The Tyro's Guide to Wisdom and Wealth
Author(s): Barrie, Alexander
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WISDOM AND WEALTH;
FOR. THE MORAL INSTRUCTION OF YOUTH
EXERCISES IN SPELLING,
Containing about Five Thousand Words, having the Parts of Speech
To which are now subjoined,
THE PRINCIPLES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR.
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE AUTHOR'S COLLECTION.
BY ALEX. BARRIE,
TEACHER OF ENGLISH, WRITERS' COURT, EDINBURGH,
AUTHOR OR THE ENGLISH COLLECTION, SCHOOL DICTIONARY,
ENGLISH GRAMMAR, CHILD'S ASSISTANT, AND
The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom, Prov. ix. 10.
The hand of the diligent maketh rich, Prov. x. 4.
THE FIFTH EDITION.
PRINTED FOR AND SOLD BY THE AUTHOR.
G. CAW, Printer, Libberton-Wynd.
Entered in Stationers Hall.
IN the following Tables, where the Vowels are marked,
the Directions which follow are neceſſary, viz.
Vowels not marked are ſilent.
Vowels marked thus é are indiſtinctly ſounded, as in ablé.
Italic e and i ſound like initial y, as in hideous, filial.
Roman ch ſound tſh, as in church. — ch ſound ſh when the
c is Italic, as in chaiſe — ch ſound k when the h is Italic,
as in chord.
Italic th ſound ſoft, as in thy. — Roman th ſound hard, as in
Italic x ſounds gz, as in exact. — Roman x ſounds ks, as
C ſounds ſoft before e, i, and y, as in certain, civil, cygnet.
— And hard before a, o, u l, r, and when it ends a
word, as in caſt, coſt, cut, clad, cry, public.
Roman g ſounds ſoft before e, i, and y, as in gem, gin,
Italic g sounds hard before e, i, and y, as in get, give,
Italic ce, ci, cy, ſi, and ti, ſound ſh, as in ocean, ſocial, halcyon.
penſion, action; — Roman ſi ſounds zh, as in concluſion,
Italic ſ before u, as in pleaſure.
Italic ſ ſounds z, as in muſe
Italic i before a conſonant, and y, take the ſound of initial
y before them, as in guide, sky; pron gy̆īd, ſky̆ī.
Gh and ph commonly found f, as in laugh, phraſe.
W is ſilent before r; alſo before h when Italic.
In other poſitions Italic conſonants are ſilent.
Pr. ſignifies pronounced.
Note, ar after a word shows that it is an article, n a noun or substantive,
a an adjective, p a pronoun, v a verb, ad an adverb, pr a
preposition, c a conjunction, and i an interjection — Words which
are occasionally different parts of speech, when spelt and accented
the ſame way, have the mark of the parts to which they belong:
thus right n v a i is either a noun, verb, adjective, or interjection;
and so of the rest.
* KEY to the following TABLES.
a Hāte hăt hâll làrge, e. thēſe thĕn thêre hèr,
i. pīne pĭn ſîr gìrd, o. nōte nŏt ſtörm dô dòne,
u. Cūbe cŭb bûſh, w. w̆e few̄, y. trȳ hy̆mn; able hideous
filial chord chaiſe muſe. thy action whole exact.
TABLE I. Words of ONE Syllable.
ăct n v
âll a n
àrt n v
bŭt c n
bōth a c
böw̆ v n
beār n v
breāk n v
chiēf n a
cŭrſe n v
crŏſs n v a
dĕad n a
dīe n v
dow̆n n a d
drĭnk n v
ĕnd n v
èarth n v
fŏr pr c
fîrſt a ad
fĕll n v a
fâll n v
flōw n v
frēe a v
fûll a ad
fàr ad a
frāme n v
fēed n v
förm n v
gôod n a
grāce n v
* After the ſcholar is well acquainted with the above key, together
with the directions prefixed, the teacher may ſelect a few words out
of every leſſon, as he goes along, and order the ſcholar to ſpell them;
to point out the number of ſyllables, and where the accent is placed;
to mention the number of vowels, and their reſpective ſounds, according
to the key; to point out the diphthongs, where they occur, whether
proper or improper, and to give the reaſon why they are ſaid to be ſo.
