ours.
(Another version.)
Heer'z tay yoo un yoor foak, noa furgittin us un oor foak,
Un gin yoo un yoor foak leiks us un oor foak
Az weel az us un oor foak leiks yoo un yoor foak,
Yoo un yoor foak leiks us un oor foak az weel az foak caan
leik foak.
Here's to you and your people, not forgetting us and our people,
And if you and your people like us and our people
As well as we and our people like you and your people,
You and your people like us and our people as well as people
can like people.
Aa hay laid a hairin in saut. I have laid a herring in salt.
Aa loo nay a laudee but ain. I love not a laddie but one.
Aa'm wairin uwaw, Jeen. I'm passing away, Jean.
A guid Nyoo Yeer tay ain un aw.
A good New Year to one and all.
A maan's a maan fur aw dhaat.
A man's a man in spite of all that.
Auld laung sein. Long long ago.
Beid yee yet. Just wait a little.
Caalur hairin. Fresh herring.
Caw dhe yowz tay dhe tnowz. Drive the ewes to the hillocks.
Coarn-rigz un baarlay-rigz. Corn-ridges and barley-ridges.
Cum undur maa plaidee, dhe nikht's gaun tay faw.
Come under my cloak, the night's going to fall.
Dhe auld hoos oa Gaask. The old house of Gask.
Dhe boanay bliith blink oa maa ain fiirseid.
The lovely bright glow of my own fire-side.
Dhe burks oa Endermei. The birches of Invermay.
Dhe dyuk's dung our maa daadee, oa!
The duck has knocked over my father, oh!
Dhe floorz on dhe foarist. The flowers of the forest.
Dhe laund oa dhe lail. The land of the leal.
Dhe weeree pund oa tow. The weary pound of tow.
Dhur grouz a boanay breeur-buss in oor kailyaird.
There grows a bonny briar-bush in our garden.
Dhur'z nay luck uboot dhe hoos. There's no luck about the house.
Doon dhe burn, Daivee, laud. Down the brook, Davie, lad.
Ei waukin, oa! Always wakeful, oh!
Gin a buddee meet a buddee. If one meet somebody.
Green growz dhe raashiz, oa! Green grow the rushes, oh!
Haim caam oor guidmaan at een.
Home came our good man at evening.
Hee'z our dhe hullz ut Ii loo weel.
He's over the hills that I love well.
Hwaat's aw dhe steer, kummur? What's all the stir, woman?
Hwaur hay yee been aw dhe day, mii boy Taamay?
Where have you been all the day, my boy Tommy?
Hwaw wudnay fekht fur Chairlay?
Who wouldn't fight for Charlie?
Hwun dhe kii cumz haim. When the cows come home.
Hwun yee gaang uwaw, Jimmay. When you go away, Jamie.
Hwussul our dhe laiv oa'd. Whistle over the rest of it.
Jennay daang dhe weevur. Jenny beat the weaver.
Laast Mei a braw oour caam doon dhe laang glen.
Last May a fine wooer came down the long glen.
Maa hert iz sair fur sumbuddee. My heart is sore for somebody.
Maa hert'z i dhe Heelunts. My heart is in the Highlands.
Maa midhur ment maa auld breeks.
My mother mended my old breeches.
Maa oanlay joa un deeree, oa!
My only sweetheart and darling, oh!
Maa weif hez tain dhe gee My wife has taken the pet.
Oa aw dhe erts dhe wund caan blaw.
Of all the directions the wind can blow.
Oa, dhus iz noa maa am n laussay. Oh, this is not my own lassie.
Oa, duinay aask mee gin Aa loo yee.
Oh, do not ask me if I love you.
Oa, duinay thenk, boanay laussay, Aa'm gaun tay laiv yee.
Oh, do not think, pretty maid, I am going to leave you.
Oa, hwussul un Aa'll cum tee yee, maa laud.
Oh, whistle and I'll come to you, my lad.
Oa, Wullay brood a pekk oa maut.
Oh, Willie brewed a peck of malt.
Our dhe muir amoan dhe hedhur.
Over the moor among the heather.
'Saw yee Joanay cumin?' koa shee.
'Saw you Johnny coming?' quoth she.
Taak yur auld cluk uboot yee. Take your old cloak about you.
Ulkay blaid oa gress keps uts ain draap oa dyoo.
Every blade of grass catches its own drop of dew.
Up un waur dhum aw, Wullay. Up and beat them all, Willie.
Wee a hundur peipurz unaw, unaw.
With a hundred pipers as well, as well.
Wull yee gaang tay dhe Heelunts, Leezee Linzay?
Will you go to the Highlands, Lizzie Lindsay?
Wull yee gaang tay dhe yow-bukhts, Mairun?
Will you go to the ewe-folds, Marion?
Wull yee noa cum baak ugen? Will you not come back again?
Dhe Peddlur un'z paak.
(A local ballad.)
Dhe peddlur cawd in baa dhe hoos oa Glennyook,
Hwin dhe femlay wuz bii wee dhair brekfust un book;
Dhe laussayz wuz caimin un curlin dhur hair,
Tay gaang tay dhe breidul oa Maagee Mucnair.
'Guid moarn,' koa dhe peddlur, foo fraank un foo free,
'Cum see hwaw dhis day wull bee haansul tay mee;
Un giff an ull baargin shee haapun tay maak,
Aa'll gee hur maasel un dhe hail oa maa paak'.
'Ahaa,' koa dhe guidweif, 'Gif Ii'v oanay skull,
Dhaat wud bee but maakin waur oot oa ull,
Fur, sertay, maa doakhturz oa waark wud bee slaak
Tay truj throo dhe cuntray un kerray a paak.'
'Guidweif,' koa dhe peddlur, 'ut's oanlay a joak,'
Uz hee flaang doon hiz waallut tay shoa dhem hiz stoak.
Hwin shee saw hiz ruch caargay, shoe rood air shee spaak
Say likhtlay oa aidhur dhe peddlur or'z paak.
Dhe laussayz droo roond um wee cleer glaansin een,
Tay glour oan hiz wair dhaat mikht futtit dhe Queen.
Dhey weild un dhay boakht saitunz, rubbing, un lais,
Tull dhay raizd moanay a lurk oan dhe laird's niggurd fais.
Hiz broachiz un braisluts wee diimunz enrucht,
Dhay greend fur tull baith hert un een wuz bewucht;
But boanay bliith Nellay stuid ei a but baak,
Stailin looks at dhe peddlur, but nair meint dhe paak.
Dhis boanay yung laussay hiz faansay did moov,
Hee saw dhaat hur blinks wuz dhe glaansiz oa luv.
Say a neklus hee geed ur wee pairlin beset,
Sayin, 'Hwaw kenz but us twaw may bee merraid yet?'
Hur hert laap wee joy ulkay teim hee caam roon,
Tull hee tellt hee hed tain a braw shoap i dhe toon.
Dhe blush left hur cheek, un her haid likht did reel,
For shee dreedid dhis wud bee his hinmust fairweel.
'Look bliith, mii deer laussay, yur fairs baanish aw,
Yur pairunts may fleit un yur tuttayz may jaw;
But dhay'll hertilay roo yet, ut air dhe joak braak
Say lukhtlay on mee hwin Aa kerraid dhe paak.'
Un dhe auld weif kent noakht oa dhe saikrut uvaw,
Hwin ay day tay dhe kirk shee gaid voagay un braw;
But hur hert tull hur mooth laap, dhe sweit on hur braak,
Hwin shee haard Nellay criid tay dhe cheeld wee dhe paak.
Shee saat wee a fais haafunz roassun wee shaim,
Sein uwaw at twaal oorz shee gaid scoorin straakht haim.
Shee meint nay dhe text, or ay wurd dhe preest spaak,
Aw hur thoakhts wuz tain up wee dhe peddlur un'z paak.
'Hwaat's raang,' koa dhe laird, 'ut yee'r haim heer say
Dhe kail'z noa loang on; iz dhe day-sairvis duin?'
'Naa, naa,' koa dhe kummur, 'but Aa'v goat un uffrunt,
Dhaat fur munths tay cum wull ma boazum gaar dunt.
'Dhaat glaikit sluit Nell, dhaat wee'v dautit say weel,
Shee'z geen us a purn ut ull sair us tay reel.
For aw wee'v waurd oan ur oa pound un oa plaak,
Shee'z threis criid dhis day tay dhe cheeld wee dhe paak.'
'Ahaa,' koa dhe laird, 'gin shee bee sik a fuil,
Hee'll git hur az bair az dhe burk-tree at Yuil.
Hwaur iz shee, dhe sluit, if I cood hur but fin,
Fient haad mee, but I wud reeshul hur skin.'
But Nell, shee foarsaw hwaat dhe upshoat wud bee,
Say shee gaid croas dhe muir tull a freend'z hoos a wee;
Hwin a chais un pair caam, un hwunair daylikht braak,
Shee set aaf wee dhe peddlur, unfaasht wee dhe paak.
Hee raiz up in welth, hee raiz up in faim,
Un dhe teitul oa Beilay affixt tull hiz naim.
Noo dhe laird oa Glennyook uboot naithing ull craak
Saif dhe Beilay, but nair hints a wurd oan dhe paak.
The pedlar called in at the house of Glenneuk,
When the family had done with their breakfast and family
The girls were combing and curling their hair,
To go to the wedding of Maggie Macnair.
'Good morning,' quoth the pedlar, quite frankly and freely,
'Come see who to-day will be the first to buy something from me,
And if a bad bargain she happen to make,
I'll give her myself and the whole of my pack.'
'Aha,' quoth the laird's wife, 'if I've any skill,
That would be but making worse out of ill,
For truly, my daughters would have little to do
Before they would trudge through the country and carry a pack.'
'Good lady,' quoth the pedlar, 'it's only a joke,'
As he flung down his wallet to show them his stock.
When she saw his rich cargo she rued having ever spoken
So lightly of either the pedlar or his pack.
The girls drew round him with clear glancing eyes,
To gaze at his ware that might have been fit for the Queen.
They chose and they bought satins, ribbons, and lace,
Till they raised many a scowl on the laird's niggardly face.
His brooches and bracelets with diamonds enriched
They longed for till both heart and eyes were bewitched
But pretty, bright Nellie stood always a little behind,
Stealing looks at the pedlar, but took no notice of the pack.
This pretty young girl his fancy did move,
He saw that her looks were the glances of love,
So a necklace he gave her, set with seed pearls,
Saying, 'Who knows but that we two may be married some day '.
Her heart leaped with joy every time he came round,
Till he told her he had taken a fine shop in the town.
The blush left her cheek, and her brain reeled,
For she feared this would be his last farewell.
Look happy, my dear girl, your fears banish all,
Your parents may scold, and your sisters may chatter
But they'll heartily rue yet that ever jokes were passed
So lightly about me when I carried the pack.'
And the old lady knew nothing of the secret at all,
Till one day to the church she went vain and smart
But her heart to her mouth leaped, and perspiration broke out
on her,
When she heard Nellie's banns proclaimed with the fellow with
the pack.
She sat with her face half roasted with shame,
Then off she went at twelve o'clock, rushing straight home.
She paid no heed to the text, or to one word the priest said,
All her thoughts were taken up with the pedlar and his pack.
'What's wrong,' quoth the laird, 'that you're home here so soon?
The broth has not been long on the fire. Is the service over?'
'No, no,' quoth the woman, 'but I've had an insult
That for months to come will make my heart beat.
'That giddy slut Nellie, whom we petted so much,
She's given us a reel that will take (serve) us to fill.
In spite of all we've spent on her of pound and penny,
Her banns have been thrice proclaimed to-day to the fellow with
the pack.'
'Aha,' quoth the laird, 'if she be such a fool
He'll get her as bare as the birch-tree at Yule.
Where is she, the slut; if I could but find her,
Devil take me, but I would rattle her skin.'
But Nell foresaw what the upshot would be,
So she went across the moor to a relation's house for a little
When a chaise and pair came, and as soon as ever daylight broke,
She set off with the pedlar, unburdened with the pack.
He grew in wealth, he grew in fame,
And the title of Town Councillor was affixed to his name.
Now the laird of Glenneuk about nothing will chat
Save the Town Councillor, but never hints of the pack.
A or Aa
(as in English Ah! alms, far,father.)
A, indef. art. a (pronounced u).
A, v. slurred for hay, have.
Aa, pers. pron. I (Ii).
Aaf, prep. off (of).
Aak, n. and v.i. act.
Aakht, obs. num. eight (ait).
Aantay, n. aunt (aant).
Aanturin, a. occasional, rare.
Aargee, vi. argue.
Aargee baargee, n. argument,
quarrel, hot discussion.
Aarn, n. alder.
Aarnut, n. earth-nut (erth-nut).
Aashut, n. large dish.
Aask, n. newt.
Ai (see separate letter).
An, indef. art. an (pronounced un).
At, prep. at.
Au (see separate letter).
Az, adv. as.
(as in E. aim, pain, raise, pale, day,
dame, fate).
Aiblinz, adv. perhaps, possibly.
Aibul, a. able (aibl).
Aicur, n. acre (aicur).
Aidhur, adv. and conj. either
(eedhur), however.
Aigee, n. ague (aigyoo).
Aih? interj. eh?
Aij, n. edge (ej).
Aik, n. oak.
Aikoarn, n. acorn.
Ail, n. ale (ail).
Ailay, n. alley (allay).
Aimuk, n. ant.
Ain, num. one (wun); pl. ainz.
Ain (long vowel), ref. adj. own
Ains, adv. once (wuns).
Ainz airund, adv. (one's errand),
specially, for that alone.
Aipitaaf, n. epitaph.
Aipul, n. apple.
Aipulringay, n. southernwood.
Aipurn, n. apron (aiprun).
Air, n. 1. air ; 2. heir (air), v.i. succeed
to, inherit property from
'hee aird hiz unkul.'
Air, a. early (erli).
Airlay, a. early (erli).
Airn, v.t. curdle (milk).
Airninz, n. pl. rennet, made from
a calf's stomach.
Airnist, a. earnest (ernest).
Airskep, n. heirship, inheritance.
Airth, n. earth (erth).
Airthquaak, n. earthquake (erthquaik.).

Airund, n. errand.
Aish, n. ash.
Aist, n. east (eest).
Ait, v. t. eat (eet); pa. ett or uit; pp.
Ait-caik, n. oatcake.
Aith, n. oath.
Aitmail, n. oatmeal.
Aits, n. pl. oats.
Aitun, pa. p. of ait, eaten (eeten).
Aiv, n. eave (eev).
Aivnin, n. evening (eevning).
Aivun, a. even (eeven); adv. straight,
Aix, n. axe.
Aizee, a. easy (eezi).
Ay! interj. Oh! Ah!
Ay, a. one (wun), only; ay day,
adv. one day.
Au (see also O)
(as in E. awe, paw, dawn, fall).
Aubuddee, n. everybody.
Audhegidhur, adv. altogeth er.
Aufay, a. awful; adv. awfully, very.
Aufayleik, a. bad, ugly, disgraceful,
Augait, adv. everywhere.
August, n. August.
Aukht, a. owed.
Aukhteen, num. eighteen (aiteen).
Auld, a. old (oald).
Auldfaarund, a. old-fashioned,
sagacious, shrewd, quaint.
Auld Kirk, n. Established Church.
Auld Maid, n. Old Maid (a game).
Auldun, a. olden.
Aumray, n. cupboard.
Aun, n. awn, beard of grain.
Aunsur, n., v.t. and i. answer (anser).
Aunur, n. part of a mill for removing
Aurld, a. engaged as a servant.
Aurlz, n. pl. earnest money.
Ausum, a. awful.
Authing, n. everything.
Auwuld, a. lying on its back (of a
Aw, a. all (aul), every.
Aw, v.t. owe (oa); pa. p. aukht.
Aweel-a-waat, interj. well! well!
(well I know!).
B (as in E.).
Baa, prep. by (bii).
Baabteez, v.t. baptize.
Baabteezm, n. baptism.
Baad, a. bad.
Baadhur, n. and v.t. bother.
Baadlay, a. ill.
Baagee, n. minnow.
Baak, n., v.t., adv., and prep. back
Baak-cumin, n. return.
Baak-doar, n. back-door.
Baak-end, n. the end of the year,
late autumn.
Baak-haund, n. back-hand, with
the bias to the right (at bowls).
Baakit, n. wooden box for salt,
ashes, &c.
Baalin-gun, n. pop-gun.
Baalund, n. ballad.
Baand, n. band.
Baand, v. pa. of bind, bind.
Baandstur, n. binder of sheaves.
Baandz, n. minister's bands.
Baank, n. bank; v. put in a bank,
deal with a bank.
Baanuk, n. thick cake toasted on
Baanut, n. bonnet, cap.
Baanut-laird, n. small landowner,
Baap, n. roll of bread.
Baar, n. bar.
Baaray, n. barrow (barroa).
Baark, n. and v. bark (baark).
Baarn, n. barn.
Baarul, n. barrel.
Baas, n. door-mat.
Baash, n. blow, dent; v. knock in,
Baat, n. bat.
Baats, n. bots (a disease of animals).
Baid, vi. pa of beid, stayed.
Baid, n. bead (beed).
Baidul, n. church officer, beadle
Baik, v.t. bake (baik); n. soft biscuit.

Baik-hoos, n. bakehouse.
Baikur'z dizun, n. thirteen.
Bail, v.i. fester, suppurate.
Baim, n. beam (beem).
Bain, n. bone (boan).
Bair, a. bare (bair); n. coarse
Bair, v.t. bear (bair); pa. boar;
pa. p. boarn.
Bairay, n. berry.
Baird, n. beard (beerd).
Bairfut, a. bare-footed.
Bairin-rain, n. bearing-rein.
Bairn, n. child.
Bairnlay, a. childish.
Bais, of baist, beasts (beests).
Baisun, n. basin.
Baist, n. beast (beest), a head of
horned cattle; pl. bais, cattle.
Bait, v.t. beat (beet); pa. bait.
Baith, a. both (boath).
Baiz, a. bad (applied to a person),
base (bais).
Baubee, n. halfpenny.
Baubee dup, n. tallow candle.
Baucun, n. bacon (baicon).
Baud, vpa. of bid, bade (bad).
Baudrinz, n. pussy.
Bauk, n. balk (bauk), a strip of
unploughed land between two
fields; rafter; beam of a pair of
Baukhul, n. old shoe or boot.
Bauks, balance for weighing.
Bauld, a. bold (boald).
Baund, n. band.
Baurlay, n. (1) barley (baarlay);
(2) parley, truce (at tig).
Baurlay-braaks, n. game of tig
round the stacks.
Baurlay-mail, n. barley-meal.
Baw, n. ball (baul).
Bed, n. bed; v. put to bed, prepare
a bed for.
Bed, v. pa. of beid, stayed.
Beddeez, n. hopscotch.
Bee, n. bee; v. aux. be (bee); pa.
wuz; pa. p. been; prep. beside,
in comparison with.
Beech, n. beech-tree.
Beef, n. beef.
Beeld, n. shelter.
Been, n. bean (been).
Been, adj. well off, prosperous.
Been, v. pa. p. of bee, been.
Beer, n. beer.
Beestee mulk, n. the first milk of
a cow after calving.
Beetul, n. potato-masher.
Beez, conj. beside, in comparison
with, than.
Begin, v.t. begin; pa. begood;
pa.p. begood.
Begood, v., pa. and pa. p. of begin,
began, begun.
Begruttun, a. showing signs of
Behuddun, a. beholden, indebted.
Beibul, n. Bible (biibul).
Beid, v.i. abide (abeid), wait, stay,
dwell, endure; pa. baid or bed;
pa.p. biddun.
Beik, n. nest of wild bees or wasps.
Beil, n. and v.t. boil.
Beilay, n. town magistrate.
Beilur, n. boiler.
Beit, n. and v.t. bite (biit); pa. bet ;
pa. p. buttun.
Bekk, v.i. curtsey.
Beld, a. bald (bauld).
Bell, n. bell; v.t. proclaim by sound
of bell.
Bellaybaand, n. .girth.
Bellusiz, n. bellows (belloaz).
Ben, n. an inner room, bedroom, or
Ben, adv. and conj. towards the
inner room or sitting-room.
Bend, v. bend.
Benjee, n. bumping a person on the
Bent, n. a long coarse grass.
Best, adj. best.
Bet, v. pa. of' beit, bit.
Bettur, a. better.
Betwixt, prep. between.
Bich, n. bitch.
Bid, v.i. bid ; pa. baud ; pa. p. biddun.

Biddun, v. pa. p. of bid, bidden,
and of' beid, stayed.
Big, a. big, proud.
Bigg, v.t. and i. (1) build (bild),
(2) beg.
Biggin, n. building, house.
Biggur, n. beggar.
Big hoos, n. manor-house.
Bii, v.t. buy (bii); pa. and pa.p.
Bii, adv. by, past; prep. past, beside,
in comparison with, besides;
conj. in comparison with.
Bii-oardnur, a. extraordinary; adv.
Biir, n. cowhouse.
Biius, n. bias (biius).
Bii wee'd, by with it, dead, done
Bikkur, n. a small two-handled
dish or cup.
Bilaiv, v.t. believe (beleev).
Billay, n. young fellow.
Biloang, v.i. belong.
Bind, v.t. bind (biind); pa. baand;
pa.p. bund.
Bing, n. heap.
Bink, n. wooden shelf.
Binnay, conj. except.
Birl, v.t. spin (e.g. a bawbee or a
Bizzum, n. besom (bezom).
Blaak, a. black.
Blaakay, n. blackbird.
Blaakbairray, n. black currant.
Blaak puddin, n. black sausage.
Blaankit, n. blanket.
Blaast, n. blast, shower, squall.
Blaid, n. blade (blaid), leaf of a
Blait, a. shy, bashful, sheepish.
Blaiz, n. and v.i. blaze.
Blaun, v. pa.p. of blaw, blown
Blaw, n. blow (bloa); v.i. and t.
blow, boast; pa. bloo; pa.p.
Blawwurd, n. blue corn-flower.
Bled, v., pa. and pa.p. of bluid,
Bledhur, n. bladder.
Bledhurz, nonsense.
Blegyerd, a. blackguard (blagaard).
Bleich, v.t. bleach (bleech).
Blekkay, n. black man, smut in
Blem, n. and v.t. blame (blaim).
Bliith, a. glad, happy, cheerful.
Blind, a. blind (bliind).
Blind-boalay, n. blind-man's-buff.
Blink, n. glance, glimpse, twinkle.
Blissin, n. grace before meat.
Bloo, a. blue (bloo).
Bloo, v. pa. of blaw, blew (bloo).
Bloojennay, n. hedge-sparrow.
Bluidee fingurz, n. foxglove.
Bluidee puddin, n. red sausage.
Bluim, n. blossom, bloom.
Blundurz, n. blinkers.
Bluss, v.t. bless.
Boab, n. shilling.
Boabee, n. policeman.
Boabin, n. bobbin.
Boad, n. bid at an auction.
Boad, v.i. wish.
Boadee, n. body.
Boadul, n. old coin of small value.
Boagul, n. goblin
Boain, n. flat dish in which milk
stands to cream.
Boak, v.i. belch.
Boakht, pa. and pa. p. of bii,
Boal, n. (1) recess in wall for
holding small articles; (2) rude
Boalt, n. bolt (boalt).
Boanay, a. bonny, pretty, beautiful.

Boar, of bair, bore (boar).
Boar, n. boar.
Boaray, v.t. borrow.
Board, n. border of a much.
Boardee much, n. embroidered
Boarn, pa.p. of bair, born.
Boas, a. hollow; n. support for a
Boat, n. boat.
Boathay, n. cottage for unmarried
Boatul, n. bottle.
Boatul oa stray, n. bundle of
Boax, n. box.
Boax-bed, n. closed-in bed in wall
of room.
Boax-dhe-beddeez, n. hopscotch.
Boddum, n. bottom.
Boin, n. tub.
Boo, v.t. and i. bow (bou), bend;
pa. and pa.p. bood, bent.
Bood, pa. and pa.p. of boo, bent.
Book, n. (1) bulk; (2) book.
Bool, n. playing marble, playing
bowl (boal).
Boolin-green, n. bowling-green.
Boon-tree, n. elder.
Booz, v.i. drink, carouse.
Bouay, n. wooden pail.
Boul, n. bowl (boal).
Boustur, n. bolster (boalstur).
Boustur-coad, n. bolster.
Bouzay-liggit, a. bandy-legged.
Bow, n. (1) bow (boa); (2) boll
(boal), a measure of capacity.
Braak, of brek, broke (broak).
Braamay-, Brummul-wurm, n.
striped worm found in dung-hills,
used as bait.
Braandee, n. brandy.
Braang, broakht, v. pa. of bring,
Braat, n. a coarse washing apron.
Braaxay, n. an internal inflammation
in sheep; mutton from a
diseased sheep.
Braid, n. bread (bred).
Brais, n. mantelpiece.
Braith, n. breath (breth).
Braulay, a. and adv. quite well,
well enough.
Brawz, n. pl. finery.
Bray, n. slope, side of a hill.
Bred, v. pa. and pa.p. of breed,
Bred, a. broad (braud).
Breed, n. breadth.
Breed, v t. breed; pa. and pa.p.
Breeks, n. pl. breeches (brichiz).
Breer, v.i. sprout (e.g. corn or
turnips); n. the first appearance
of a crop above ground.
Breer-buss, n. briar-bush.
Breest, n. breast (brest).
Breid, n. bride (briid).
Breidgruim, n. bridegroom.
Breidul, n. bridle, head of a
Brek, v. break (braik); pa. braak;
pa. p. brukkun.
Brekhum, n. horse's collar.
Brekkun, n. bracken, fern.
Brensh, n. branch (bransh).
Brent, n. smooth.
Bresh, n. brush, a short attack of
illness, a mild epidemic.
Bress, n. brass.
Brichin, n. strap round horse's
quarters under the tail.
Bridhur, n. brother (brudher).
Brig, n. bridge (brij).
Brik, n. brick.
Brikht, a. bright (briit).
Bring, v.t. bring; pa. braang or
broakht; p a . p. broakht.
Broach, n. brooch (broach).
Broad, n. pot-lid, the plate at
the church door for offerings,
draught-board, brood.
Broak, n. badger.
Broak-dush, n. receptacle for refuse,
pig's pail.
Broaks, n. leavings, refuse.
Broakht, v. pa. and pa. p. of bring,
brought (braut).
Broath, n. pl. broth.
Broaz, brose, a mixture of
oatmeal with boiling water.
Broazay, a. fat.
Broo, n. brow (brou).
Broon, a. brown (broun).
Broonee, n. a beneficent elf who
does people's work for them.
Broonkaidees, n. bronchitis.
Broouree, n. brewery.
Broul, n. firewood.
Brug, n. shoemaker's awl.
Brui, n. and v.t. brew (broo).
Bruim, n. broom.
Bruit, n. brute (broot).
Bruk, n. brick.
Brukkul, a. brittle.
Bruklay, a. brittle.
Brummul, n. bramble, blackberry.

Brumstain, n. brimstone.
Brunt, and pa. p. of burn,
Bubblay-joak, n. turkey-cock.
Buddee, n. person.
Buffits, n. pl. mumps.
Buffit-stuil, n. a low table with
leaves to fold down.
Buid, v. pa. of maan, behoved, had
to, ought to.
Buiraiul, n. burial, funeral (berrial).
Buiray, v.t. bury (berri).
Buird, n. board, curved side of a
Buirdlay, a. stout, stalwart.
Buit, n. boot.
Bukht, n. sheep-pen; v.t. pen
Bukkay, n. sea-snail, spiral shell.
Bukkit, n. washing-tub, bucket.
Bull, n. bull (bool).
Bull, n. bill.
Bullay, n. bullfinch.
Bullut, n. bullet (boolit).
Bum, v.i. hum.
Bumbee, n. humble-bee.
Bum-cloak, n. flying-beetle.
Bung, v.t. throw.
Bunk, n. box.
Bunkur, n. small cupboard in wall
near fire.
Bunnay, conj. and prep. except.
Burd, n. bird.
Burdee, n. little bird, term of endearment.

Burk, n. birch.
Burkay, n. smart fellow.
Burlay, n. uproar, tumult.
Burn, v.i. and t. burn; pa. and pa.p.
Burnum, n. laburnum.
Burr, n. burr.
Burray, n. borough (buroa).
Burs, n. bristle.
Bursay, a. bristly, quarrelsome.
Bursul, v.t. parch, scorch, roast.
Bursuld tautayz, n. roast potatoes.
Burz, v.t. press, squeeze.
Bushul, n. bushel (booshul).
Busk, v.t. dress.
Buskit, n. biscuit.
Buss, n. bush (boosh).
But, n. bit, the point.
But, n. an outer room, kitchen end
of a house.
But, adv., conj. and prep. towards
the outer room or kitchen, without,
But, v. pa. same as buid, behoved,
had to, ought to.
Buttun, n. button.
Buttun, pa. p. of beit, bitten.
Buttur, n. butter; a. bitter.
Buttur-baik, n. soft biscuit made
with butter.
Butturflee, n. butterfly.
Buznus, n. business (biznis).
C (hard as in E. kick). See also K.
Caab, v.t. pilfer.
Caach, v.t. catch (cach); pa. and
pa.p. caacht.
Caach-dhe-ten, n. Catch-the-Ten
(a card-game).
Caadis, n. dust of threads in weaving.

Caaf, n. chaff.
Caajur, n. hawker with a cart,
Caalant, n. boy.
Caalur, a. fresh.
Caam, v. pa of cum, came (caim).
Caamstain, n. soft stone used for
polishing hearthstones.
Caamsteeree, a. wild, unmanageable.

Caan, v. aux. can; pa, cood or cud.
Caanay, a. slow, gentle, cautious.
Caannay, v. can't (caant).
Caantay, a. happy, jolly, cheerful.
Caap, n. wooden bowl, cup.
Caar, a. left (hand).
Caaray,Caarhaundit, a left-handed.
Caarichiz, n. pl. catechism.
Caarl, n. man, especially an old
Caars, n. a wide stretch of level
land along a river.
Caarut, n. carrot.
Caast, v.t. cast; pa. cuist; pa.p.
Caast, v. weed out, reject, cut (peat
or turf).
Caast, n. foal.
Caast oot wee, v.i. quarrel with.
Caastul, n. castle (caasl).
Caast up, v.i. turn up; v.t. accuse.
Caat, n. cat.
Caat-belt, n. knitted garter of
fancy yarn.
Caat's ee, n. speedwell.
Caattay un duggay, n. tip-cat
Caatul, n. horned cattle of the ox
Caatul-baist, n. a head of horned
Caatulmun, n. cattle-man.
Caatul reed, n. enclosed court for
Caibur, n. caber.
Caik, n. cake (caik).
Caim, n. comb (coam).
Cain, n. rent paid in kind.
Caipurz, n. antics, nonsense.
Cair, n. and v.i. care (cair); Aa'm
no cairin (I don't care).
Cairfay, a. careful.
Cairn, n. loose heap of stones.
Cathul nails, n. nails through
body of cart and axle.
Caudee, n. caddie, carrier of golf--
Cauf, n. calf (caaf).
Cauf-cuntray, n. native place.
Cauk, n. chalk (chauk).
Cauld, n. and a. cold (coald).
Cauldreif, a. always cold, susceptible
to cold.
Cauld steer, n. oatmeal and
Caum, a. calm; n. slate-pencil.
Caundee, n. candy.
Caunul, n. candle.
Caunulzmus n. Candlemas, 2nd
of February.
Causay, n. causeway.
Caw, n. and v. call (caul).
Caw, v. drive, knock, set a-going
Cay, n. jackdaw.
Ch (see separate letter).
Claag, v.t. clog (e.g. with mud).
Claam, of clim, climbed
Claamjaamfray, n. a lot of people
Claap, n. and v.t. clap.
Claash, n. gossip, scandal; v.t.
Claith, n. cloth.
Claivur, v.i. talk idly.
Claivurz, n. pl. idle chatter.
Claiz, clothes (cloadhz).
Claiz-baaskit, n. clothes-basket.
Claurtay, a. dirty.
Claw, v. scratch.
Cled, p. of cleed, clad,
Cleed, v.t. clothe (cloadh); pa. and
pa. p. cled.
Cleek, n. cleek, large hook; v.t, and
i. hook, take an arm.
Cleekit, a. arm in arm; (of a horse)
nerved, lifting the foot too high.
Cleen, a. clean (c/een); v.t. clean
adv. quite.
Cleer, a. clear (cleer).
Cleesh ma claivur, n. idle gossip.
Clei, n. clay.
Cleip, v.i. tell tales.
Cleipay, n. tell-tale.
Clerk, n. clerk (clark).
Clert, n. a dirty person.
Cless, n. class.
Clink, n. cash.
Clivvur, a. agile, clever, active.
Cloag, n. stump of a tree.
Cloak, n. (1) beetle; (2) clock.
Cloakin-hen, n. sitting-hen.
Cloas, n. entry, narrow passage.
Cloas, a. stifling.
Cloavur, n. clover (cloaver).
Cloazit, n. closet (clozet).
Cloodz, n. clouds.
Cloor, n. and v.t. bruise, dent, blow.
Cloot, n. strip of cloth, clout, patch.
Cloot, v.t. patch, mend.
Clout, n. knock, blow.
Clud, n. cloud.
Clug, n. clog.
Cluit, n. cloven hoof.
Cluk, n. cloak.
Clum, v.i. and t. climb (cliim); pa.
claam, pa. p. clumd.
Clumd, v. pa. p. of clum, climbed
Clup, v.t. clip, shear, cut (grass).
Cluppay, a. sharp of speech, snappish.

Coa, v. pa. quoth.
Coad, n. pillow, cushion.
Coadul, v.t. coax, wheedle.
Coafay, n. coffee.
Coaft, v. pa. bought.
Coafun, n. coffin.
Coag, n. wooden bowl.
Coagee, n. small wooden bowl.
Coak, n. cock.
Coakay-leekee, n. chicken soup
with leeks in it.
Coal, n. coal, haycock.
Coalay, n. collie dog.
Coalay shaangay, n. dog-fight, uproar,
noisy row.
Coalekshun, n. collection.
Coal-hoos, n. coal-house.
Coalup, n. a cut of meat, rasher.
Coalur, n. collar.
Coaluraa, n. cholera.
Coamic, n. funny person.
Coamikul, a. comical.
Cóamitee, n. committee.
Coansait, n. conceit (conseet).
Coansaitit, a. conceited (conseeted).
Coanstunt, adv. constantly.
Coansurt, n. concert.
Coantaak, n. contact.
Coantur, a. contrary, opposite; v.t.
contradict, oppose.
Coapee, n. and v.t. copy.
Coapur, n. copper.
Coarbee, n. raven.
Coard, n. cord.
Coarn, n. corn, oats.
Coarn-skreekh, n. corn-crake.
Coarnul, n. colonel (curnul).
Coarnur, n. corner.
Coarp, n. corpse (corps).
Coast, n. and v.t. cost.
Coat, n. coat, petticoat.
Coats, n. pl. petticoats, skirts.
Coatuj, n. cottage.
Coatun, n. cotton.
Coazee, a. cosy, snug, comfortable.
Complen, v.i. complain, be out of
Connek, v.t. connect.
Coo, n.f. cow (cow); pl. kii.
Cooch, n. couch; interj. sound made
to drive a dog away.
Cood (or cud), v. aux. pa. of caan,
could (cood).
Coodnay, v. pa. couldn't (coodnt).
Cook, n.f. and v.t. cook.
Cookee, n. small, round, plain bun.
Coo-lik, n. hair sticking up in
Coom, n. is. coal-dust, flakes of soot.
Coont, n. and v.i. count.
Coopur, n. cooper.
Cooquaak, n. cold weather in May,
when the cows go out.
Coors, a. coarse.
Coors, n. course (coars).
Coort, n. and v.t. court (coart),
Coothay, a. cosy, comfortable-looking,
familiar, kindly.
Cootur, n. coulter (coalter).
Correk, a. correct.
Corsekkay, n. a short coat or
Coup, v. (1) upset so as to empty
out; (2) deal, buy and sell.
Coup, n. upset, place where rubbish
may be emptied out.
Coupur, n. dealer.
Cout, n. colt (coalt).
Cow, n. branch of broom or juniper,
Cow, v. beat, surpass.
Craabit, a. ill-natured, fretful,
Craaft, n. croft.
Craak, n. and vi. chat, gossip,
Craakit, a. crazy.
Craap, n. crop, the top of a wall.
Craidul, n. cradle.
Craig, n. (1) neck; (2) crag, precipice.

Crain in, v.i. shrink, contract.
Craitur, n. creature (creetyoor).
Craw, n. crow (croa), rook; vi.
crow; pa. croo; pa. p. crawd.
Crawd, v. pa. p. of craw, crowed
Cray, n. pigsty.
Creel, n. creel, coarse basket.
Creep, v.i. creep ; p. and p.p.
Creepee, n. a low stool.
Creepit, v. pa. and pa. p. of creep,
Creesh, n. grease (grees).
Creeshee, a. greasy (greezi).
Cress, v.t. and n. crease (crees).
Crii, v. and n. cry (crii), call, publish
intention of marriage in church.
Crii-in sillur, n. fee for calling
Croak, n. an old ewe past bearing.
Croap, n. crop.
Croas, n. cross.
Croo, v. pa. of craw, crew (croo).
Crood, n. crowd (croud).
Croodul, v.i. coo.
Crool, a. cruel (crooil).
Croon, n. crown.
Croop, n. croup.
Croos, a. bold, brisk, conceited,
Croudee, n. whisked cream with
Cruch, n. crutch.
Crudz, n. pl. curds (curds), junket.
Crui, n. pigsty.
Cruizay, n. oil and wick lamp.
Cruk, n. crook, large hook, iron
hook on which pots are suspended
over the fire.
Cruppul, a. cripple.
Crusnin, n. christening.
Cud, cood, of v. aux. caan,
Cuddee, n. donkey.
Cuddul, vi. and t. hug, embrace,
Cuddul-ma-deeree, n. raspberry
Cuid, n. cud.
Cuif, n. fool.
Cuil, v.t. cool.
Cuissn, pa.p. of mast, cast, (of
colour) faded.
Cuist, of caast, cast.
Cuit, n. ankle-bone, fetlock.
Cuizin, n. cousin (cuzn).
Cullur n. colour (cullur).
Cum, v.i. come (cum); pa. caam ;
pa. p. cumd.
Cumd, pa. p. of cum, come (cum).
Cummur, n. gossip, woman, girl.
Cuntray, n. country (cuntri).
Cup, n. cup.
Cuppul, n. rafter.
Curch, n. and v.i. curtsey.
Curfufful, a. agitation, whirl.
Curl, v. curl.
Curlay-aandray, n. sugared coriander
Curlin, n. a game played with
stones on ice.
Curr, v.i. crouch, curtsey.
Curraybukshun, n. disorderly
Currhung, v.i. slide in a crouching
Curran, a. a few, several.
Currunt, n. currant.
Cushay, n. wood-pigeon.
Cushun, n. cushion (cooshun).
Cut, v. cut, castrate; n. cut, a short
Cuttay, n.f. bad lot (of a woman);
a. stumpy.
Cuttay-peip, n. short, stumpy pipe.
Cuttin-laif, n. a loaf not newly
Cuvinéntur, n. covenanter.
Ch (as in E. church).
Chaaft, n. jaw.
Chaafur, n, small stove for heating
Chaans, n. chance (chans).
Chaansay, a. safe to risk.
Chaanul, n. gravel.
Chaap, n. fellow.
Chaap, v.t. strike, knock, beat,
mash, pound; n. stroke.
Chaapin, n. a measure of liquid
= 2 muchkins.
Chaapin-joog, n. a jug which will
hold 2 muchkins.
Chaapin-stuk, n. potato-masher.
Chaapit tautayz, n. pl. mashed
Chaaps mee, an exclamation
claiming something.
Chaip, a. cheap (cheep).
Chaipul, n. chapel.
Chair, n. chair.
Chairj, n. charge (chaarj).
Chairlay, n. dim. for Charles.
Chait, v. and n. cheat (cheet).
Chauldur, n. a measure of grain
= 16 bolls.
Cheef, a. on friendly terms.
Cheek, n. cheek.
Cheeld, n. fellow.
Cheenee, n. china (chiina).
Cheenee aastur, n. China aster.
Cheep, v.i. chirp, speak low; n.
chirp, word.
Cheeree, a. cheerful.
Cheez, n. cheese (cheez).
Cheis, n. choice (chois).
Chen, n. chain.
Chenj, n. and v.t. change (chainj).
Chikin, n. chicken.
Chin, n. chin.
Chittul, v.i. backbite.
Chittur, v.i. shiver, chatter (with
Choak, vi. and t. choke (choak).
Chouks, n. pl. jaws, chops.
Choukstraap, n. chin-strap.
Chow, n. and v.t. chew (choo).
Chuiz, v.t. choose (chooz).
Chukkay-stain, n. rounded white
Chulblen, n. chilblain.
Chuldur, n. pl. children.
Chumlay, n. chimney.
Chumlay-pees, n. chimney-piece.
Churray, n. cherry.
D (as in E. dog, door, bad).
'D, pron. slurred form of hut, it.
Daab, v.t. hit a bool in a game at
Daab, v.i. (laat) let on, tell.
Daabur-fay-taw, n. good player
at marbles, clever fellow.
Daad, n. lump, chunk, thump,
Daadee, n. father.
Daadee-laang-legz, n. spinning--
Daaf, v.i. sport, flirt.
Daaft, a. mad, idiotic, silly, crazy.
Daaftay, n. idiot, lunatic.
Daagoan't, interj. damn it!
Daam, n. pond.
Daam, v.t. damn (dam).
Daam-broad, n. draught-board.
Daam-haid, n. water headed up by
a dam, pond.
Daam-haid deik, n. pond-embankment.