Take, for example, the word Reaſon. Teacher. Spell reaſon. Scholar,
r, e, a, rea, ſ, o, n, ſon, reaſon. How many ſyllables are in it? Two,
rea-ſon. Which is the accented ſyllable? Rea. How do you know
that the accent is upon rea? Becauſe it is moſt forcibly uttered in pronouncing
the word. How many vowels are in it? Three. Point them
out: e, a, in rea, and o, in ſon. How do you know that there are only
two syllables, when there are three vowels in it? Becauſe ea is a diphthong,
or double vowel. What kind of a diphthong is ea? An improper
diphthong. How do you know that it is improper? Becauſe
only one of the vowels is ſounded. Which of them is it? e What does
e in rea ſound like? e in theſe. What does o in ſon ſound like? it is indiſtinctly
ſounded, like e in able, &c. &c.
hănd n v
hāte n v
hōld n v
hĕlp n v
jŭdge n v
jöy̆ n v
knōw v a
knōwn v a
lĕft v a
lŏſt v a
lēave n v
lōw a v
lăſt n v a
lĭve n v
lòve n v
lănd n v
lŏng a v
lāy n v
măn n v
mōre ad a
māle n a
mōſt ad a
mīnd n v
māke n v
mēans n v
nō a ad
nāme n v
nēar pr a
one n a
păſs n v
pāin n v
pēace n i
prāiſe n v
qûĭck n a
rûle n v
rīght n v a i
rĕſt n v
ſĭn n v
ſō ad c
ſtĭll n v a
ſŭm n v
ſĕt n v a
ſĭxth n a
ſēal n v
tô ad pr
thăn ad c
thăt p c
tĭll n v c
tŭrn v n
ŭp ad i
w̆òrd n v
w̆ĭll n v
whōle n a
yĕt c ad
II. Of Two.
* Crē-āte' v
dĭ•rĕct' a v
ōn'ly̆ ad a
bē'ĭng n v
lĭv'ĭng n v a
* Syllables slowly accented, have the grave accent (`).
Syllables quickly accented, have the acute accent (´).
măn'y̆ n a
ē'qûăl a n v
glō'ry̆ n v
dē-crēes' n v
cöûn`ſĕl n v
māk'ĭng n v
vĕr'y̆ ad a
ſē'māle n a
ăf`tèr pr ad
ō'vèr pr ad
pèr'fĕct a v
ē'víl n a
ēat'ĭng a v
hĭm•ſĕlf' ' p
ŭn'dèr pr ad
hăv'ĭng n v
ē-lĕct' a v
tāk'ĭng n v
vìr'gĭn n a
Mā'ry̆ n a
dĭ vĭne' n v a
rûl'ĭng v a
cŭrſ'ĕd a v
rīſ'-ĭng' v a
ſĭt'tĭng n v
còm'ĭng n v
ăp plȳ v
̆w̆òrk'ĭng n v
câll'ĭng n v
ĕm brāce' n
ēi'thèr p c
ă lōne' a
nŭm'bèr n v
ĭn-crēaſe' n v
blĕſſĕd a v
mŏr'ăl a n
nêigh'boŭr n v
prĕf'āce n v
òth'èr a p
w̆òr'ſhĭp n v
ſĕc'ònd n v a
ă-bòve' pr ad
bē-nēath' pr ad
w̆â'tèr n v
ĕſ-cāpe' n v
Lā'boŭr n v
w̆ēek'ly̆ a ad
chrĭſt'iăn n a
prī'vāte n a
ĕx-cĕpt' pr v
dô'ĭng n v
plācĕ's n v
ē'qûăls n v
prŏm'ĭſe n v
ă-w̆āy ad i
öût'w̆ârd a ad
w̆ĭt'nĕſs n v
beār`ĭng n v
dāil'y̆ a ad
ſāv"ĭng n a ad
còm'fòrt n v
hŏn'oŭr n v
w̆òr'thy̆ a n
dē-ſīres' n v
pōr'tiòn n v
pàr'dón n v
A base' v
ab duce' v
ab hor' v
ab jure' v
ab' sence n
ab solve' v
ab struse' a
ab surd' a
a buse' v
ac cess' n
ac cost' v
ac quaint' v
a cross' ad
a cute' a
ad dress' n
ad join' v
af fray' v
af fright' n
a gree' v
aid' ance n
ail' ing a
a larm' n v
al most' ad