Daang, v. beat; pa. p. of ding,
Daans, n. and v.i. dance (dans).
Daarg, n. a day's work.
Daark, n. and a. dark.
Daarknin, n. late evening.
Daid, a. dead (ded).
Daidlay, n. pinafore.
Daidlin, a. dawdling, pottering.
Daid-thrawz, n. pl. death-struggle
(said of meat getting cold).
Daidul, n. pinafore.
Daidul, v.i. dawdle, trifle, potter.
Daif, a. deaf (def).
Daifay, n. a deaf person.
Dail, n. and v.t. deal (deel).
Dailur, n. dealer (deeler).
Daisunt, a. decent (deesant), respectable.

Daiv, v.t. deafen.
Daundur, n. temper, anger.
Daundur, v.i. and n. saunter, stroll.
Daur, v.i. dare (dair); pa. durst.
Daurnay, vi. dare not; pa. durstnay.

Daut, v.t. fondle, pet, dote on.
Dautay, n. little pet.
Daw, n. father.
Day, n. day (day).
Day, v.t. do (doo).
Declein, n. decline, consumption.
Dee, v.i. die (dii).
Deel, n. devil.
Deel a but, intej. devil a bit.
Deel'z bairn, n. devil's child, bad
Deel'z books, n. pl. playing-cards.
Deel'z dizin, n. thirteen.
Deel'z dung, n. asafœtida.
Deel'z snuff-boax, n. the common
Deep, a. deep.
Deer, n. dear, deer.
Deeree, n. darling.
Deik, n. stone wall.
Deikun, n. deacon (deecon).
Deit, n. fool, idiot.
Deitit, a. idiotic, stupid.
Dekaantur, n. decanter.
Delv, v.t. dig
Demuird, a. bamboozled.
Den, n. a small, deep wooded valley.
Dennur, n. dinner.
Dennur-teim, n. dinner-time,
about noon.
Dentee, a. dainty, comely, stately.
Dh; see separate letter.
Dich-how, n. Dutch hoe.
Diizd, a. damned.
Dikht, v.t. and n. wipe.
Din, n. din, noise.
Ding, v.t. beat, knock; pa. daang;
pa.p. dung.
Dinnay, v.a. don't (doant).
Dirdum, n. scolding, blame.
Direk, a. and v.t.. direct.
Disait, n. deceit (deseet).
Discoard, v.i. quarrel.
Discoors, n. discourse (discoars).
Distullur, n. distiller.
Div, v.a. do (doo).
Divauld, v.i.. stop, cease.
Divert, n. amusement; v.t. amuse.
Divnay, irreg. v. do not.
Divut, n. piece of turf, sod.
Dizembur, n. December.
Dizen, n. dozen (du'zn).
Dizzee, a. dizzy.
Doab, v.t. prick.
Doabee, a. prickly.
Doad, interj. God.
Doadee, a. sulky.
Doadz, n. pl. sulks.
Doakhtur, n.f. daughter (dauter).
Doakun, n. dock-plant.
Doal, n doll.
Doalup, n. lump; dhe hail doalup,
the whole lot.
Doaminay, n. schoolmaster.
Doar, n. door (doar).
Doavay, n. stupid lump.
Doavur, v.i. doze (doaz).
Doazund, a. benumbed (wee
Doit, n. a bit.
Donnul, n. half a gill.
Donnurd, a. stupid.
Doo, n. dove (duv), pigeon.
Doobul, a double (dubbul).
Dook, v.i. and t. duck, dip, bathe.
Dookin-stuil, n. chair worked by
a lever, for ducking scolds.
Dookit, n. dove-cot.
Doon, adv. and prep. down (doun).
Doonrikht poor, n. heavy shower.
Door, a. hard, stern, obstinate,
Doos, n. thud.
Doos, a. quiet, sober, sedate, respectable,
modest, decent.
Doot, v.t. and i. doubt (dout), suspect,
Dottul, n. refuse of a pipe of
Dottul, a. in a state of dotage.
Douay, a. sad, gloomy, dismal,
Doup, n. bottom, buttocks.
Draakht, n. sheep's pluck.
Draakht, n. trace of a cart.
Draam, n. a measure of capacity,
a drink of whisky.
Draank, v. pa. of drink, drank.
Draap, n. drop.
Draid, v. dread (dred), fear.
Draigul, v.i. wet, soak; pa. p.
Draigun, n. paper kite (dragon).
Draik, v.t. moisten, soak (e.g.
meal), steep (clothes).
Draik, n. drake (draik).
Draim, n. and v.i. dream (dreem).
Draipur, n. draper (draiper).
Draiv, v.t. pa. of dreiv, drove.
Draur, n. drawer.
Draurz' haid, n. press, open in
front, used for keeping bread,
Draw, v.t. draw, play to lie near
the mark (at curling or bowls).
Draw yur huggur, v. pay for a
Dree, v.t. suffer, expect death.
Dreekh, a. tedious, wearisome.
Dreel, n. drill.
Dreep, v.i. drip.
Dreep, n. play for stakes in
Dreepin, n. dripping.
Dreg, v.t. squeeze the last drops
of milk from a cow, which are
considered to be specially nutritious.

Dregglinz, n. pl. leavings of liquid,
last drops, dregs.
Dreiv, n. and v t. drive (driiv), cart;
pa. draiv; pa. p. drivun.
Dreivur, n. driver (driivur).
Dren, n. drain.
Dressin, n. size (for stiffening
Dressur, n. dresser.
Dribbul, n. small drop, slaver; v.
drop slowly, slaver.
Drii, a. dry (drii), thirsty.
Drink, v.t. drink; pa. draank;
pa.p. drukkun.
Drivun, of dreiv, drove.
Droan, n. humming noise, bass of
Droappit scoan, n. flat scone made
of batter.
Droav, n. drove (droav); v. crowd.
Droavur, n. drover (droaver).
Drook, v.i. drench.
Droon, v.t. drown.
Drooth, n. drought (drout), thirst.
Droothay, a. thirsty.
Drukkun, pa. p. of drink, drunk,
Drumlay, a. muddy, discoloured.
Drunk, n. drinking bout.
Dub, duib, n. puddle.
Dubbul, n. and v. dibble.
Duch, n. ditch.
Duchur, n. ditcher.
Duddee, a. ragged.
Dudz, n. pl. clothes, especially rags,
old clothes.
Dufrins, n. difference.
Dufrund, a. different; adv. differently.

Dug, n. dog.
Dui, v.t. and aux. do (doo); pa.
duid, did; pa. p. duin.
Duid, v. pa. of dui, did.
Duin, v. pa.p. of dui, done (dun).
Dull, a. dull, slow.
Dull oa heerin, a. somewhat deaf.
Dumfoondurd, a. struck dumb
with astonishment.
Dumm, a. dumb (dum).
Dummay, n. a dumb person.
Dundurhaid, n. stupid person.
Dung, n. dung.
Dung, v. pa.p. of ding, beaten.
Dunt, a. (1) bump, knock, thump;
(2) a large piece.
Dunt-aboot, n. knock-about, person
treated with little consideration.

Dup, n. dripping (of roast meat).
Dup, n. and v.t. dip, candle.
Durl, n. tingling, vibrating pain.
Durl, v.i. tingle; v.t. make to
Durst, v. pa. of daur, dared (daird).
Durstnay, v. irreg. p. of daurnay,
Dush, n. dish.
Dush-cloot, n. dish-cloth.
Dustuns, n. distance (distans).
Dwaam, n. swoon.
Dwein, v.i. (uwaw), decline, fall
off, fade away.
Dweinin, n. decline, consumption.
D'yee, slurred for dui yee, do
Dyoo, n. dew (dyoo).
Dyuk, n. duck.
Dh (as in E. this, that, the).
Dhaan, adv. then (dhen).
Dhaat, dem. that (dhat); pl. dhay.
Dhaat, adv. so
Dhair, pron. their (dher); poss. of
Dhair, adv. there (dher).
Dhairz, pron. a. theirs (dherz).
Dhay, pron. they (dhay).
Dhay, dem. those (dhoaz), pl. of
Dhe, art. the (dhe), pronounced
Dhe-day, adv. to-day.
Dhegidhur, adv. together (toogedhur).

Dhem, pron. them (dhem), obj. of
Dhe-moarn, adv. to-morrow.
Dhe-nikht, adv. to-night.
Dhe-noo, adv. just now, at present.
Dhe-streen, adv. yesterday.
Dhe-yeer, adv. this year.
Dhon, dem. yon.
Dhondur, adv. yonder.
Dhum, pron. them (dhem), obj. of
Dhun, conj. than.
Dhur, pron. these (dheez), pl. of
Dhur, pron, slurred for dhair,
Dhur, adv. slurred for dhair,
Dhus, dem. this (dhis).
Dhut, rel. pron. that (dhat), who,
Dhut, conj. that (dhat).
E (as in E. met, pen).
Ee (as in E. meet, seem).
Ei (as in S. fein, wei).
E! interj. Oh!
Ebb, a. shallow, near the surface,
not deep in the ground (as of a
Eddicaishun, n. education (edyoocaishun).

Edhur, n. (1) udder; (2) adder.
Ee, n. eye (ii); pl. een.
Ee, slurred for i dhe, oa dhe, oan
dhe, in the, of the, on the (see
under Prepositions).
Ee-broo, n. eyebrow.
Eek, n. something additional, supplement.

Eel, n. eel.
Eeldrinz, n. pl. of the same age.
Eelee pigz, n. a children's game.
Een, n. pl. of ee, eyes (iiz).
Een, n. evening (eevning).
Een, adv. just.
Eenoo, adv. just now.
Eent, adv. indeed.
Eeree, a. ghostly, supernatural,
affected by dread of the supernatural.

Effek, n. effect.
Eftur, n. after, past.
Efturnuin, n. afternoon.
Ei, adv, always, still.
Eidul, a. idle (iidil).
Eil, n. oil.
Eirun, n. iron (iiron).
Eis, n. ice (iis).
Ekht, num. eight (ait), eighth
Ekhtay, num. eighty (aity).
Ekht-dayz, n. sing, a week.
Ekhteen, num. eighteen (aiteen).
Elbuk, n. elbow (elboa)
Eldur, n. alder-tree.
Eldur, n. an ordained lay member
of the Kirk Session.
Elimunts, n. bread and wine used
at Holy Communion.
Ell, n. ell, a measure of length and
Ellay, n. alley.
Ellum, n. elm.
Emmik, n. ant.
End, n. end, a round at bowls.
Endeeun-rubber, n. indiarubber.
Ermchair, n. armchair.
Erritur, n. heritor, landowner.
Errum, n. arm.
Ers, n. bottom.
Ert, n. (1) direction, point of the
compass; (2) art (aart).
Esp, n. asp.
Ess, n. ashes.
Ess-baakit, n. ash-box.
Ess-hoal, n. ash-pit.
Ett (or uit), v. pa. of ait, eat (eet).
Ettul, v.i. aim at, propose, intend.

Etturcup, n. spider.
Exibeeshun, n. exhibition.
Expek, v.t. expect.
Exul, n. axle.
F (as in E. fun, stuff).
Faak, n. fact.
Faaktur, n. factor, steward.
Faalay, n. fellow (felloa).
Faand, of find, found.
Faang, n. hold (used of a pump).
Paank, n. sheep-fold.
Faanurz, n. winnowers.
Faar, a. far; comp. faarur; sup.
Faar baak, adv. long ago.
Faardun, n. farthing (faardhing).
Faarist, a. sup. of faar, farthest
Faarul, n. floury roll.
Faarur, a. comp. of faar, farther
Faash, v.t. worry, trouble; pa. and
pa. p. faasht.
Faashus, a. worrying, troublesome,
hard to please.
Faast, n. and a. fast.
Faast-day, n. day of preparation
for Holy Communion.
Faat, n. fat.
Faiburwurray, n. February.
Faidhur, n. father (faadhur).
Fail, n. turf.
Faimlay, n. family
Fain, a. willing, happy.
Fair, n. (1) fair (fair), market; (2)
fear (feer).
Fair, a. fair, thorough; adv. quite.
Fair, n. and v.i. fear (feer); pa. p.
Faird, a. afraid.
Fairfay, a. fearful.
Fairin, n. present given at a fair.
Fairlay, n. a curiosity, wonder,
strange thing.
Fairn, n. fern.
Fairn-tikkul, n. freckle.
Fairsum, a. fearful, alarming.
Fais, n. face (fais).
Faith, n. and interj. faith.
Faizhun, n. pheasant (fezant).
Fauld, n. and v. fold (foald).
Faun, v. pa. p. of faw, fallen
Faus, a. false (fauls).
Faut, n. fault.
Faw, v. and n. fall; pa. fell; pa. p.
Faw, n. a measure of area, a Scotch
Faw oot, v.i. happen, quarrel.
Fay, n. foe.
Fay, prep. from.
Fed, v. pa. and pa. p. of feed, fed.
Fedhur, n. feather (fedhur).
Fedhur coad, n. feather pillow.
Fee, n. fee, hire, wages.
Fee, v.t. hire as a servant.
Feed, n. fodder, food-stuff, feed;
v.t. feed; pa. and pa. p. fed.
Feein-maarkit, market at which
farm servants are hired.
Feekh, intej. exclamation of disgust.

Feel, v.t, feel, smell; pa. and pa.p,
Feeld, n. field (feeld).
Feenish, v.t. finish.
Feent, in interjections fiend (feend),
Feer, v.t. mark off ridges by ploughing.

Feerz, n.p1. officially fixed average
prices of grain.
Feet, n. pl. of fut, feet.
Fei, a. bewitched, doomed, acting
Feik, n. fuss, a fussy person.
Feikay, a. fussy about trifles.
Feil, v.t. dirty, defile.
Fein, a. fine (fin); adv. well.
Fekht, a. and v.t. fight (fiit); pa.
foakht or fuikht; pa. p. foakhun.

Fekk, n. most, greater part, plenty.
Feklus, a. feeble, careless, forgetful.

Fell, a. remarkable; adv. remarkably,
Fell, v. pa. of faw, fell.
Fellay, n. fellow.
Felt, v. pa. and pa. p. of feel,
Femin, n. famine (famin).
Femlay, n. family
Fen, a. fain.
Fend, v.i. provide, shift.
Fendur, n. fender.
Fensin dhe taibulz, address before
Fent, n. and v.i. faint (feint).
Farm, n. farm.
Fermhoos, n. farmhouse.
Fermur, n. farmer.
Ferray, n. ferry.
Fesh, v. fetch (fech), bring; pa.
fuish; pa. p. fuishun.
Fichiz, vetches (vechiz).
Fiddul, n. fiddle.
Fiddlur, n. fiddler.
Fiir, n. fire (fiir).
Fiiv, num. five (fiiv).
Find, v. find (find); pa. faand
pa. p. fund.
Fingur, n. finger (finggur).
Fingur un tay, n. a disease of
Finnikin, a. fussy about trifles.
Finnin haadee, n. smoked haddock.

Finninz, n. pl. smoked haddocks.
Finnis, v.i. fidget, itch, be all on
Fivvur, n. fever (feevur).
Fixfaax, n. soft gristle.
Flaag, n. paving-stone, slab of
stone; flaagz, pl. pavement.
Flaggfluir, n. paved floor.
Flaigun, n. flagon, pitcher.
Flaik, n. hurdle.
Flaikit, a. piebald.
Flail, n. flail.
Flee, n. and vi. fly (flii); pa. floo;
pa. p. floon.
Fleesh, n. fleece (flees).
Fleip, v.t. turn outside in (e.g. a
Fleit, v.i. scold; pa. flett; pa. p.
Flekh, n. flea (flee).
Flesh, n. flesh, butcher-meat.
Fleshur, n. butcher.
Flett, adj. and n. flat, saucer.
Flett, v. pa. of fleit, scolded.
Flig, n. and v.t. fright, frighten.
Flii, a. knowing, wideawake.
Flikhturay, a. flighty, fickle.
Flikhun, n. snow-flake, small fall
of snow, small particle.
Flikhur, v.i. flicker.
Fling, v.t. throw.
Fling, n. dance, dance-tune.
Floo, of flee, flew (floo).
Floon, of flee, flown (floan).
Floor, n. flour (flour), flower
Floord, a. embroidered.
Floorin, n. embroidery.
Floor-mail, n. flour.
Flug, n. fright (friit); v.t. scare,
Fluir, n. floor (floar), story.
Flunt, n. flint.
Flutt, v.i. flit, change one's abode;
pa. and pa.p. fluttit.
Fluttay, n. flat basin in which
milk is put to cream.
Fluttin, n. flitting, change of
abode, removal of furniture.
Fluttun, v. pa. p. of fleit, scolded.
Foach, v.t. turn over (e.g. scoan
on girdul).
Foak, n. folk (foak), people, persons.

Foakht (or fuikht), v. pa. of fekht,
fought (faut).
Foakhun, v. pa. p. of fekht, fought.
Foal, n. foal.
Foalay, v.t. follow (folloa).
Foand, a. fond.
Foar, n. fore (foar), front; adv.
before, fore; intej. look out in
front (at golf).
Foarbeerz, n. pl. ancestors.
Foardoar, n. front-door.
Foarhaund, n. forehand, with the
bias to the left (at bowls).
Foarit, adv. forwards.
Foark, n. fork.
Foarmun, n. foreman.
Foarnent, prep, right in front of.
Foarnuin, n. forenoon (foarnoon),
Foart, num. a. fourth (fourth).
Foartay, num. forty.
Foarteen, num. fourteen.
Foartin, n. fortune (fortyoon).
Foarun, a. foreign; adv. abroad.
Foarust, n. forest.
Foazay, a. corpulent, puffy.
Foo, a. full (fool), tipsy; adv.
Fool, a. foul.
Fool, n. fowl (foul).
Foomurt, n. pole-cat.
Foond, n. foundation.
Foondur, v.i. and t. founder, drink
too much water, break down from
Footay, a. mean, treacherous.
Foozhun, n. fizz, pith, spirit,
Foozhunlis, a. pithless, insipid,
weak, spiritless.
Forrit, n. forward, in football or
Four, num. four (foar).
Fraik, v.t. coax, cajole, wheedle.
Fraikay, a. coaxing, wheedling.
Fraish, a. fresh.
Frait, n. superstition, omen.
Free, a. free.
Freend, n. friend (frend), relation;
pl. on speaking terms.
Freenj, n. fringe.
Freez, v.i. freeze (freez); pa. froaz;
pa. p. froazund.
Freiday, n. Friday (Friiday).
Fremd, a. strange, not a relative.
Frii, v.t. fry (frii).
Frikht, n. and v.t. fright (friit).
Frizzul, v.i. fry noisily.
Froa, n. froth.
Froak, n. frock.
Froast, n. frost.
Froastay, a. frosty.
Froastit, a. injured by frost.
Froaz, of freez, froze (froaz).
Froazund, pa. p. frozen (froazen).
Froazun-buttun, a. frost-bitten.
Fruit, n. fruit (froot).
Frull, n. frill.
Frush, a. fragile, easily torn or
broken, brittle.
Fudhur, n. fodder.
Fuft, num. a. fifth.
Fuftay, num. fifty.
Fufteen, num. fifteen.
Fugg, n. moss.
Fuggay, a. mossy.
Fuggay-bee, n. humble-bee.
Fuikht, foakht, of fekht,
fought (feat).
Fuil, n. fool.
Fuird, n. ford (foard).
Fuirsday, n. Thursday.
Fuish, v. pa. of fesh, fetched.
Fuishun, p. of fesh, fetched.
Fuitur, v. do work clumsily, fiddle
with one's work.
Fuiturur, n. bungler, useless
Fuizhunlus, a. without pith or
strength, weak.
Full, a. proud.
Full, v. fill.
Fullay, n. filly.
Full-lay, adv. fully (fooli), rather,
on the whole, rather more than.
Fund, p. of find, found.
Fuppul, n. under-lip.
Fur, n. fir.
Fur, prep. for; fur tay, in order to.
Furbii, adv. besides.
Furfoakhun, a. exhausted.
Furgaat, v. pa. of furgit, forgot.
Furgedhur, v.i. meet, meet by
Furgee, v.t. forgive.
Furgoatun, v. pa. p. of furgit, forgotten.

Furlut, n. a measure of grain.
Furnitur, n. furniture.
Furrin, adv. abroad (foreign).
Furst, num. a. first.
Fush, n. fish.
Fut, n. foot; pl. feet.
Fut-baw, n. football.
Fut-cushun, n. foot-stool.
Fut-ruil, n. foot-rule (foot-rool).
Fut un a haaf, n. leap-frog (foot
and a half).
Fyoozee, n. a kind of match.
G (as in E. gig, gun, rug, always
Gaab, n. mouth, chatter, offensive
Gaab, v.i. chatter, talk offensively.
Gaabur, v.i. gabble, jabber, chatter.

Gaaf, n. gaff for landing salmon.
Gaafur, n. gaffer, foreman of a
Gaaj, n. and v.t. gauge (gaij),
Gaajur, n. gauger (gaijur), exciseman.

Gaalun, n. gallon.
Gaalusiz, n. pl. braces.
Gaang, n. a turn of' going for
Gaang, v.i. go; pa. gaid; pa. p.
Gaang-urul, n. tramp.
Gaant, n. and v.i. yawn.
Gaar, v.t. make, compel.
Gaarut, n. garret.
Gaas, n. gas.
Gaasay bow, n. indiarubber ball.
Gaash, a. well-dressed, smart.
Gaat, v. pa. of git, got.
Gaid, v. pa. of gay, or ging,
Gain, v. pa. of gay, gone (gon).
Gaip, v.i. gape (gaip).
Gaips, n. pi. a disease of poultry.
Gair, n. goods, wealth, stuff.
Gairay, a. wealthy.
Gais, n. and v.t. guess (gess), riddle.
Gaist, n. ghost (goast).
Gait, n. way, road.
Galaashiz, n. pl. goloshes.
Gauin, gaun, v. pres.part. of gaang,
Gauk, n. an awkward person.
Gaukay, a. awkward.
Gausay, a. plump, buxom, handsome.

Gaw, v.t. gall (gaul).
Gawaw, interj. go away!
Gay, v.i. go (goa); pa. gaid; pa.p.
Gay, v. pa. of gee, gave (gaiv).
Gedhur, v.t. gather (gadher).
Gee, n. pet.
Gee, v.t. give (giv); pa. gay; pa. p.
Geeg, n. gig.
Geen, v. pa. p. of gee, given.
Geen, n. wild cherry.
Geenee, n.. guinea (gini).
Gees, n. pl. of guis, geese (gees).
Gei, a. peculiar.
Gei, geiun, adv. rather, pretty,
very, peculiarly.
Geid, v.t. guide (giid).
Geid'z aw, intej. guide us all!
Geit, a. mad, out of one's senses.
Geizund, a. shrunken and leaky
(like a dry tub), wrinkled, withered,
Gem, n. game.
Gerd, n. and v.t. guard.
Gerdnur, n. gardener.
Gerdun, n. garden.
Gertun, n. garter.
Gibbul, n. tool.
Giff-gaaf, n. mutual giving.
Giizur, n. mummer, masquerader,
especially on Huggmunay.
Gildin, n. gelding.
Gimmur, n. ewe in her second
year before lambing.
Gin, prep. by.
Gin, conj. if.
Ging, v.i. go (goa); pa. gaid; pa. p.
Gird, n. hoop.
Girdul, n. round iron plate for
baking baanuks and cakes.
Girn, n. (1) gin, snare; (2) grin,
whine, snarl.
Girnul, n. chest for holding oatmeal.

Girs, n. grass.
Girsul, n. gristle (grissul).
Git, vt. get, reach, be called; pa.
gaat; pa. p. goattun.
Glaak, n. gap, dip in a line of
Glaamur, n. charm.
Glaik, n. a giddy, light-headed
Glaikit, n. giddy, light-headed.
Glaur, n. mud.
Glauray, a. muddy.
Gled, n. buzzard.
Glad, a. glad.
Gleg, n. gadfly.
Gleg, a. sharp, quick, clever.
Glei, v.i. look out of corner of eye,
look askance.
Gleib, n. glebe (gleeb).
Gleid a. squinting, off the
straight, taking a wrong
view of things.
Glen, n. narrow valley.
Gless, n. glass; pl. glessiz, spectacles.

Glint, a. and v.i. gleam, glance.
Gloamin, n. twilight.
Glour, n. and v.i. stare.
Glumsh, v.i. pout, frown, look
Glumshay, a. sulky.
Glusk, n. glimpse, glance.
Goad, n. God.
Goalay, n. goalkeeper.
Goamurul, n. stupid fool.
Goaspul, n. Gospel.
Goat, n. goat.
Goattun., v. pa. p. of git, got.
Goo, n. taste.
Goon, n. gown.
Goud, n. gold.
Gouf, n. golf.
Gouk, n. cuckoo, fool.
Gouk's airund, n. fool's errand.
Goulin, a. grumpy.
Gouluk, n. earwig.
Goup, n. gulp.
Goupun, n. hollow made of the
two hands held together.
Goupunfay, n. double handful.
Gouun, n. daisy.
Graanay, n. f.: grandmother.
Graandfaidhur, n. grandfather.
Graap, gruppit, of grupp,
caught, gripped.
Graat, v. pa. of greet, cried, wept.
Graavut, n. cravat.
Graip, n. a short fork with several
Grait, a. great (grait).
Graiv, n. grave (graiv).
Graund, a. grand, splendid.
Graundfaidhur, -midhur, -sun,
daukhtur, grandfather, -mother,
-son, -daughter.
Gray, a. grey (gray).
Graybaird, n. jar of whisky.
Gree, v.i. agree.
Greed, n. greed.
Greedee, a. greedy, avaricious.
Green, v.i. long.
Green, a. green.
Greeshukul, n. hot embers.
Greet, v.i. cry, weep; pa. graat;
pa. p. gruttun.
Greev, n. farm overseer.
Greis, obs. n. young pig.
Gren, n. (1) grain; (2) a bit; (3)
Grenuray, n. granary.
Gress, n. grass.
Gret, n. grate (grait).
Greth, n. soapsuds.
Grind, v.t. grind (griind); pa. and
pa. p. grund.
Grip (in biir), n. drain in cowhouse.

Groasur, n. grocer (groasur).
Groat, n. fourpence.
Groats, n. pl. oats with husks off.
Groazur, n. gooseberry (goozberri).
Groo, n. and v.i. shudder.
Grool, n. gruel.
Groosum., a. frightful, making one
Groul, v.i. growl.
Grous, n. grouse (grous).
Grow, v.i. grow (groa).
Gruip, n. cow-house drain.
Gruipay, n. farm-servant.
Gruls, n. grilse (grils).
Grumf, n. grunt.
Grumfay, n. pig.
Grumlay, a. and pres. part. grumbling.

Grummul, vi. and n. grumble.
Grund, n. ground.
Grund, v. pa. and pa. p. of grind,
Grunstain, n. grindstone (griindstoan).

Grupp, n. and v.t. grip, catch,
grasp; pa. graap,gruppit; pa.p.
Gruppay, a. grasping, avaricious,
Gruppit, v. pa. and pa. p. of grupp,
Grust, n. grist.
Gruttun, v. pa. p. of greet, wept.
Guchur, n. obs. grandfather.
Guddul, v.i. fish with the hands.
Guddul, n. crowbar.
Guff, n. whiff
Guid, a. good.
Guid-faidhur, -midhur, -sun,
-daukhtur, a. father, &c.,
Guid-maan, n. husband.
Guid-weif, n. wife.
Guim, n. gum.
Guis, n. goose (goos); pl. gees.
Guiss, interj. call to a pig.
Guissay, n. pig.
Gullay, n. large butcher's knife.
Gummur, n. ewe in her second
year before lambing.
Gumshun, n. common sense.
Guts, n. pl. bowels.
Gutsay, a. gluttonous.
Guttay-perkay, n. gutta-percha.
Guttur-gaw, n. raw flesh on the
bare foot.
Gutturz, n. pl. mud.
H (as in E. hen, hot, him).
Haabul, n. squabble.
Haad or hud, v.t. hold; pa. huid;
pa.p. haadun.
Haadee, n. haddock.
Haadun, v. pa. p. of haad, held.
Haaf, num. n., a., and adv. half
(haaf); pl. haafs.
Haaflun, n. lad, youth, stripling.
Haaf-oan, a. half tipsy.
Haagus, n. sheep's stomach; a dish
made in a sheep's stomach.
Haak, n. cut; v.t. cut (e. g. with
an axe), chop.
Haakit, a. chapped (e. g. hands in
cold weather).
Haalayday, n. holiday.
Haalayeen, n. All-Hallows Eve,
31st October.
Haalikit, a. romping, hoydenish.
Haam, n. ham.
Haamuk, n. old-fashioned kitchen
Haamur, n. hammer.
Haandee, n. milking-pail
Haang, v. pa. of hing, hung.
Haangd, hung, v. pa. p. of hing,
hanged, hung.
Haank, n. hank.
Haansul, n. a present given in
honour of a first occasion, e.g. on
beginning a New Year; v. take
the first piece of anything, be
first in doing anything lucky.
Haansul-Munday, n. the first
Monday of the New Year.
Haantul, n. a good many, a good
deal, a considerable number, a
Haap, n. and v.i. hop.
Haap, v.t. wrap, cover.
Haapnay, n. halfpenny (haipnay).
Haard, a. hard.
Haard, v. pa. of heer, heard (herd).
Haard haakz, n. clay marble.
Haardlay, adv. hardly.
Haarigulz, n. pl. entrails.
Haark, v.i. whisper, listen.
Haarkin, v.i. listen.
Haarknur, n. listener.
Haarl, n. muck-hoe.
Haarld, a. (of a wall) covered with
a mixture of mortar and small
Haarnz, n. pl. brains.
Haarukh, n. and v. fuss, worry.
Haash, v.t. spoil, make shabby.
Haashay, a. careless of dress,
Haavurz, interj. and adv. halves
Haid, n. head (hed).
Haid, v.t. heed, care, mind.
Haid-stull, n. head-stall.
Haij, n. hedge (hej); haij-hug,
hedgehog; haij-bull, hedgebill.
Haik, n. rack for holding fodder.
Hail, a. and n. whole (hoal); v. heal
Hail, n. hail.
Hailsum, a. wholesome (hoalsum).
Haim, n. home (hoam).
Haimuld, a. home-made, home--
Hain, v.t. save, spare, economize,
take care of.
Hain, v.t. and of hay,
Hainsh, n. haunch (haunsh).
Haip, n. and v.t. heap (heep).
Hair, n. (1) hare; (2) hair.
Hairay wurm, n. caterpillar.
Hairin, n. herring.
Hairs, n. hearse (hers).
Hairs, a. hoarse (hoars).
Hairst, n. harvest.
Hait, n. (1) heat (heet); (2) whit,
a little bit.
Haithun, n. heathen (heedhen).
Haivur, v.i. talk nonsense.
Haivurul, n. one who talks nonsense.

Haivurz, nonsense.
Hauk, n. hawk (hauk).
Haukh, n. holm (hoam); low-lying
flat land near a river.
Haulay, n. hollow (holloa).
Haum-spun, a. homespun.
Haund, n. hand; -oa reit, hand--
Haundee, a. handy.
Haundless, a. handless, clumsy,
Haunul, n. handle.
Haup, n. hip of the rose.
Haur, n. cold wet fog.
Hauz, n. throat.
Haw, n. (1) hall (haul); (2) haw.
Hawthoarn, n. hawthorn.
Hay, v.t. and aux. have (hav); pa.
hed; pa. p. hain.
Hed, v. pa. of hay, had.
Hed, v. pa. of heid, hid.
Hedhur, n. heather (hedher).
Hee, pron. he (hee).
Heekh, a. high (hii).
Heel, n. heel.
Heelund, a. Highland.
Heelundz, n. the Highlands of
Heer, v.t. hear (heer); pa. and pa. p.
Heer, adv. here (heer).
Heer tell oa, v.t. hear of.
Heesht yee, heeshtee, interj. make
Heez, v.t. hoist, lift up.
Heft, n. handle (e. g. of a knife).
Heftay, a. heavily built, stout.
Heftit, a. accustomed (as sheep to
a grazing ground).
Hei, n. hay; -soo, oblong hay--
Heid, v.t. or i. hide; pa. hed; pa. p.
Hekht, n. height (hiit).
Hekhun, v.t. heighten (hiite n).
Hekkul, n. hackle; v.t. dress flax,
Hell, n. hell.
Help, n. help.
Hempay, n. a romp.
Hems, n. pl. hames on a horse's
Hen, n. hen.
Hen-hoos, n. hen-house.
Hennay, v. neg. haven't; pa. hednay.

Hen-pen, n. hen-dung.
Herp, n. harp.
Herray, n. harrow (harroa).
Herray, v.t. harry.
Herrum, n. and v.t. harm.
Hert, n. heart.
Herth, n. hearth (haarth).
Hesp, n. hank of yarn.
Het, a. hot.
Het, v. pa. of hit, hit.
Hev, v.t. and aux. have (see hay).
Hez, v. aux. 3rd pers. sing. of hay,
has (haz).
Hiddlin, a. secret, underhand.
Hiddun, v. pa. p. of heid, hidden.
Hii, interj. come to left! (to a
Hiiz, v.i. hie (hii), make for a place,
go along with some object in
Him, pron. obj. of hee, him.
Hindur, a. the one behind; sup.
Hindur-end, n. end, last few days.
Hung, v.t. and i. hang ; pa. haang,
pa. p. haangd, hung.
Hingurz, n. hangers.
Hinmust, a. sup. of hindur.
Hinnur, a. hinder.
Hird, n. herd, shepherd, cowherd;
v.t. herd, look after sheep or
cattle, guard, protect from:
hirdin sheep, hirdin crawz.
Hit, v. t. hit; pa. het; pa. p. hittun.
Hittun, v. pa. p. of hit, hit.
Hiz, pron. us, we.
Hizzee, n. f. girl.
Hizzul, n. hazel (haizel).
Hoabay, n. hobby (hobbi).
Hoach-poach, n. broth made with
several kinds of vegetables.
Hoag, n., m. or f. first-winter
Hoakh, n. hock of an animal, ham
of a man.
Hoal, n. hole (hoal).
Hoaliday, n. holiday.
Hoallay, n. holly.
Hoarn, n. horn.
Hoars, n. horse (hors); pl. hoars.
Hoars-shuin, n. pl. horseshoes.
Hoast, n. and v. i. cough.
Hoo, adv. how (how).
Hoodee craw, n. hooded crow.
Hoodit stook, n. shock of corn.
Hook, n. hook.
Hoolay, interj. slowly, gently.
Hoolut, n. owl (oul); v.t. hen--
Hoolutit, a. henpecked.
Hooray, interj. hurrah! (hooray).
Hoos, n. house (hous).
Hoots, toots, interj. Tuts! Oh!
Houdee, n. midwife.
Houdul, v.i. huddle, hurry-scurry
in a crowd, like ants or rabbits.
Houf, n. haunt.
Houk, v.t. dig
Houp, n. and v.i. hope (hoap).
Houzul, n. back of an axe.
How, n. and v.t. hoe (hoa).
How, n. hollow (holloa).
Hree, num. a. slurred for three.
Hubeekee, interj. cry given when
one throws anything to be scrambled
Hud, v.t. and i. hold (hoald),
Huddee craw, n. hooded crow.
Huddin, n. holding (hoalding),
Hudhur, v.i. do a thing in a
slovenly manner.
Hud up, interj. go faster (to a
Hugg, n., m. or f a sheep in its
first winter.
Hugg, n. (1) distance-score in curling;
(2) a stone not over the
Huggmunay, n. New Year's Eve,
31st December.
Hugguray, a. wrinkled (of clothes),
Huggurz, n. pl. footless stockings.
Huid, n. hood.
Huid, v. pa. of haad, held.
Huif, n. hoof.
Hull, n. husk, skin, pod, shell; v.t.
shell (e.g. peas).
Huilay, intej. gently, slowly.
Hull, n. hill.
Hullay, a. hilly.
Hum, pron. obj. of hee, him.
Hummul, v.t. knock awns off bair
or barley.
Hundur, nuns. hundred.
Hundur, v.t. hinder, prevent.
Hundurwekht, n. hundredweight
Hung-ray, a. hungry.
Hung-ur, n. hunger (hungger).
Hunkurz, n. pl. hams.
Hunnay, n. honey (hunnay).
Hunt, v.t. hunt.
Hup, n. hip.
Hup-pooch, a. hip-pocket.
Hur, pron. poss. and obj. of shee,
Hurdee, n. buttock.
Hurl, n. drive in a wheeled vehicle;
v.t. wheel.
Hurlay, n. toy barrow.
Hurl-baaray, n. wheelbarrow.
Hurpul, v.i. limp.
Hurray, n. scolding.
Hursul, v.i. move along in a sitting,
crouching, or lying posture, move
gently along; hursul yont, move
Hursul, n. flock of sheep.
Hurt, v.t. hurt.
Hurz, pron. poss. hers (herz).
Hustray, n. history.
Hut, pron. neut. it.
Huz, pron, we, us.
Huzzee, n, a girl (used contemptuously),
a romp.
Hw; see separate letter.
Hyookh, n. hollow with steep
sides, pit.
Hyookh, v.t. trench (turnips, &c.).
Hyuk, n. sickle.
Hw (both h and w distinctly
Hwaal, n. whale (wail).
Hwaal-eil, n. whale-oil.
Hwaan, int. and rel. adv. when (wen).
Hwaang, n. chunk, big piece.
Hwaat, int, and rel. pron. what
(wot); adv. how.
Hwaat fur, int, and rel. adv. why
Hwaatnay, int, and rel, a. what,
which, what sort of.
Hwaat wei, int. and rel. adv. why
Hwaup, n. curlew.
Hwaur, int, and rel. adv. where
Hwauzul, v.i. wheeze (weez).
Hwaw, int, and rel. pron. who (hoo).
Hwaw'z, int. and rel. pron. whose
Hweel, n. wheel (weel).
Hween, a. few.
Hwei, conj. why.
Hweil, n. while (weil), time.
Hweilz, adv. sometimes.
Hweit, a. white (weit).
Hweit, n. wheat (weet).
Hweit eirun, n. tin.
Hweit-ersay, n. a kind of humblebee.