a loft' ad
al though' c
a maze' n v
a mends' n
am' ple a
an' cient a n
an nounce' v
an' them n
aux' ions a
ap pease' V
ap plause' n
ap prize' v
ap prove' v
ar' dent a
ar' gue v
a rouse' v
ar rive' v
art' ist n
a sleep' ad
as pire' v
as sign' v
as suage' v
as sume' v
as sure' v
at tach v
auc' tion n v
au'dit n v
a vouch' v
a ware' v
Bab' ble n v
back' bi e v
baf' fle n v
bail' iff n
bald' ness n
bank' rupt n v a
ban' quet n v
bar' rel n v
base' ly ad
ba' son n
bat' tle n v
bed' lam n
be reave' v
be reft' v a
be seech' v
be siege' v
be sought' v
be stir' v
bi' ble n
bid' den v
bil' low n
bis' cuit n
blas pheme' v
blem' ish n v
block' head n
blos' som n V
blun' der n v
bor' der n v
bo' som n v
bow' els n
break' fast n v
breast' plate n
breath' less a
bril' liant a
brit' ain n
bruis' ed a
brush' es n v
build' ing n v
bul' let n
butch' er n v
Cab' in n
ca' ble n
calm' ly ad
cam' el n
ca nal' n
can' non n
cap' tain n
car' case, n
car' riage n
cask' et n
cas tle n
catch' es n v
caus' es n v
cau' tion v
ceas' eth v
ce' dar n
cen' sure n v
cen' tre n v
cer' tain a
chal' lenge n v
cham' ber n
chan' nel n
chap' lain n
charg' es n v
chas tise' v
chick' ens n
chit' chat n
choic' est a
christ' mas n
cir' cle n
clap' ping v
clean' ly ad
clos' et n v
cock' pit n
cocks' comb n
col' our n v
com plete' a v
con ceal' v
con' course n
con' duct n
con' scious a
con' stant a
con strain' v
cor' net n
coun' ty n
court' eous a
court' ier n
cox' comb n
crag' gy a
crav' ing v a
cred' it n v
crip' ple n v
cu' bit n
cun' ning n a
cur' tain n
cyg' net n
Damp' ness n
dam' sel n
dar' ed v
dark' en v
daugh' ter n
de lude' v
del' uge n v
de plore' v
de scribe' v
de sign' n v
de vice' n
de vote' v
dic' tate n v
dic' tion n
di' et n v
diph' thong n
dis dain' n v
dis miss' v
dis please' v
dis solve' v
dis trust' n v
dis turb' v
doc' tor n v
doc' trine n
doub' le n v a
doz' en n
dra goon' n
dra' per n
drear' y a
drop' sy n
drow' sy a
duc' ats n
dun' geon n
Ea' gle n
earth' en a
eas' tern a
e clipse' n v
e lapse' v
em balm' v
em brace' n v
emp' ty a v
en gage' v
e nough' n a ad
en' sign n
en sue' v
e rect' a v
er' ror n
es quire' n
es say' v
ex cept' v pr
ex cite' v
ex cuse` n v
ex haust' v
ex plore' v
ex treme' n a
Fab' ric n
faint' ing n a v
fair' est a
faith' less a
fa' mous a
fash' ion n v
fa' tal a
fat' ling n
fault' less a
fee' ble a
fetch' ed v
fe' ver n v
fil' ial a
flash' y a
flat' ter v
flow' er n v
for' eign a
fore tel' v
fran' tic a
fre' quent a
friend' ship n
fright' en v
fro' ward a
fru' gal a
fu` el n
fur' long n
Gain' ed v
gal' lant a
game' ster n
gaz' ed v