Hweitnin, n. whitening, white
Hweit-puddin, n. oatmeal sausage.
Hwii, n. whey (way).
Hwii-bird, n. a wood-wren.
Hwin, conj. when (wen).
Hwug, n. Whig (wig).
Hwulp, n. whelp (welp), pup.
Hwummul, v.t. turn upside down,
overturn, capsize.
Hwun, n. whin, gorse, furze.
Hwunstain, n. whinstone, trap--

Hwup, n. whip (wip).
Hwup-dhe-caat, n. itinerant
tailor; v.i. to go on rounds, as an
itinerant tailor.
Hwuskay, a. whisky (wiski).
Hwuskur, n. whisker (wisker).
Hwussul, n. and v.i. whistle (wissel).
Hwut, rel. pron. and adv. what
Hwutrik, n. weasel.
Hwuttsunday, n. Whit-Sunday
term, 15th May.
Hwuttul bailin, n. whitlow.
I (as in E. in, pit, dish).
Ii (as in E. I, eye, my).
I', prep. in.
Idhur, a. other (udher).
If, conj. if.
Igg, n. egg.
Ii, pron. I.
Ii, interj. yes.
Iiday, n. idea (iideea).
Iivay, n. ivy (iivi).
Impidunt, a. impudent.
In, adv. and prep. in.
Incrainz, v.t. boil to nothing.
Incumin, a. coming-in, future.
Infuiz, v.t. infuse (make) tea.
Infurmuray, n. infirmary.
Ing-in, n. onion (unyan).
Ing-lish, a. English (Ingglish).
Ing-lund, n. England (Ingland).
Ing-ul, n. fireplace.
Ing-ul-nyuk, n. corner by the fireplace.

Ing-ul-seid, n. fireside.
Ink, n. ink.
Insh, n. inch (insh).
Intaak, a. intact.
Intay, prep. into (intoo).
Inteitult, a. entitled, deserving of.
Intul, prep. into (intoo).
Invintur, n. inventory.
Inyukh, adv. enough (enuff).
It, pron. it.
Its, pron. poss. its.
Ivvur, adv. ever.
Ixcuiz, v.t. excuse (exkyooz).
Iz, v. aux. 3rd pers. sing. is (iz).
J (as in E. jam, judge).
Jaag, v.t. prick.
Jaam, n. jam.
Jaanwur, n. January.
Jaikut, n. jacket.
Jalooz, v.i. suspect.
Jaud, n.f. jade.
Jaup, v.t. splash, bespatter; n.
Jaw, n. splash.
Jaw-boax, n. sink.
Jaw-hoal, n. cess-pool.
Jeel, v.i. set in a jelly.
Jeelee, n. jelly.
Jeelee-pan, n. preserving-pan.
Jeenee, n.f. dim. of Jane.
Jeil, n. jail.
Jein, v.t. join.
Jeint, n. joint.
Jeinur, n. joiner, carpenter.
Jeis, n. juice (joos).
Jekk, n. Jack, the knave in cards,
the mark at bowls.
Jennay, Jessay, n.f. dim. of Janet.
Jennaylaanglegz, n. daddy-longlegs.

Jeroboam, n. whisky-decanter.
Jesp, n. a gap in the woof, flaw.
Jigot, n. hindquarter of mutton.
Jimp, a. slender, scanty, short.
Jimmay, n. m. dim. of James.
Jink, v.t. dodge, elude.
Joa, n. sweetheart, dear.
Joab, n. job, difficulty.
Joak, n. and v.i. joke (joak).
Joakay, n. dim. of John.
Joardee, n. dim. of George.
Joarum, n. a large vessel for holding
Joog, n. jug.
Jook, v.i. duck, bend the head or
Jookuray-paukuray, n. trickery,
Joolay, n. July (Joolii).
Juggz, n. pl. pillory.
Juin, n. June (Joon).
Juist, adv. just, only.
Juitray, a. odd, miscellaneous.
Juitul, v.i. run over (of a pot).
Juitur, v.i. idle, waste time.
Jull, n. gill, a measure of liquid.
Jull-stoup, n. a vessel containing
a gill.
Jummul, v.t. muddy.
Jummul, v.t. jumble.
Jundee, v.t. jostle, jog,
Junt, n. a large piece, chunk.
Jupsay, n. gipsy.
K (as in E. kick). See also C.
Kail, n. curly-headed cabbage,
Kail-laidul, n. tadpole.
Kail-runt, n. stump of cabbage or
Kail-yaird, n. cottage garden.
Kaim, n. comb (koam).
Kebbuk, n. cheese.
Kee, n. key (kee).
Keek, n. peep, glimpse, glance; v.i.
peep, glance.
Keekh, interj. an exclamation of
Keel, n. red ochre.
Keeng, n. king.
Keep, v.t. keep; pa. and pa. p.
Keep fay, v. resist, avoid,.
Keepit, v. pa. and pa. p. of keep,
Keepur, n. gamekeeper.
Kein, n. coin.
Keind, n. and a. kind (kiind).
Keind oa, kein oa, adv. half, as it
were, somewhat, rather.
Keit, n. (1) quoit (koit); (2) protruding
Kej, n. cage (caij).
Kelt, n. a foul fish.
Ken, v.t. know (noa); pa. and pa.p.
Kennin, n. knowledge.
Kennul, v.t. kindle.
Kenspekul, a. easily recognizable.
Kent, v. pa. and pa. p. of ken,
knew (nyoo), known (noan).
Kep, v.t. catch, intercept.
Kep, n. cap.
Kerb, n. kerb.
Kerd, n. card (caard).
Kerraid, a. unhinged, obsessed,
preoccupied, full of, above oneself.

Kerraiur, n. carrier.
Kerray, v.t. carry.
Kerray oan, v.i, go on (scolding).
Kerruj, n. carriage (carrij).
Kert, n. cart.
Kettul, n. kettle.
Kichin, n. seasoning, any tasty
addition to plain food.
Kichin-fee, n. dripping.
Kul, n. pl. of coo, cow.
Kikk, n. kick; git dhe kikk, be
Kilmaarnuk, n. nightcap.
Kilt, n. kilt.
Kin, n. kin.
Kink-hoast, n. whooping-cough.
Kippur, v.t. cure fish by drying.
Kippurz, dried herring.
Kirk, n. church.
Kirk-greedee, a. fond of going to
Kirk-yaird, n. churchyard.
Kirn, n. churn, harvest-home; v.
Kirnmulk, n. buttermilk.
Kist, n. chest.
Kith, n. kindred.
Kittlin, n. (1) kitten ; (2) tickling.
Kittul, v.t. tickle.
Kittul, a. ticklish, difficult, not
easily managed.
Knee, n. knee (nee).
Kneif, n. knife (niif).
Knoab, n. knob (nob).
Knoak, n. clock, knock (nok).
Knot, n. knot (not).
Koa, v.t. quoth.
Krustul, n. crystal.
Kull, n. kiln.
Kull, v t. kill.
Kummur, n.f. woman.
Kuppay, a. left-handed.
Kuz, conj. because.
Kwaal, num. twelve (twelv).
Kwaw, num. two (too).
Kwintee, num. twenty (twenti).
Kyuk, n. cloak.
L (as in E. love, lily, ill).
Laaft, n. loft, gallery.
Laakh, n. and vi. laugh (at); pa.
luikh; pa.p. luikhun.
Laam, n. lamb (lam).
Laamay, n. little lamb (term of
Laamus, n. Lammas, 1st August.
Laang, v.i. long (also pron. loang).
Laang-ij, n. language (langgwij).
Laap, loupit, v. pa. of loup, leaped.
Laash, n. and v.t. lash.
Laashin, a. pouring (of rain).
Laasikay, n. little girl.
Laast, a. last.
Laat, v.t. let; pa. luit; pa.p.
Laat .oan, v.i. show, admit, reveal,
notice, betray.
Laid, n. (1) lead (led); (2) load;
(3) mill-race.
Laid, v. pa. and pa.p. of lay, laid
Laid, v.t. (1) lead, cart crops from
the field; pa.p. led; (2) load.
Laidul, n. a kind of collecting-box
with a long handle.
Laidund, a. laden.
Laif, n. (1) leaf (leef); (2) loaf, pl.
Laikh, a. low (loa).
Lail, a. leal (leel).
Lain, n. a. and v. (1) being by oneself;
(2) lean (leen).
Lain, v. pa. p. of lii, lain.
Laingth, n. length.
Laird, n. owner, landowner, squire,
Lairn, v. (1) learn; (2) teach; pa.
and pa. p. lairnt.
Laist, a. least (leest).
Lait, a. late (lait).
Laith, a. loath.
Laiun, v. pa.p. of lii, laid (lade).
Laiv, v.t. leave (leev); pa. and pa.p.
Laiv, n. the rest, the remainder.
Laizee, a. lazy (laizi).
Laivruk, n. lark.
Lattern, n. precentor's desk below
the pulpit.
Laud, n. lad, boy.
Laudee, n. boy; dim. of laud.
Lauin, n. reckoning, score.
Laund, n. land.
Laung, a. long.
Laus, n. lass.
Laussay, n. lassie, girl.
Law, n. law; law-plee, law-suit.
Law, n. a round-topped hill.
Lawwur, n. lawyer.
Lay, v. t. leave (leev).
Lay, v.t. lay, ascribe; pa. and pa.p.
Lay, v.i. pa. of lii, lay.
Led, v.t. pa. and pa.p. of laid, led.
Leddee, n.f. lady (laidi).
Ledhur, n. (1) leather (ledher);
(2) ladder.
Lee, n. and v.i. lie (lii).
Leef, adv. willingly.
Leek, n. leek.
Leeshuns, n. licence (liisens).
Leestur, n. salmon-spear.
Leet, n. list of selected candidates.
Leet, v.i. (let on), mention, betray.
Left, v. pa. and pa.p. of laiv, left.
Leggin, n. legging.
Lei, n. lea (lee), old grass-land.
Leif, n. life (liif).
Leik, n. and a. like (liik); adv.
likely, as it were.
Leik, v.t. like (liik).
Leim, n. lime (liim).
Lein, n. line (liin), cord.
Leinz, (1) reins; (2) certificate.

Lend, v.t. lend; pa. and pa.p. lent.
Lerch, n. larch.
Lerj, a. large (laarj).
Lerruk, n. obs. larch.
Levin, n. dough.
Lig, n. leg.
Lii, v.i. lie (lii); pa. lay; pa.p,
Lik, n. lick, blow; v.t. lick, beat.
Likhnin, n. lightning (liitning).
Likht, n. and a. light (liit), match.
Likht, v.t. light (lilt); v.i. alight
pa. and pa.p. likhtit.
Likhts, lungs.
Likhtsum, a. merry, light-hearted,
Lilt, n, melody, cadence, swing of
a tune, happy rhythm; v. sing
Ling-un, n. shoemaker's thread.
Link, n. pot-hook.
Linn, n. rocky pool.
Lint, n. lint.
Lintee, n. linnet.
Lintul, n. lintel, door-post.
Linzay-woolzay, n. linen and wool.
Liv, v.i. live (liv).
Livvur, n. liver.
Loaf-braid, n. bread.
Loak, n. and v.t. lock.
Loakh, n. lake (laik).
Loan, n. lane (lain).
Loang, a. long.
Loard, n. lord.
Loas, v.t. lose (looz); pa. and pa. p.
Loast, v. pa. and pa. p. of loas,
Loat, n. lot.
Loazun, n. lozenge, pane of glass.
Loo, v.t. love (luv).
Look, v.i. look.
Lookin-gless, n. looking-glass.
Loon, n. boy, lad, fellow.
Loondurin, n. a severe beating.
Loos, n. louse (lous).
Loosay aarnut, n. earth-nut.
Loot, v.i. stoop, curtsy.
Loowaarm, a. lukewarm.
Loup, n. and vi. leap, jump,
spring; pa. loupit, laap; pa. p.
Loupin-ill, n. a disease of sheep.
Loupit, v. pa. and pa.p. of loup,
Lous, n. loose (loos).
Louz, v.t. loosen, unfasten, unyoke.
Low, n. flame.
Lud, n. lid.
Lud ee tnee, n. knee-cap.
Luft, n. sky.
Luft, n. and v.t. lift, take away,
pick up, steal, collect (rents)
pa. and pa. p. luftit.
Lug, n. ear.
Luggee, n. a wooden cup with one
handle, wooden milk-pail.
Luif, n. palm of the hand.
Luikh, of laakh, laughed.
Luim, n. loom.
Luit, v. pa. of laat, let.
Luittun, v. pa. p. of laat, let.
Luj, n. lodge (loj).
Lukkay, n. woman, especially an
elderly woman.
Lullay-aik, n. lilac.
Lum, n. chimney.
Lum-haat, n. chimney-pot hat.
Lum-haid, n. mantelpiece.
Lummur, n.f. wild bad woman.
Lunnin, n. linen.
Lup, n. lip.
Luppay, n. a small measure of
grain = ¼ peck.
Luppun, v.i. trust (with oan or
Lush, v.i. listen (lisn).
Lust, v.i. enlist.
Luth, v.t. wring a hen's neck,
break one's neck.
Luttul, a. little.
Luttul-bookit, a. thin, of little
bulk, shrunken.
Luv, n. love (luv).
Luv-daarg, n. a day's work given
without payment.
M (as in E. men, ham, maim).
'M, slurred for aam, am.
Maa, pron. poss. my (mii).
Maad, a. mad, furiously angry.
Maagee, dim. of Margaret.
Maagutay, a. capricious.
Maak, v.t. make (maik); pa. and
pa. p. maid.
Maamay, n. mother.
Maan, n. man, husband.
Maan, v. aux. must; pa. buid.
Maangulz, n. mangel-wurzels.
Maans, n. manse (mans), minister's
Maant, v. and n. stutter.
Maapay, n. tame rabbit; intej.
call to rabbit.
Maaray, n. match, equal, like.
Maarkut, n. market.
Maarld, a. mottled, variegated in
Magazeen, n. magazine.
Maid, v. pa. p. of maik, made
Maidsun, n. medicine.
Maidun, n. the last corn cut on a
Maik, n. a halfpenny (haipnay).
Mail, n. meal (meel), especially oatmeal
or flour.
Mailay, a. mixed or covered with
Mailay drink, n. oatmeal and
Mailay puddin, n. oatmeal sausage.
Maimray, n. memory.
Main, n. (1) mane (main); (2) moan.
Main, v.i. moan.
Mainz, n. pl. home farm.
Mair, n. mare (mair).
Mair, a. more (moar).
Mairaygoald, n. marigold.
Maist, a. most (moast).
Maisun, n. mason (maisun).
Mait, n. meat (meet), food in
general; v.t. provide food for.
Maittur, n. and v. matter.
Maivee, n. thrush.
Maivis, n. thrush.
Masáacur, n. massacre.
Masel, ref. pron. myself.
Matréss, n. mattress.
Maukh, n. maggot.
Maukhay, a. maggoty, muggy,
Maukhlus, a. incapable of moving.
Maukin, n. hare, rabbit.
Maut, n. malt (mault).
Maw, n. (1) mother; (2) gull.
Mebbee, adv. may be, perhaps.
Mee, pron. me, I.
Meedee, n. meadow (medoa)
Meeluks, n. crumbs.
Meen, v.t. mean (meen); pa. and
pa. p. meent.
Meenee, n. dim. of Williamina.
Meenut, n. minute (minit).
Meeshmaash, n. medley.
Meet, v.t. meet; pa. and pa. p. met.
Meggistay mee, interj. exclamation
of surprise.
Mei, n. May.
Meil, n. mile (miil).
Mein, a. mine (miin).
Meind, v.t. mind (miind); v.i. remember
(with oa).
Meinz, a. mine (miin).
Meis, of moos, mice (miis).
Meldur, n. the quantity of meal
ground at one time; a milling.
Mall, n. mallet.
Men, of maan, men.
Mend, v.t. mend; pa. and pa. p.
Mennurz, n. pl. manners.
Mens, n. reputation for hospitality.
Merch, n. (1) March; (2) boundary,
Merch, v.i. (1) march; (2) adjoin.
Merraid, v. pa. and pa. p. of merray,
Merray, v.t. marry; pa. and pa. p.
merraid; merray oan, marry to.
Mert, n. a cow or bullock to be
killed at Martinmas for winter
Mertimus, n. Martinmas: 11th of
November in banking; 28th of
November for removals.
Mertin, n. martin.
Mestur, n. master, Mr. (mistur).
Mestur-tree, n. bar combining
action of swingle-trees.
Met, v., pa. and pa. p. of meet,
Mettul, n. metal, broken stones for
making a road.
Mettur, a. matter.
Middul, n. middle; v.t. meddle
Middun, n. dung-heap, rubbishheap.

Midhur, n. f. mother (mudher)
-tung, mother-tongue.
Mii, a. my (mii).
Mikht, n. and v. might (miit).
Mikhtay, a. and adv. mighty
Mikhulmus, n. Michaelmas, 29th
Ministur, n. minister, clergyman.
Minnin, n. minnow (minnoa).
Mins coalups, n. minced (fresh)
Miscaw, v.t. slander, abuse.
Misheen, n. machine (masheen),
trap, conveyance.
Misluppun, v.t. neglect.
Mittun, mitt, n. glove with thumb
but no fingers.
Mix, v.t. mix.
Mixtay-maaxtay, n. a confused
Mixtur, n. mixture (mixtyoor).
Mizulz, n. measles.
Moadurn, a. modern.
Moal, n. mole (moal).
Moalaygraant, v.i. whine, complain.

Moanay, a. many (menni).
Moanay-pliiz, n. pl. intestines.
Moarn, n. morrow (morroa).
Moar-claith, n. funeral pall.
Moarnin, n. morning.
Moas, n. bog, marsh, marshy pool.
Moath, n. moth.
Mooch, v.t. pilfer, steal.
Moochur, n. loafer, pilferer.
Moos, a. mouse (mous); pl. meis.
Mooswub, n. cobweb, spider's
web, gossamer.
Mootaash, n.moustache (moostash).
Mooth, n. mouth; p1. mooths.
Moudeewurt, n. mole (moal).
Much, n. a woman's cap.
Muchkin, n. a measure of capacity
= 4 gills.
Mud, n. small nail in heel of shoe.
Mug, n. mouth, face.
Muin, n. moon.
Muir, n. moor.
Muirland, a. belonging to the
Muizik, n. music (myoozik).
Muj, n. midge (mij).
Mukk, n. mire, liquid dung.
Mukkul, a. big, large, much; adv.
Mulk, n. and v.t. milk.
Mulk-bouay, n. wooden pail for
milk (mij).
Mull, n. mill.
Mull-daam, n. mill-dam.
Mulld poartur, n. mulled porter.
Mullsay, n. milk-strainer.
Mullur, n. miller.
Mumpin, verbal n. mumbling.
Mun, interj. slurred for maan.
Mungo-weezul, n. mangel-wurzel.
Munnunday, n. Monday (Munday).
Munth, n. month (munth).
Muntin, n. mounting, trimming,
bride's trousseau.
Murkay, a. dark.
Murl, v.t. crumble.
Murlinz, murlikinz, n. pl. crumbs.
Murn, v.i. mourn (moarn).
Murninz, n. pl. mourning.
Murray, a. merry, slightly intoxicated.

Murraymun, n. clown at a circus.
Muscheef, n. mischief (misschif).
Musdoot, v.t, doubt (dout).
Mushaantur, n. accident.
Muss, n. and v.t. miss.
Must, n. mist, fog.
Mustaak, n. and v. mistake.
Mustris, n.f. mistress, Mrs. (missiz).
Muttun, n. mutton.
N (as in E. none, not, pen).
Naa, intej. no (noa).
Naap-bain, bone of the knee.
Naibuddee, n. nobody (noabuddi).
Naidhur, conj. neither (needher).
Naig, n. nag, pony.
Naigur, n. nigger, negro.
Nail, n. nail (nail).
Naim, n. name (naim).
Nain, pron. none (nun), neither.
Naipray, n. household linen.
Naipyin, n. small woven cloth with
fringe, used as a shawl.
Nair, adv. never.
Nair-dui-weel, n. ne'er-do-well, a
hopeless character.
Nairzday, n. New Year's Day
Nait, a. neat (neet).
Naithing, n. nothing (nuthing).
Naitrul, a. natural (nattyooral).
Naitul, n. nettle.
Naitur, n. nature (naityoor).
Nay, a. no (noa).
Nay, adv. (after aux. verbs), not.
Neb, n. nose, beak, bill.
Ned, v.t. knead (need).
Neebur, n. neighbour (naibor).
Need, n., v.i. and t. need, want.
Needcessitay, n. necessity.
Needul, n. needle.
Neefur, v.t. barter, swop, exchange.
Neel, v. i. kneel (neel); pa. and pa.p.
Neep, n. turnip.
Neepkin, n. pocket-handkerchief.
Neer, adv. and prep. near (neer).
Neerhaund, a. and adv. near (neer).
Nees, n.f. niece (nees).
Neest, a. next, nearest.
Neez, v. and n. sneeze.
Neffay, n. nephew (nevyoo).
Nein, num. nine (niin).
Neint, num, a. ninth (niinth).
Neintay, num. ninety (niintay).
Neinteen, num. nineteen (niinteen).