glar' ing a
glean' ing n v
glut' ton n
gnaw' ing a v
gold' en a
gran' deur n
grave' ly ad
griev' ance n
griev' ous a
gris' ly a
grow' ing a v
guid' ed v
Ha ha' i
hal' cyon n a
ha rangue' n v
harm' less a
har' vest n
has' ty a
hate' ful a
health' y a
heav' y a
heir' ess n
helm' et n
her' ald n
hid' eous a
hire' ling n
hoar' y a
hob' bled v
hold' fast n
home' ly a ad
hon' est a
hon' ey n
hope' ful a
hor' rid a
hors' es n
house' hold n
hud' dle n v
hu' man a
hu mane' a
hur' ry n v
I' dol n
im' pulse n
im pure' a
im pure' v
in dite' v
in dulge' v
in' jure v
in' sult n
in volve' v
in' land n
is' sue n v
Jew' el n
join' ed v
jour' ney n v
Kind' est a
kins' man n
kitch' en n
La' den v
la' dy n
la ment' v
lan' guage n
lan' guid a
lan' guish v
large' ness n
laugh' ter n
la' zy a
leath' er n
leg' ate n
lei' sure n
length' en v
light' ning n
liq' uor n
load' ed v
loath' some a
lord' ship n
lus' tre n
Mal' ice n
march' ed v
mar' riage n
meas' ure n v
mat' ter n v
ma ture' v a
max' im n
mean' while ad
men' tion n v
mes' sage n
mil' lion n
mim' īc n v a
mis' chief n
mi' ser n
mis take' n v
mit' tens n
mod' est a
mon' ey n
mon' ster n
mor' tal n
moun' tain n
mum' ble v
mus' cle n
mut' ter n v
Nar' row a v
nas' ty a
naugh' ty a
near' ly ad
ne glect' n v
ner' vous a
neu' tr-al n a
night' watch n
non' sense n
nose' gay n
no' tion n
nurs' es v n
O blige' v
ob tain' v
ob trude' v
o' cean n
o' dious a
of' ten ad
ol' ive n
o' men n
o' nyx n
op tion n
or dain' v
or' gan n
or' phan n
out weighs' v
ox' en n
Pack' et n v
paint' ed v
pale' ness n
par terre' n
pas' sage n
path' less a
pave' ment n
paus' ed v
peace' ful a
peb' ble n
ped' ler n
pen' sion n v
per ceive' v
per mit' v
phys' ic n v
pic' ture n v
pierc' ing v a
pi' ous a
pis' tol n v
pitch' ed v
pit' eous a
pla cards' n
plain' ly ad
play' ed v
plead' ing n v
plen' ty n
plough' man n
plun' der n
po' et n
poi' son n v
po lite' a
por' trait n
post' script n
pos' ture n
po' tent a
poul' try n
pre' cept n
pre' cious a
prel' ate n
pre sage' v n
pre side' v
pre sume' v
prime' ly ad
pro fane' a v
pro tract' v
pub' lish v
pul' pit n
pure' ly ad
pur' ple a
Quar' rels n v
quest' ion n v
quit' ted v
quo' ted v
Rack' ing a
rag' ged a
rain' bow n
rak' ish a
ram' bler n
ran' dom a n
ran' ged v
rap' id a
rash' ly ad
reach' ed v
re ceipt' n
re course' n
re duce' v
ref' uge n
re lease' n v
re lieve' v
rel' ish n v
re pair' n v
re peal' n v
re quite' v
res' cue n v
re sign' v
re sist' v
re straint' n
re treat' n v
re venge' n v
re view' n v
re vive' v
re volve' v
rich' er a
rid' er n
risk' er n
ros' trum n
ruf' fling v
ru' in n v