Neis, a. particular.
Nelt, v. pa. and pa. p. of neel,
knelt (nelt).
Nerray, a. narrow (narroa).
Nest, n. nest.
Nestay, a. nasty (naastay).
Netturcup, n. spider.
Nev, n. fist.
Nevfay, n. fist-full.
Nik, v.t. nab.
Nik, n. police-cells.
Nikht, n. night (niit).
Nikhtkep, n. night-cap.
Nikhur, n. neigh (nay).
Nikkurz, knickerbockers.
Nivvur, adv. never.
Nixt, adv. and prep. next.
Noa, adv. not.
Noab, n. knob (nob).
Noad, v.i. nod.
Noak, n. clock.
Noakht, n. nought (naut).
Noakhtay, a. unreliable.
Noarth, a. north.
Noat, n. note (noat), a pound-note.
Noaz, n. nose (noaz).
Noazbaand, n. nose-band.
Noo, adv. now (now).
Nooz un dhaanz, adv. now and
Nor, conj. nor, than.
Not, n. knot (not).
Nout, n. bullock; pl. nout.
Novembur, n. November.
Now, n. knoll (noal), hillock.
Nukkul, n. knuckle (nukkel).
Nup, v.t. nip, pinch.
Nuppay, a. keen.
Nuppurz, pincers.
Nut, n. nut.
Nuttin, n. tape (knitting).
Nyoo, a. new (nyoo).
Nyoo-cawd, a. newly churned
Nyoo-faanguld, a. novel, new--
Nyuk, n. corner, nook.
O (as in E. on, hot, shop).
Oa (as in E. road, owe, go).
Oo (as in E. moon, fool, food).
Ou (as in E. our, out, how).
Oa, interj. oh! (oa).
Oa, prep. of (ov).
Oa, n. obs. grandchild.
Oabjik, n. object.
Oa'd, slurred for oa hut, of it (ov it),
used for 'some'.
Oadz, n. pl. odds (oddz), difference.
Oafis, n. office (offis).
Oafun, adv. often (offen).
Oafur, n. and v.t. offer.
Oakht, n. aught (aut), anything.
Oakur, n. ochre.
Oan, prep. on.
Oanay, a. any (eni); oanaybuddee,
anybody; oanaything, anything;
oanaygait, oanaywei, any way,
at any rate, anyhow.
Oancaanay, a. unnatural, supernatural.

Oan-ding, n. beating rain or
Oangaunz, on-goings, goings
Oapeenyun, n. opinion.
Oapun, a. and v.t. open (oapen).
Oar, n. oar.
Oaray, a. odd; oaraymun, n. odd
Oarchurd, n. orchard.
Oardnur, a. ordinary; n. usual
state of body or mind, or of
Oareejnul, a. original (orijinul).
Oarnamints, ornaments.
Oarunj, n. orange (oranj).
Oarunj-coatun, n. orange-peel.
Oatur, n. otter.
Oavun, n. oven (uven).
Oax, n. ox; pl. oaxun.
Oaxee, n. ox-eye, titmouse.
Oaxtur, n. arm-pit; v.t. take under
the arm.
Oaxtur-pooch, n. breast-pocket,
pocket under the arm.
Obleej, v.t. oblige (obliij).
Octoabur, n. October.
On, prep. on.
Oo, n. wool.
Oo, v.t. woo.
Oor, n. hour (our).
Oor, poss. pron. our.
Oorselz, pron. ourselves.
Oorz, poss. pron. ours (ourz).
Oos, pron. us.
Oot, prep. and adv. out.
Ootbii, adv. outside, out of doors.
Ootcum, n. outcome, issue, result,
Ootgaang, n. outgo, expenditure.
Oour, n. wooer.
Or, conj. (1) or; (2) until, before,
ere (air); (3) prep. till.
Our, prep, and adv. over (oaver),
Ourcum, n. chorus of song, refrain.
Ow, interj. oh! (oa).
P (as in E. pup, pen, cap).
Paand, n. valance for a bed.
Paar, n. young salmon.
Paarich, n. pl. porridge, breakfast.
Paark, n. park.
Paarlay, n. cake of gingerbread.
Paartun, n. crab.
Paat, n. pot.
Paat, v. pa. of putt, put (poot).
Paat-broad, wooden pot-lid.
Paiks, licking.
Pail, n. pail.
Pailin, n. paling, wooden fence.
Pain, n. (1) pane (pain); (2) pain.
Pair, n. (1) pear (pair); (2) pair.
Pairl, n. pearl (perl).
Pais, n. peace (pees).
Pait, n. peat (peet).
Pait, n. dim. of Peter.
Paith, n. path, pass between
Paitrik, n. partridge.
Paukay, a. sly, tricky, shrewd.
Paulay, n. deformed.
Paumay, n. a stroke on the
Paw, n. father.
Peddlur, n. pedlar, packman,
Pee, n. pea ( pee).
Peeaanay, n. piano (pyanoa).
Peenee, n. pinafore.
Peeree, n. (1) spinning top; (2)
treacle beer.
Pees, n. piece (pees), bread, &c.,
snack; jeelee pees, bread and
Peetee, n. pity.
Peeweep, peezweep, n. lapwing.
Peez-baanuk, n. thick cake of
Peez-stray, n. pease-straw.
Pei, v.t. pay; pa. and pa. p. peid.
Peid, v. pa. and pa.p. of pei,
Peik, n. pike (piik).
Peik, v.t. peck, lick.
Peikin, n. licking.
Peint, n. and v.i. (1) point; (2) pint
Peintit, a. exact (pointed).
Peip, n. pipe (piip); peips, bagpipes.

Peip-up, v.t. goffer.
Pekh, n. and v.i. pant.
Pekk, n. peck, a measure of
Pen, n. dung of fowls.
Pendikul, n. small piece of ground,
Pennay, n. penny; pl. puny.
Pent, n. and v.t. paint.
Pentur, n. painter.
Peppur, n. pepper.
Perch, n. perch.
Perish, n. parish.
Pertay, n. party.
Pestur, n. pastern.
Peticoat, n. petticoat.
Phiss, interj. sound used to drive a
cat away.
Pich un toas, n. pitch and toss.
Pig, n. pig; a. earthenware.
Pigmun, n. seller of crockery.
Pigz, crockery.
Pii, n. pie (pii).
Piiut, n. magpie.
Pik, n. and v. pick.
Pik, n. pitch.
Piktur, n. picture (pictyoor).
Pitaarnay, n. seagull.
Piz, n. sing. and pl. pea, peas, pease,
e.g. piz-baanuk, piz-broaz, piz--
coad, piz-mail, piz-wusp.
Plaantin, n. plantation.
Plaash, n. splash, heavy fall of
Plaid, n. plaid (plad).
Plais, n. place (plais).
Plait, n. plate (plait).
Plait, v.t. plait (plat).
Plait-raak, n. plate-rack.
Plaiz, v.t. please.
Play, v.t. play.
Plen, a. plain.
Plenishin, n. furniture, equipment.

Plenstainz, n. pl. pavement.
Plestur, n. plaster, botch.
Plii, n. fold (foald), twist.
Pliiurz, n. pincers.
Ploi, n. frolic, expedition for
amusement, outing, bit of fun.
Ploo, n. plough (plow).
Ploomun, n. ploughman.
Ploom, n. plum.
Plooroa, n. pleura-pneumonia.
Plout, n. heavy fall of rain,
especially when accompanied by
Pluitur, v.i. dawdle, waste time,
potter about.
Plunk, n., v.t., and adv. plump.
Pluskay, n. trick.
Pluvur, n. plover (pluver).
Poach, n. pound, stamp, trample
muddy ground (like cattle).
Poachur, n. stick for pounding
Poak, n. bag, sack; poakmun,
Poak-maarkit, a. marked with
Poakur, n. poker.
Poalisayz, n. pl. land attached
to a mansion-house, generally
encircled by a; private
Poalismun, n. policeman (poleesman).

Poalkay, n. loose jacket.
Poand, n. pond.
Poapay, n. poppy.
Poark, n. pork.
Poartur, n. porter.
Poast-oafis, n. post-office.
Poasubul, a. possible.
Poax, smallpox.
Poiut, n. poet (poaet).
Poiutray, n. poetry.
Poo, v.t. pull (pool); pa. and pa.p.
Pooch, n. pocket.
Pood, v. pa. and pa. p. of poo,
pulled (poold).
Poodhur, n. powder (poudur).
Poopit, n. pulpit (poolpit).
Poor, n. power; v. pour (poar).
Pooree, n. a jug with a spout.
Poossay, n. pussy, cat.
Pootray, n. poultry (poaltri).
Poozhun, n. poison (poizon).
Pound, n. pound in money.
Pounee, n. pony (poani).
Pow, n. poll (poal), the hair of the
Pozeeshun, n. position (pozishun).
Praishus, n. precious (preshus).
Praizunt, n. present (prezent).
Pree, v.t. taste.
Preech, v.i. and t. preach (preech).
Preen, n. pin.
Preen-coad, n. pin-cushion: a
bood preen, a bent pin.
Press, n. press, cupboard.
Prig, v.i. haggle, importune, insist.
Prizentur, n. precentor, who leads
the singing in church.
Proamus, n. and v.t. promise
Proapurtay, n. property.
Proavust, n. provost, chief magistrate
of a town.
Proveidin, n. clothes, &c., provided
by a girl in view of her
possible marriage.
Pruif, n. proof.
Pruiv, v.t. prove (proov).
Puddee, n. pigeon.
Puddee-doo, n. tame pigeon.
Puddin, n. pudding (pooding), sausage.

Pudduk, n. frog.
Pudduk-pounee, n. tadpole.
Pudduk-stuil, n. toadstool.
Puggee, n. monkey.
Puiflus, a. without pith or strength.
Puir, a. poor.
Puir buddee, n. a poor person (a
common interjection).
Puirzhoos, n. workhouse.
Puittun, v. pa p. of putt, put
Pukkul, n. little, a small quantity
or number.
Pullay, n. (1) pulley (poolay); (2)
pillow (pilloa).
Pullyunz, n. pl. old clothes, rags.
Pump, n. pump.
Pun, n. pin
Pund, n. a pound in weight.
Puns, n. pl. of pennay after a
Pup, n. pup.
Purfaishun, n. profession.
Purjink, a. precise, particular.
Purl, n. dung of sheep, rabbit, or
Purn, n. reel.
Purnay, n. a filler of purnz.
Purnikitay, a. fussy about trifles,
Purteeklur, a. particular.
Purtend, v.i. pretend.
Pustul, n. pistol.
Puth, n. pith.
Putt, n. pit.
Putt, v.t. put (poot); pa. paat;
pa. p. puittun; putt awaw, v.t.
send, dismiss; putt dhe stain,
throw the puttin--
Puttin-stain, n. the heavy stone
used for puttin, a competition as
to who can throw a heavy weight
Pyoo, n. pew (pyoo).
Pyookit, a. peaked, pinched, thin--
Qu ( = kw), as in E. queen.
Quaak, v. (1) quake (quaik)
(2) quack (quak).
Quaantitay, n. quantity (quontiti).
Quaarray, n. quarry.
Quaarul, v. find fault with, challenge.

Quaat oa, a. rid of.
Quaat, v. pa. and pa. p. of quit,
Quaw, num. two (too).
Queen, n.f. queen.
Queer, a. queer.
Quei, n.f. heifer.
Quein, n.f. girl
Queit, a. quiet.
Quel, num. twelve.
Quikkunz, n. a grass with long
Quit, vi. rid ; pa. arid pa.p. quaat.
Quuntee, num. twenty.
R (as in E. rise, run
pronounced with a distinct trill).
'R, slurred for ur, are (aar).
Raaftur, n. rafter.
Raak, n. wreck, wreckage; v.
wreck, tie a latch so that the
door will not open.
Raakul, a. sturdy.
Raam-staam, a. hasty, clumsy,
Raan, n. wren (ren).
Raan, v. pa. of rin, ran.
Raandee, n.f. scolding woman.
Raang, a. wrong (rong).
Raang, v. pa. of ring, rang.
Raant, v.i. make noisy mirth;
raantin kirn, n. harvest-home.
Raap, v.i. rap; pa. and pa. p,
Raash, n. rush.
Raashay, a. made of rushes.
Raashay week, n. rush wick.
Raasp, n. raspberry (razberri).
Raat, n. wart.
Raax, v.t. stretch, overstrain, reach
Raid, v.t. and i., pa. of reid, rode.
Raijmunt, n. regiment.
Raik, n. (1) rake (raik); (2)
roamer; (3) a turn.
Raik, v.i. roam about.
Rail, a. real (reeal); adv. really,
very, quite.
Raim, n. cream (creem); v.t. skim
Raim croudee, n. half-fermented
cream or buttermilk with oatmeal
Rain, n. harping on a grievance.
Raip, n. rope (reap).
Rais, n. a turn in going for something.

Raith, n. ghost.
Raiz, v. pa. of reiz, rose (roaz).
Raiz, v.i. turn excitedly (on any
Raizun, n. reason (reezon).
Raukhun, n. shepherd's plaid.
Raun, n. roe of a fish.
Rauzur, n. razor (raizor).
Raw, n. row (roa).
Raw, a. raw.
Red, v. pa. of read, read (red).
Red-ersay, n. a kind of humble--
Red laund, n. ploughed land.
Redd, n. refuse, rubbish, spawn.
Redd, redd up, v.t. sort, arrange,
put in order, tidy, clear up; pa.
and pa.p. redd up.
Reddee, a. ready.
Reddin-caim, n. comb.
Reed, n. enclosed court for cattle.
Reed, v.t. read (reed); pa. red;
pa.p. riddun.
Reek, n. and v.i. smoke.
Reekee, a. smoky.
Reel, n. (1) reel; (2) a dance,
Reeshul, v.i. rustle, scrape, rummage;
n. resounding blow.
Reeth, n. snowdrift.
Reevin, a. high, strong (of wind).
Reglur, a. regular (regyoolar).
Reid, v.i. and t. ride (riid); pa.
raid; pa.p. riddun.
Reif, a. plentiful.
Reim, n. hoar-frost.
Reip, a. ripe (riip).
Reip, v.t. rifle (a pocket), clear out.
Reis, n. twig, brushwood.
Reit, v.t. write (riit); pa. raat;
pa. p. ruttun.
Reis, v.i. rise (riiz); pa. raiz;
pa. p. rizun.
Ren, n. (1) rain; (2) rein (rain); v.i.
Rennay, a. rainy.
Rennay, n. wren (ren).
Rid, a. red.
Riddlinz, n. pl. siftings.
Riddul, n. sieve (siv).
Riddul, v. sift.
Riddun,v. pa. p. of reed, read (red).
Rifaar, v.t. and i. defer.
Rifuiz, v.t. refuse (refyooz).
Rig, n. (1) ridge in a field (rij);
(2) row, disturbance, rough joke,
Rig, v.t. chaff, rag, joke, make
fun of.
Riggin, n. ridge of a building.
Rigwuddee, n. the rope or chain
over the saddle of a horse that
bears the weight of the cart on
its back.
Rii, n. rye (rii).
Rii-gress, n. rye-grass
Riiv, v.t. burst, split, tear; pa.
raiv; pa. p. rivvun.
Rikht, a. right (riit), real.
Rikht, n. wright (riit).
Rikht, adv. quite (kwiit).
Rikkul, n. loose heap.
Rin, v.i. run; pa. raan; pa. p.
Ring, n. (1) ring; (2) blow.
Ring, v.t. ring; pa. raang; pa.p.
Ring, v.t. wring (ring).
Ringur, n. wringer (ringer),
Rink, n. a set of four a side at
curling; the length of ice on
which a game is played.
Rizun, v. pa.p. of reiz, risen
Rizun, a. (of clothes), half dried
in the open air.
Rizzur, n. currant.
Roa, n. roe-deer.
Roabin, n. robin.
Road, n. road, way.
Roadun, n. rowan, mountain-ash.
Roak, n. rock.
Roakht, v. pa. and pa. p. of wurk,
wrought (raut).
n. rolling-pin.
Roan, n. gutter under eaves.
Roar, n. roar, a shout in passing.
Roat, v.i. rot; pa. roatit; pa.p.
Roat, v. pa. of reit, wrote (roat).
Roatit, v. pa. of roat, rotted.
Roatun, v. pa. p. of roat, rotted.
Roatun, n. rat.
Roaz, n. (1) rose; (2) erysipelas.
Roazut, n. resin.
Roid, a. wild, mischievous.
Roo, v.t. rue (roo).
Rooburt, n. rhubarb (roobarb).
Rookay, a. misty.
Room, n. room.
Roomatizm, n. rheumatism (roomatizim).

Roond, a., adv., and prep. round.
Rooshyun, n. Russian (Rushyan).
Roost, n. rust.
Roostay, a. rusty.
Roulay-poulay, n. roly-poly (roa--
Roulinz, n. pl. ravelled worsted,
waste ends of web.
Roup, n. and v.t. auction.
Rout, v.i. bellow.
Row, n. and v.t. roll (roal); row
(roa), wind.
Rowl, v.t. ravel.
Rub, n. rib, bar of a grate.
Rubbun, n. ribbon.
Ruch, a. rich.
Ruft, v.i. belch.
Rug, v.i. pull roughly,tug; n. tug,
good bargain.
Ruid, n. rood.
Ruif, n. roof.
Ruil, n. rule (rool).
Ruit, n. root.
Rukh, a. rough (ruff).
Rukk, n. rick, large stack.
Rulyun, n. wretch, rascal.
Rummul, v.i. rumble; v.t. turn
Rummuld igg, n. scrambled egg.
Rummul-tay-thump, n. potatoes
and cabbage mixed.
Rummur, n. toddy tumbler, shaped
like a large wine-glass.
Rump, n. end of the back-bone.
Run, v.i., pa. p. of rin, run.
Rung, n. thick stick, cudgel.
Rung, v. pa. p. of ring, rung.
Runkul, n. and v.t. wrinkle, crease.
Runnur oa beef, n. thin cut over
lower ribs.
Runt, n. stump of a cabbage, kail,
or cauliflower, stump of a tree.
Rush-fivvur, n. scarlet fever.
Ruttun, pa. p. of reit, written
S (as in E. sit, sister, miss).
'S slurred for iz after a hard consonant.

'S slurred for us, meaning mee.
Saab, n. and v. sob.
Saaft, a. soft, wet.
Saaftay, n. soft-headed person,
Saand-mertin, n. sand-martin.
Saand-peipur, n. sand-piper.
Saang, n. song.
Saang, intej. faith (blood), e.g.
Mii saang! (my faith!).
Saang, v. pa. of sing, sang.
Saap, n. sap.
Saaps, n. pl. breadberry, bread
steeped in water.
Saark, n. shirt.
Saat, v. pa. of sut, sat.
Saattul, v.t. settle.
Saax, (obs.), num. six.
Saaxpins, n. sixpence (sixpins).
Saidlur, n. saddler.
Saidul, n. saddle.
Saikrimint, n. Sacrament, Communion.

Saikrut, n. and a. secret (seekret).
Saikund, num, a. second.
Sail, n. (1) sale (sail); (2) sail.
Sail, v.i. sail.
Saim, n. (1) hog's lard; (2) seam
(seem), parting of hair.
Saim, a. same (saim).
Saimpul, n. sample.
Sain, n. scene (seen), sight, business.
Saip, n. soap.
Saipay-sudz, n. pl. soapsuds.
Sair, a. sore (soar), painful, difficult;
sair haid, headache; sair teeth,
toothache; sair weim, stomachache.

Sair, adv. sorely, badly, very.
Sair, v.t. serve (serv).
Sairaius, a. serious (seerius).
Saishun, n. session (seshun).
Sait, n. seat (seet).
Saivun (obs.), num. seven.
Saivunt, num. seventh.
Saivuntay, num, seventy.
Saivunteen, num. seventeen.
Saizun, n. season (seezun).
Saubuth-day, n. Sunday.
Saukh, n. willow.
Saul, n. soul (soul).
Saum, n. psalm (saam).
Saumun, n. salmon (saamun).
Saumun'z loup, n. a kind of leap--
Saund, n. sand.
Saundee, n. dim. of Alexander.
Sausur, n. saucer (sauser).
Saut, n. salt (sault).
Saut-baakit, n. salt-box.
Saw, n. saw.
Saw, v.t. saw (wood); pa. sawd;
pa. p. sawn.
Saw, v.t. sow (soa); pa. sawd; pa. p.
Saw, v. pa. of see, saw.
Sawn, v. pa. p. of saw (wood),
Say, adv. so (soa).
Say, v.t. say; pa. and pa. p. sed;
3rd pers. sing. sez.
Sayin, n. saying, proverb.
Scaabit, a. poor, mean, shabby.
Scaart, n. and v.t. scratch.
Scairs, a. scarce.
Scaith, n. scathe (scaidh), harm,
Scaud, v.t. scald (scauld).
Scaum, v.t. burn, scorch, singe (e. g.
so far as to take colour out of
Sclaaf, n. slap, an old slipper.
Sclaaf, v. and n. shuffle.
Sclait, n. slate (slait).
Sclaitur, n. slater.
Scluttur, n. hurry-scurry, confusion,
Scoab, v.i. miss threads in weaving.
Scoab, n. splint; v.t. put in splints.
Scoach, a. Scotch.
Scoach-un-Frensh, n. name of a
game (French and English).
Scoan, n. scone (scon).
Scoar, v.t. score.
Scoatlund, n. Scotland.
Scoog, n. and v.t, shelter, screen,
take shelter from.
Scoonur, n. draught of beer.
Scoop, v.t. scoop.
Scoor, v.t. scour, clean.
Scoot, n. and v.t. squirt.
Scoudhur, v.t. scorch.
Scraip, n. letter.
Screed, n. a rent, a torn strip, a
long story, a harangue; v.t. tear,
Screekh, n. (1) screech; screekh
oa day, break of day; (2) the
Screev, v.i. talk at length.
Screev, n. a long story.
Screevur, n. great talker.
Scrimp, v. skimp, stint.
Scuff, v.t. graze, tarnish in wear,
make shabby.
Scuffay, a. shabby, mean.
Scuil, n. school (scool).
Scuilin, v. schooling, education.
Scuilmestur, n. schoolmaster (scoolmaster).

Scullur, n. scholar (scoller).
Scum, v.t. skim.
Scum-mulk, n. skim-milk.
Scunj, n. sponger, one who abuses
hospitality; vi. sponge on.
Scunnur, n. repugnance, unreasoning
dislike; v.t. disgust.
Scunnurd, a. disgusted.
Sed, v. pa. and pa. p. of say, said
Seddlur, n. saddler.
Seddul, n. saddle.
See, n. sea (see).
See, v.t. see, take care; pa. saw;
pa. p. seen.
Seecund, a. second.
Seed, n. seed.
Seek, a. sick.
Seek, v.t. seek, ask for, want, wish,
Seelun, n. ceiling (seeling).
Seemaw, n. seagull.
Seemlur, a. similar.
Seen, v. pa. p. of see, seen.
Seevul, a. civil.
Seg, v.i. sag, sink, shrink.
Seg, n. sedge (sej).
Seid, n. side (siid).
Seidur, a. comp. of seid, awkward.
Sein, adv. then, ago.
Seind, v.t. (1) rinse; (2) sign (siin).
Seip, v.i. ooze, percolate.
Sekh, n. and v.i. sigh (sii).
Sekk, n. sack.
Sel, n. self.
Sell, v.t. sell; pa. and pa. p. sellt.
Selluray, n. salary.
Sellz, n. pl. police cells.
Sempul, a. simple.
Send, v.t. send.
Sendz, n. messenger at wedding.
Septembur, n. September.
Sermun, n. sermon.
Servur, n. tray.
Set, v.t. (1) set, grant in lease, become,
suit (soot); (2) jib.
Settur, n. a jibbing horse.
Setturday, n. Saturday.
Sez, v. pres. of say, says (sez).
Sh; see separate letter.
Sib, a. akin, related by blood.
Sidairunt, n. sederunt, sitting.
Sii, v.t, strain, filter.
Siith, n. scythe (siidh).
Siivur, n. grating over drain.
Sikht, n. sight (silt).
Sikk, sikkun, a. such, such-and-such.

Sin, prep. since; adv. ago.
Sindur, n. cinder: a little whisky
in tea.
Sindur, v.t. sunder, separate.
Sing, v. sing; pa. saang; pa. p.
Sing, v. singe (sinj); pa.p. singd
or singit.
Singit-haid, n. singed head.
Sing-ul, a. single; v.t. thin (turnips).
Sink, v.i. sink.
Sink, n. sink for dirty water.
Sinkur, n. weight to make a rope
or line sink.
Siskin, n. a kind of finch.
Six, num. six.
Sixt, num. a. sixth.
Skeekh, a. shy, skittish.
Skeelee, n. slate pencil.
Skeeree, a. queer, not all there,
Skeeree ma linkee, a. skittish,
Skeit, n. (1) blow; (2) objectionable
Skeit, v.i, slip, rebound in a slanting
direction, glance, ricochet.
Skelb, n. splinter, thin slice.
Skell, v.i. and t. spill, empty, disperse;
pa. and pa. p. skelt.
Skellay, a. squinting.
Skellay, n. wild mustard.
Skellukh, n. wild mustard, field
mustard, charlock.
Skelp, n. and v.i. smack, slap.
Skelp, v.i. walk smartly, move
Skelt, v. pa. and pa. p. of skell,
spilled, emptied.
Skep, n. hive of domesticated bees.
Skin, n. skin.
Skirl, n. and v.i. scream, frizzle.
Skreen, n. screen.
Skum, v.t, skim.
Skum-mulk, n. skim-milk.
Skup, n. captain of a rink at curling
or bowls.
Skwaajee, n. drudge.
Skyould, a. crooked, off the
Slaap, n. gap in a wall, fence, or
Slaivur, n. slaver.
Slay, n. sloe (sloa).
Sled, v. pa. of sleid, slid.
Sleekit, a. sly, deceitful.
Sleep, n. and v.i. sleep; sleep in,
v.i. oversleep.
Sleesh, n. slush.
Sleev, n. sleeve (sleev).
Sleid, n. and v.i. slide (sliid); pa.
sled; pa. p. sliddun.
Sleidur, n. catch of rigwuddee.
Slekhur, v.t. make muddy.
Slestur, n. mess.
Sliddun, a. pa. p. of sleid, slid.
Slii, a. sly (slii).
Sloa, a. slow (sloa).
Sloakhun, v.t. slake thirst.
Sloap-pail, n. slop-pail.
Ship, n. and v.i. slip; slap uwaw,
Sluppay, a. slippery.
Slut, v.t. slit; pa. and pa. p. slut.
Smaw, a. small (smaul).
Smaw beer, n. small beer.
Smaw braid, n. little cakes.
Smeddum, n. mettle, energy, pith.
Smeek, v.t. smoke (smoak).
Smell, n., v.t. and i. smell.
Smert, a. smart.
Smout, n. smolt (smoalt), a small
insignificant person.
Smuddee, n. smithy (smidhi); v.i.
work as a blacksmith.
Smuidh, a. smooth (smoodh).
Smuir, v.t. smother (smudher).
Smut, v.t. infect.
Smuth, n. smith, blacksmith.
Smuttin, a. catching, infectious.
Snail, n. snail.
Snaw, n. snow (snoa).
Snaw-brui, n. melting snow.
Sneeshin-mull, n. snuff-box of
Sneevul, v.i. snivel.
Snek, n. latch.
Snell, a. sharp, keen.
Snib, n. small catch of a door.
Snoad, a. neat, trim, tidy; v.t. tidy.
Snoar, n. and v.i. snore.
Snoatur, n. nasal mucus.
Snuff, a. and v.i. snuff.
Soabur, a. poorly, not well.
Soadee, n. soda.
Soajur, n. (1) soldier (soaljer); (2)
small red insect.
Soak, n. ploughshare.
Soakht, v. pa and pa. p. of seek,
sought (saut).
Soalid, a. solid.
Soansay, a. buxom, well-conditioned,
Soarée, n. soirée (swauray).
Soarn, v.i. sponge, abuse or trespass
on hospitality.
Soarnur, n. a self-invited guest,
abuser of hospitality.
Soart, n. and v.t. sort.
Soas, n. wet mess, liquid mixture
of foods.
Soaunz, a dish made from the
husks of oats.
Soavrun, n. sovereign (sovrin).
Soo, n. sow (sow), pig; pl. swein;
hei-soo, an oblong stack of hay.
Soobaak much, n. a woman's cap.
Soodhurn, a. southern (sudhum).
Sook, n. and v.t. suck.
Sookh, n. deep breath, sigh, whiff,
sound of wind.
Sookur, n. sucker.
Soom, n. and v.i. swim; pa. and
pa. p. soomd.
Soond, n. sound, noise.
Soop, n. and v.t. sweep; pa. soopit,
Soopul, a. supple, flexible, swift.
Soopur, n. sweeper.
Soor, a. sour.
Soor-dook, n. buttermilk.
Sooruk, n. sorrel.
Sooth, n. south.
Sootur, n. shoemaker, cobbler.
Soo'z crui, n. pigsty.
Soo'z troakh, n. pig's trough.
Sottur, v.i. simmer, boil slowly,
be slightly scorched, maunder,
Soudhur, n. solder.
Soul, n. soul (soal).
Soup, n. sup.
Spaak, v. pa. of speek, spoke
Spaan, v. pa. of spin, span.
Spaark, n. spark.
Spaat, v. pa. of spit, spat.
Spaats, n. pl. spats.
Spaid, n. spade (spaid).
Spaik, n. bar of wood, especially
one of those on which a coffin is
Spaikit, a. made of bars of wood.
Spail, n. splinter, chip.
Spain, v.t. wean lambs.
Spait, n. flood.
Spay-weif, n.f. fortune-teller.
Speek, v.i. speak (speek); pa.
spaak; pa. p. spoakun.
Speel, n. climb (cliim).
Speer at, v.i. ask.
Speerut, n. spirit; n. pl. speeruts,
Speidur, n. spider.
Speks, spectacles.
Spiggut, n. cock, tap.
Spin, v.t. spin; pa. spaan; pa. p.
Spinnin-maagee, n. daddy-longlegs.

Spit, v.i. spit; pa. spaat; pa. p.
Sploar, n. frolic, generally associated
with drinking.
Splut, vi. and t. split; pa. and pa. p.
Spoakun, v. pa. p. of speek, spoken
Spoat, n. spot.
Spoot, n. and v. spout.
Spree, n. frolic, drinking bout.
Sproosh, n. spruce (sproos).
Sproosh beer, n. spruce beer.
Sprug, n. sparrow (sparroa).
Sprung, n. spring, dance-music,
Spud, n. potato.
Spuil, n. and v. spool.
Spuin, n. spoon.
Spull, v.t. spoil.
Spun, v. pa. p. of spin, spun.
Spunk, n. lucifer match, spirit,
Spunnul, n. spindle.
Spurtul, n. stick for stirring porridge,
broth, &c.
Sput, v.i. spit; pa. spaat; pa. p.
Sputtun, v. pa. p. of spit, spat.
Spyug, n. sparrow.
Squair, a. square (squair).
Squrrul, a. squirrel.
Staaf, a. staff.
Staak, n. stack; staakyaird,
Staamp, n. stamp.
Staamuk, n. stomach (stumak).
Staang, n. and v.t. sting.
Staank, n. pool or pond of dirty
water, street gutter.
Staans, n. site, standing-place,
Staap, n. and v.i. step.
Staap, v.t. stuff.
Staar, n. star.
Staarnay, a. starry.
Staart, v.i. start, begin to scold;
v.t. startle.
Staig, n. stallion.
Stail, v.t. steal (steel); pa. and pa. p.
Stain, n. stone (stoan).
Stair, n. stair.
Stairch, n. starch.
Staiv, n. and v.t. sprain.
Staivur, vi. saunter, totter.
Stauk, n. stalk (stauk).
Staund, v.i. stand; pa. stuid; pa.p.
Staund yur haund, v. (stand your
hand), pay for a dram.
Staw, n. stall (staul).
Staw, v.t. surfeit; pa. and pa. p.
stawd, fed up.
Steek, n. stitch.
Steek, v.t. stitch, shut.
Steel, n. steel.
Steenee, n. a little coloured marble.
Steep, a. steep.
Steepul, n. (1) steeple, church--
tower; (2) staple.
Steepul ruit, n. foot of church--
Steer, n. and v.t. stir, bustle.
Stei, a. steep.
Stei, v.i. stay.
Steibaand, n. bar across inside of
door to fasten it from inside.
Steil, n. style (stiil).
Steim, n. the least thing (in seeing).
Steiz, n. pl. stays, corset.
Stekhay, a. stiff, slow, sturdy.
Stell, n. still.
Stensh, a. staunch (staunsh)
Sterv, v. starve.
Stethul, n. foundation of a stack.
Stibbul, n. stable (staibul).
Stoab, n. stake (staik).
Stoakin, n. stocking.
Stoap, n. and v.i. stop, stay
Stoaray, n. story (stoari).
Stoarm, n. storm.
Stoat, n. (1) bullock; (2) rebound,
Stoat, v.i. rebound, bounce.
Stook, n. shock of corn = 12 sheaves
of wheat, or 14 of oats.
Stookee, n. stucco, plaster-of-Paris.
Stoond, n. pang, intermittent pain.
Stoor, n. dust, excitement.
Stooree, a. dusty.
Stooree drink, n. oatmeal and
Stoot, a. stout, strong, well.
Stoun, pa.p. of stail, stolen.
Stoup, n. vessel for holding liquids,
narrower at the top than at the
Straak, v. pa. p. of strikk, struck.
Straath, n. a wide valley.
Straavaig, n. wander idly, roam,
gad about.
Straich, v.t. stretch.
Straik, v.t. lay out a corpse.
Straukht, a. straight (strait).
Stray, n. straw.
Street, n. street.
Streip, n. gutter, open drain in a
Strenj, a. strange (strainj).
Strenjur, n. stranger (strainjur).
Strikk, v.t. strike (striik); pa.
straak; pa. p. strukkun.
Stroang, a. strong, healthy.
Stroop, n. curved spout, e.g. of
kettle or teapot.
Strukkun, v. pa. p. of strikk,
Strumush, n. fuss, to-do.
Strung, n. string.
Strup, v.t. strip, pa. p. struppit.
Struppit, a. striped.
Stubbul, n. stubble.
Stuid, v. pa. of staund, stood.
Stuiddun, v. pa. p. of staund,
Stuil, n. stool.
Stuk, n. and v.t. stick.
Stukkee, n. starling.
Stull, a. still.
Stult, n. handle of a plough, stilt.
Stunk, n. and v.i. stink.
Sturk, n. bullock or heifer yearling.

Sturlin, n. starling.
Styoo, n. stew.
Sug, n. an easy-going person.
Suggee, a. easy-going.
Suid, v. aux. should (shood).
Suin, adv. soon.
Suinur, adv. sooner, rather.
Suit, n. soot.
Suit, v.t. suit (syoot).
Sulk, n. silk.
Sullay, a. thin in body, lean, weak.
Sullur, n. silver, money.
Sum, a. some (sum).
Sumf, n. stupid blockhead.
Sumgait, adv. somewhere.
Summur, n. summer.
Sumwei, adv. somehow, somewhere.

Sun, n. sun; (2) son (sun).
Sundurz, a. and adv. asunder.
Sundur, v.t. sunder, separate.
Sung, v. pa. p. of sing, sung.
Sup, v.t. sup.
Suppur, n. supper.
Sustur, n. sister.
Sut, vi. sit; pa. saat pa.p. suttun.
Suttun, v. pa.p. of sut, sat.
Swaach, n. pattern, sample.
Swaal, v.i. swell; pa, and pa.p.
Swaallay, n. swallow (swauloa).
Swaallay, v.t. swallow (swauloa).
Swaam, v. pa. of swim, swam.
Swaan, n. swan (swan).
Swaank, a. smart, well set up.
Swaat, v. pa. of sweit, sweated.
Swair, v.i. swear (swair); pa.
swoar; pa. p. swoarn.
Sweer, a. reluctant, lazy, backward.
Sweesh, n. and v.t. swish.
Sweet, a. sweet, fresh (of butter of
Sweetee, n. sweetmeat.
Swei, n. (1) swinging rod at fire
for carrying pots; (2) a path cut
through corn, swath.
Swein, n. pl. of soo, swine (swiin).
Sweit, n. and v.i. sweat (swet); pa.
swaat; pa. p. swuttun.
Swidhur, v. i. hesitate, be in
Swoar, v. pa. of swair, swore
Swoarn, v. pa. p. of swair, sworn
Swuft, a. and n. swift.
Swungul-tree, n. swinging bar to
which the traces are attached.
Swum, v.i. swim; pa. swaam.
Swurd, n. sword (soard).
Swurl, n. swirl.
Sh (as in E. shake, shoe (shoo), fish).
Shaak, n. and v.t. shake (shaik);
pa. shuik; pa. p. shuikun.
Shaakul, n. wrist.
Shaakul-bain, n. wrist-bone.
Shaakurz, n. pl. staggers.
Shaal, n. shawl.
Shaanikul, n. fire of refuse or
weeds, bonfire.
Shaank, n. leg, stem, stalk.
Shaanksiz mair, n.
Shanksiz naiggee, n. walking
on foot.
Shaid, n. shed.
Shall; n. sheaf (sheef), slice; pl.
Shaim, n. shame (shaim); think
shaim, v. be ashamed.
Shaip, n. shape (shaip), mould.
Shair, n. (1) ridge (rij); (2) share
Shair, v.t. cut corn with a sickle,
reap; pa. shoar; pa. p. shoarn.
Shairin, n. cutting the corn, reaping,
Shairn, n. cow-dung.
Shairur, n. reaper.
Shaiv, v.t. shave (shaiv); pa. and
pa. p. shaivd.
Shaukhlay, a. shuffling, unsteady.
Shaukhul, v.i. shuffle, walk unsteadily.

Shaukhuld, a. mis-shapen.
Shaw, n. haulm of a potato, turnip,
thistle, &c.
Shaw, v.t. cut off the leaves of
turnips, &c.
Shay, n. shoe (shoo); pl. shuin.
Shaymaakur, n. shoe-maker.
Shed, n. (1) shed; (2) shade (shaid);
(3) division.
Shedday, n. shadow (shadoa).
Sheddur, n. an instrument for
Shee, pron. she.
Sheep, n. sheep; pl. sheep.
Sheeps' purlz, n. sheep-dung.
Sheerz, n. pl. shears (sheerz), scissors
Shein, v.i. shine (shiin).
Sheir, n. shire (shiir).
Shelf, n. shelf; pl. shelfs.
Shellmun, shellmunt, n. movable
boards put on sides of a cart to
increase its capacity.
Sheltay, n. a small pony.
Sharp, a. sharp; v.t. sharpen
pa. and pa.p. sherpit.
Shin, n. shin.
Shintay, n. hockey.
Shoa, n. show (shoa).
Shoad, v. pa. p. of shui, shod.
Shoag, n. and v.t. push, swing,
Shoagee, n. swing.
Shoap, n. shop.
Shoar, v. pa. of shair, reaped.
Shoart, a. short.
Shoart-braid, n. a sweet cake,
readily crumbling.
Shoart-goon, n. a long blouse.
Shoart leet, n. list of selected
Shoat, n. shot, turn; v. pa. and
pa. p. of shuit, shot.
Shoatun, v. pa. p. of shuit, shot.
Shoo, v.t. sew (soa); pa. and pa. p.
Shoo, v.t. drive away birds.
Shoodhur, n. shoulder.
Shooglee, a. shaky.
Shoogul, v.t. shake.
Shoogur, n. sugar (shoogar).
Shooh, interj. sound made to drive
away birds.
Shook, v.t., pa. of shaak, shook.
Shoor, n. shower.
Shooster, n. f. sempstress.
Shoul, n. and v.i. scowl, make
faces, screw the face.
Shufful, n. shovel (shuvl).
Shuft, n. change, shift, chemise.
Shuft, v.t. shift, change, remove.
Shui, n. and v.t. shoe (shoo); pa.
shuid; pa. p. shoad.
Shuid, v. aux. should (shood),
ought to.
Shuik, v. pa. of shaak, shook.
Shuikun, v. pa. p. of shaak,
Shuil, v.t. shovel, scrape.
Shuil dhe broad, n. a game like
draughts, won by the player who
gets rid of all the men first.
Shuin, n. pl. shoes (shooz).
Shuin, adv. soon.
Shuir, a. sure (shoor).
Shuit, v.t. shoot; pa. shoat; pa.p.
Shulfay, n. chaffinch.
Shullun, n. shilling.
Shulpit, a. shrivelled, unnaturally
thin, pinched-looking.
Shup, n. ship.
Shurray, n. sheriff.
Shuttul, n. shuttle.
Shutturz, n. pl. shutters.
Shyukh, v.t. cover plants with
earth, trench.
T (as in E. ten, met, tent).
'T, slurred for hut, it.
Taaful, v.t. ruffle, disarrange.
Taak, n. lease.
Taak, v.t. take (taik); pa. tuik
pa. p. tain ; taak ull, fall ill.
Taak, v.i. talk (tauk).
Taakht, v. pa. and pa. p. of teech,
Taakut, n. hob-nail.
Taalay, n. tallow (talloa).
Taalyun eirun, n. Italian iron.
Taam, n. dim. of Thomas.
Taamay-roond, n. small loaf.
Taanaree, n. tannery.
Taap, n. top.
Taapit hen, n. crested hen, a
muchkin of whisky.
Taapsul teeree, a. upside down,
Taar, n. tar.
Taaray-fingurd, a. light-fingered,
Taash, v.t. soil, make shabby, batter,
Taid, n. toad.
Taigul, v.t. hinder, delay.
Tail, n. (1) tail; (2) account.
Tain, v. pa. p. of taak, taken
T'ain, n. the one.
Taingz, n. pl. tongs.
Tainunt, n. tenant.
Taip, v.t. economize, make a thing
last longer, use sparingly.
Tair, v. t. tear (tair); pa. toar; pa.p.
Tair, n. tear (teer).
Tairubul, a. terrible, awful; adv.
terribly, awfully.
Tairz, n. tares.
Taist, n. a little liquid, a dram of
whisky; v.i. take whisky.
Tait, n. a little bit.
Taiz, v.t. tease (teez).
Taupay, n.f. a stupid, clumsy
woman or girl.
Tautay, n. potato (potaitoa).
Tautayz un dup, n. potatoes and
Tautay-beetul, n. potato-masher.
Tautay-boagul, n. scarecrow.
Taw, n. the line played from at
Tawz, n. pl. a strip of leather with
thongs, used for whipping schoolboys.

Tay, n. toe (toa).
T'ay, a. the one.
Tedhur, n. and v.t. tether (tedher).
Tee, n. (1) tea (tee); (2) the mark
played for in curling or bowls
(3) at golf, the little heap of sand
on which the ball is placed in
playing off; v.t. place a ball on
the tee.
Tee, slurred for tay dhe, to the.
Teech, v.t. and i. teach (teeth); pa.
and pa. p. taakht.
Teend, v.t. vex, make jealous.
Teet, v.i. peep.
Teet-boa, n. bo-peep, children's
Teeth, n. tooth; pl. teeth.
Tee un tull'd, n. high tea.
Teik, n. dog.
Teikin, n. ticking (used to cover
Teil, n. tile (tiil).
Teilyur, n. tailor.
Teim, n. time (tiim).
Tein, v.t. lose; pa. and pa. p. tint;
v.i. be lost.
Tell, v.t. tell; pa. and pa. p. tellt,
Tellin, n. warning, advice.
Ten, num. ten.
Tent, num. a. tenth.
Tent, n. care, heed.
Terrum, n. term.
Tert, n. tart.
Th; see separate letter.
Tibbul, n. table.
T'idhur, a. the other.
Tig, n. touch, a game.
Tig, v.t. touch in the game of
Tii, v.t. tie (tii).
Tiizday, n. Tuesday (Tyoozday).
Tikht, a. tight (tiit).
Tikk, n. a morsel, a small quantity.
Timmur, n. timber.
Tindur-boax, n. tinder-box.
Tinklur, n. tinker.
Tint, v. pa. and pa. p. of tein,
Tnee, n. knee (nee).
Tneif, n. knife (niif).
Tnoak, n. clock.
Tnoat, n. knot (not).
Tnow, n. knoll, hillock.
Toad, n. fox.
Toadee, n. toddy, made with
whisky, sugar, and hot water.
Toakhur, n. dowry.
Toakun, n. metal ticket of admission
to Communion.
Toal, n. toll (toal).
Toar, v. pa. of tair, tore (toar).
Toarn, v. pa. p. of tair, torn.
Toaray, n. Tory.
Toash, toashay, a. tidy, cosy, comfortable.

Tool, n. towel.
Toon, n. town (toun), village, farmstead,
house and appurtenances.
Toozee, a. dishevelled, shaggy,
rou gh.
Toozee tee, n. high tea.
Tossul, n. tassel.
Tow, n. tow (toa).
Traakhul, n. a tiring exertion,
trudge, drudgery, a worrying
worker, drudge.
Traakhul, v.i. over-exert oneself,
trudge, drudge, work needlessly.
Traamp, n. and v.t. trample, tread.
Traamp-coal, n. hayrick.
Traap, n. trap-door, stairs leading
to trap-door.
Traikul, n. treacle (treekil).
Traikul peeree, n. treacle beer.
Traikul row, n. treacle roll.
Trail, v.i. gad about.
Tred, n. trade (traid)
Tree, n. tree.
Treip, n. tripe (triip).
Treist, n. assignation, agreement
to meet, cattle fair.
Treist, v.i. to agree to meet.
Tren, n. train.
Trevul, v.i. go on foot, walk.
Trig, a. neat, trim.
Trii, v. try (trii).
Troak, n. job, coming and going,
intercourse, dealings.
Troakh, n. trough (troff).
Troo, a. true (troo).
Troot, n. trout.
Trootay, n. little trout (term of
Troozurz, n. trousers (trouzerz).
Trouin, n. trowel.
Trow, n. open drain.
Trowz, n. pl. wooden mill-lead.
Truith, n. truth (trooth).
Trumf, n. pl. trump (at cards).
Trummul, v.i. tremble.
Trump, n. Jew's harp.
Trup, n. trip.
Tubaukay, n. tobacco.
Tuch, v.t. touch (tuch).
Tui, adv. too.
Tuib, n. tub.
Tuik, v. pa. of taak, took.
Tuim, a. and v.t. empty.
Tuip, n. ram.
Tuithik, n. toothache.
Tumlur, n. tumbler.
Tummul, n. and v.i. tumble.
Tummur, n. and a. timber,
Tun, n. ton.
Tung, n. tongue (tung).
Tuppins, n. twopence (tuppens).
Tuppnay nuppnay, n. a kind of
Turkay, n. turkey.
Turl, v.,n. and interj. whirl, rattle.
Turravee, n. temper, passion.
Turwur, v.i. wrangle.
Tuttay, n. sister.
Twaal, num. twelve.
Twaw, num. two (too).
Twaw-three, twaw-hree, a. two
or three, some, several, a few.
Tweis, adv. twice (twiis).
Twel, num. twelve.
Twelt, num, a. twelfth.
Twins, n. pl. twins (twinz).
Twuntee, num. twenty.
Tyug, n and v.t. tug.
Tyuin, n. tune (tyoon).
Tyukh, a. tough (tuff).
Tyukhut, n. lapwing.
Th (as in E. thick, thin, three).
Thaak, n. thatch (thach); a.
Thait, n. trace by which a horse
Thaitur n. front horse in a
cart or plough.
Thaivlus, a. lacking energy,
strength, or purpose.
Thee, n. thigh (thii).
Theef, n. thief (theef); pl. theefs.
Theel, theevul, n. stick for stirring
porridge, broth, &c.
Thek, v.t. thatch (thach).
Thenk, v.t. think; pa. and pa. p.
Thenk, n. and v.t. thank.
Therteen, num. thirteen.
Therty, num. thirty.
Thik, a. thick, plentiful.
Thing, n. thing.
Thirld, (of stock) accustomed to
stay in a particular place.
Thoa, adv. though (dhoa), indeed,
all the same.
Thoakht, n. thought (thaut), a
very little, the least bit.
Thoakht, v. pa. and pa.p. of
thenk, thought (thaut)
Thoal, v.t. endure.
Thoarn, n. thorn.
Thoom, n. thumb (thum);v.t.
spread with the thumb.
Thoozunt, num. thousand (thouand).

Thraang, a. busy.
Thraangitay, n. press of work.
Thraapul, n. gullet, windpipe.
Thraapul, v. throttle.
Thraip, v.i. insist, maintain a
statement, argument, or opinion.
Thraitun, v.t. threaten (thretten).
Thraiv, n. two stooks of grain.
Thraiv, v.i. pa. of threiv, throve
Thraun, pa. p. of thraw, twisted; a.
ill-natured, crusty, cross-grained.
Thraw, v.t. twist; pa.p. thraun.
Thraw-cruk, n. large hook for
twisting straw ropes.
Three, num. three.
Threed, n. thread (thred).
Threis, adv. thrice (thriis).
Threiv, v. thrive (thriiv); pa.
thraiv; pa. p. thrivun.
Thresh, v.t. thresh; pa. thruish
pa. p. thruishun.
Thrivun, v. pa. p. of threiv,
Throa up, v.t. vomit.
Throo, prep. through (throo); adv.
over, finished.
Throo-put, n. out-turn.
Throoidhur, a. anyhow, confused,
untidy, unmethodical.
Thrud, thurd, a. third.
Thruish, of thresh, threshed.
Thruishun, v. pa. p. of thresh,
Thrum, n. loose end of a web.
Thrussul, n. thistle (thissil).
Thummul, n. thimble.
Thun, a. thin, small, narrow.
Thunnur, n. thunder.
Thurd, num. third.
U (as in E. us, sun, cut, rub).
Ubee, adv. alone, as it is.
Ubloa, prep. below.
Uboot, adv. and prep. about, around,
near, nearly, in the neighbourhood
Ubuin, adv. and prep. above (abuv).
Ubuiz, v.t. abuse, destroy.
Ucroas, prep. and adv. across.
Uday, n. ado (adoo).
Uffront, v.t. offend.
Ufoar, adv., prep., and conj. before
Ugen, adv. again.
Uglei, adv, squinting, awry, off the
Uhint, adv., prep., and conj. behind.
Uilee, n. oil.
Uilee cruizay, n. oil-lamp.
Uis, n. use (yoos).
Uit (or ett), pa. of ait, ate.
Uiz, v.i. and t. use (yooz); pa. before
a vowel uizd, before the prep. to,
Ujee, adv, to one side, off the
Ulaang, adv, and prep. along.
Ulain, adv. alone (aloan).
Ulaivun, num. eleven.
Ulaivunt, a. eleventh.
Ulkay, a. each, every.
Ull, v. slurred for wull, will.
Ull, a. ill, bad, hard, difficult,
angry; adv. ill, badly.
Ull-faurd, a. ugly.
Ulow, adv. in flame.
Um, slurred for hum, him.
Umburellay, n. umbrella.
Umoan, prep. among (amung).
Umuiz v.t. amuse (amyooz).
Un, conj. and, if, than.
Unaw, adv. as well.
Uncay, a. unusual, strange; adv.
unusually, very.
Uncul, n. uncle (uncul).
Uneth, prep. beneath, below.
Ungshuneer, n. auctioneer (aukshuneer).

Unidhur, a. another (anudher).
Unoalyum, n. linoleum.
Unour, adv. inside.
Uns, n. ounce (ouns).
Unyoo, n. enough (inuff).
Unyukh, n., adj., and adv. enough
Up, prep. up.
Upmust, a. topmost.
Upréil, n. April (Aipril).
Uproach, n. avenue.
Uptaak, n. understanding (uptake).
Uquent, a. acquainted.
Ur, v. aux. are (aar).
Us, pron. us, we.
Useid, prep. beside.
Ut, rel. and conj. that.
Uthoot, prep. without.
Utour, adv, and prep. farther off,
out, away, back.
Uttemp, n. and v. attempt.
Utween, adv. between.
Uvaw, adv. at all.
Uwaw, adv. away.
Uyont, prep. beyond.
V (as in E. vast, ever, live).
Vaaray, adv. very.
Vairs, n. verse.
Vaiz, n. vase (vaaz).
Veis, n. voice (vois).
Vent, n. chimney.
Voagee, a. vain.
Vullaij n. village (villaij).
Vuttul, n. white crops, just before
or after cutting.
W (as in E. west, wife, with).
Waad, v.t. wed.
Waadin, n. wedding.
Waafay, a. shabby, disreputable.
Waaft, n. weft.
Waag, v.t. and i. wag.
Waag-at-dhe-waw, n. kitchen
Waagtall, n. wagtail.
Waakht, n. swig, big draught.
Waal, n. well, pump.
Waalup, v.i. flop.
Waalut, n. wallet, a large hanging
Waamul, v.i. totter, shake, rumble.
Waan, num. one.
Waan, v. pa. of win, won (wun),
Waans, adv. once (wuns).
Waant, v.t. want (waunt), be short
of, be without.
Waantin, a. short of; prep. without.

Waantur, n. unmarried man or
Waar, n. war (waur).
Waark, n. work (wurk).
Waarp, n. warp (worp).
Waarpur, n. maker of warp.
Waarrum, a. warm (waurm).
Waarst, a. worst (wurst).
Waarsul, v.i. struggle, wrestle
Waarund, v.t. warrant (warrant).
Waash, v.t. wash; pa. wuish;
pa.p. wuishun.
Waashin-buird, n. scrubbing--
Waasp, n. wasp (wosp).
Waast, n. west.
Waat, a. wet.
Want, v.t. wot, know; pa. and
pa. p. wust.
Waat, v. pa. of weet, wet.
Waatur, n. water (wautur), river.
Waatur-coot, n. water-hen.
Waatur-craw, n. water-hen.
Waatur-hen, n. water-hen.
Waik, a. weak (week).
Waiklay, a. poorly.
Wair, v.t. and i. wear (wair); pa.
woar; pa. p. woarn.
Waiscoat, n. waistcoat.
Waistray, n. wastefulness.
Waistur, n. waster.
Wait, v.i. wait, stay.
Wauch, n. watch (wauch).
Wauk in, v.i. shrink (of cloth).
Waukin, a. awake.
Waukin, v.t. awake.
Waukrif, n. wakeful, sleepless.
Waulay, interj. alas!
Waur, a. worse (wurs): v.t. worsen,
beat, defeat.
Waur, v.t. spend.
Waurld, n. world.
Waurluk, n. male witch, wizard.
Waux, n. wax.
Waw, n. wall (waul).
Waw, adv. slurred for uwaw,
Way, n. woe (woa); a. sad.
Wayfay, a. woeful, sorrowful.
Waysum, a. woeful.
Way'z mee, interj. woe's me (woa'z
Wedhur, n. castrated male sheep.
Wee, a. little.
Wee, pron. we (wee).
Wee, prep. with, by, owing to.
Weebee, n. ragwort.
Weedee, n. widow (widdoa).
Weeduk, n. tool for killing weeds.
Week, n. (1) week; (2) wick.
Weel, a., adv., and interj. well.
Weel-duiin, a. well-doing.
Weel-faurd, a. good-looking.
Weemin, n. pl. of wummun, women
Weeree, a. weary (weeri).
Weesht, n. and interj. silence.
Weet, v.t. wet; pa. waat; pa. p.
Weev, v.t. weave (weev).
Weevur, n. weaver (weever).
Wei, n. way.
Wei, v.t. weigh (way).
Weid, n. and v.t. weed.
Weid, a. wide (wiid), broad.
Weid, v.i. wade (waid).
Weif, n.f. wife (wiif), woman; pl.
Weil, v.t. choose, pick out; n. choice,
Weild, a. wild (wiild).
Weim, n. stomach.
Wein, n. wine (wiin).
Weind, n. curving alley.
Weir, n. wire (wiir).
Weis, a. wise (wiiz), sensible,
Weisleik, a. good-looking, sensible,
nice-looking, befitting.
Weit, n. blame.
Wei-wekht, n. weight.
Wejiz, n. pl. wages (waijiz).
Wekht, n. (1) weight (wait); (2)
a round vessel for holding corn,
like a sieve, but with a bottom
of skin.
Wekhts, n. balance.
Wersh, a. insipid, tasteless, saltless.

Wiir, n. wire (wiir), knitting--
Wing, n. wing.
Winkur, n. eyelid.
Winshay, n. wincey (winsi).
Woar, v. pa. of wair, wore
Woarn, v. pa. p. of wair, worn.
Wub, n. web.
Wubbit, a. tired out.
Wubstur, n. weaver.
Wuch, n.f. witch.
Wud, n. wood.
Wud, a. mad.
Wud, v. aux. would (wood); pa.
of wull.
Wuddee, n. hangman's rope.
Wuddunzday, n. Wednesday
Wuish, v. pa. of waash, washed.
Wuishun, v. pa. p. of waash,
Wulcum, a. welcome (welcum).
Wuld, a. wild (wiild).
Wuldfiir, n. lightning.
Wull, n. and v. aux. will.
Wullay, dim. of William.
Wullay waagee, n. wagtail.
Wummun, n.f. woman (wooman);
pl. weemin.
Wumpul, v. and n. ripple.
Wun, v.t. win, earn ; v.i. (1) get,
reach; (2) dry in the wind (as
grain); pa. waan; pa. p. wun.
Wund, n. wind.
Wundee, n. window (windoa);a.
Wunduk, n. window (windoa).
Wunnin, n. winnings, earnings.
Wunnulstray, n. withered stalk of
Wunnur, n. wonder.
Wunsum, a. winning, comely,
Wunt, v. pa. used.
Wuntur, n. winter.
Wur, a. our.
Wurd, n. word, news, notice.
Wurk, v.i. work (wurk), knit a
stocking; pa. and pa. p. roakht.
Wurr, v.i. growl, snarl.
Wurraikou, n. bugbear.
Wurrum, n. worm (wurm).
Wursut, n. worsted (woosted).
Wurth, a. worth (wurth).
Wush or wuss, n.. and v.i. wish;
pa. and pa. p. wusst.
Wusp, n. wisp.
Wuss, v.i. wish; pa. and pa. p.
Wusst, v., pa. and pa. p. of wush,
wuss, wished.
Wust, v. pa. and pa. p. of waat,
knew (nyoo).
Wut, n. wit.
Wuttun, v. pa. p. of weet, wet.
Wuttur, v.i. be keen, eager, long
Wuz, v. aux. was (woz).
Wuzzund, a. wrinkled, shrivelled.
Y (as in English yon, yet, yes).
Yaalay, a. yellow.
Yaalay-yeit, n. yellow-hammer.
Yaamur, v.i. whimper, whine.
Yaird, n. yard, garden.
Yee, pron. you (yoo).
Yeer, n. year (yeer).
Yeld, a. (applied to a cow) neither
in calf nor in milk, barren.
Yell, n. yell.
Yern, n. yarn.
Yestreen, adv. yesterday evening.
Yesturday, adv. yesterday.
Yet, adv. and conj. yet.
Yett, n. gate.
Yoak, n. and v.t. yoke (yoak); v.t.
yoak tay, set to, put to.
Yoan, a. that.
Yoant, adv. farther off, farther
along, along.
Yoo, pron. you (yoo).
Yoomur, n. humour (hyoomur).
Yoo Pay, a. U. P. (United Presbyterian).

Yoor, pron. a. your (yoor).
Yoor, n. ewer (yoor), water-jug.
Yoorz, pron. and a. yours (yoorz).
Youl, v.i. howl.
Yow, n.f. ewe (yoo).
Yow-bukhts, n. ewe-folds.
Yuil, n. Christmas-time.
Yukk, v.i. itch.
Yukkay, a. itchy.
Yung, a. young (yung).
Yur, slurred for your (yoor).
Yurd, n. earth (erth); v.t. bury.
Yut, adr. and conj. yet.
Printed in England at the Oxford University Press


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Lowland Scotch as Spoken in the Lower Strathearn District of Perthshire

Document Information

Document ID 160
Title Lowland Scotch as Spoken in the Lower Strathearn District of Perthshire
Year group 1900-1950
Genre Orthoepists
Year of publication 1915
Wordcount 80112

Author information: Wilson, Sir James

Author ID 99
Title Sir
Forenames James
Surname Wilson
Gender Male
Year of birth 1853