rus' tic n a
Sa' cred a
sad' dle n v
sad' ness n
safe' ly ad
sage' ly ad
sa lute' n v
sau' cy a
scaf' fold n
scarce' ly ad
scat' ter v
schol' ar n
sci' ence n
sculp' ture n v
search' ed v
sea' shore n
se clude' v
se cure' v a
se duce' v
sense' less a
se rene' a
ser' vice n
ses' sion n
se vere' a
shal' low n a
shame' ful a
sharp' ly ad
shel' ter n v
short' ly ad
shoul' der n v
sick' ly a ad
sil' ly a
sin cere' a
sin' gle a v
slan' der n v
slight' ly ad
slow' ly ad
slug' gard n
smat' ter n v
smil' ing a
soft' ly ad
so' journ v n
sol' emn a
sol' id n
sor' did a
span' ish a
spe' cies n
spec' kle v n
spi' ces n
spi' der n
splen' did a
squan' der v
stage' play n
stag' ger v
stalk' ed v
stand' ard n
star' light n
stat' ed v
stead' fast a
steal' ing v
ster' ling n
stir' reth v
storm' y a
sto' ries n
straight' en v
strength' en v
stretch' ed v
strict' ness n
strik' eth v
strug' gling v
stu' dent n
stud' y n v
stum' ble v n
stu' pid a
sub due' v
sub scribe' v
sub tract' v
suc' cour n v
sud' den n a
suit' ed v
su preme' a
sure' ty n
sur' feit n v
sur prise' n
sus pect' v
sus pend' v
sus pense' n
sus tain' v
swear' ing v
swift' ly ad
swim' ming v
Ta' ble n v
tal' ent n
talk' ing n v
tame' ly ad
tar' ry v
taste' less a
tav' ern n
tax' es n v
te' dious a
ter' rors n
thick' ness n
thir' ty a
thought' ful a
through out' ad
top' ic n
touch' ed v
town' clerk n
tran scend' v
tran spire' v
treat' ed v
tri' al n
tri' fles n
triph' thong n
tro' phies n
troub' led a v
tum' ble n v
tun' ed v
turn' ing n a v
tu' tor n
twen' ty a
Un apt' a
un due' a
tin furl' v
u nite` v
un safe' a
un sought' a
un tie' v
up braid' v
up' right a
up' start n
ur' gent a
u' sage n
use' less a
ut' ter v a
Vain' ly ad
va' pour n
venge' ance n
ven' om n
ver' mine n
ves' sel n
ves' ture n
vic' tim n
vig' our n
vil' est a
vin' tage n
vis' count n
vi' tious a
vo 'cal a
vouch safe' v
vow' el n
Wa' ger n v
wait' ed v
walk' ing v
war' fare n
watch' ed v
weak' en v
wea' ry a v
weigh' ed v
well' bred a
where as' ad
whis' per n v
whole' some a
wid' ow n v
wind' bound a
wing' ed a v
win' ter n v
wise' ly ad
wish' es n v
with draw' v
with' er v
with stood' v
wom' an n
wom' en n
wood' en a
world' ly a ad
worth' less a
writ ten a v
Youn' ger a
youth' ful a
Zeal' ous a
ze' nith n
zeph' yr n
III. Of THREE.
ē-tèr'năl a n
ĕx'ĕr-cīſe n v
cŏn-dĭ'tiòn n v
fŏr-bĭd'dĭng v a
fŏr-bĭd'dén a v
cŏr rŭp'tiòn n
ŏf'fèr-ĭng n v
ſăc'rĭ-fīce n v
cŏn'quèr-ĭng v a
bĕ'n'ē-f ĭts n
w̆òr-ſhĭp-pĭng v a
vĭſĭt-ĭng a v
ŏb-ſèrv'ĭng a v
ăp-pöĭnt'ĕd v a
ĕx ăm'plé n
ĕn-dĕav'oŭrs n v
cör'pōrăl n a
rĕv'ĕr-ĕnce n v
pē-tĭ'tiòn n v
A ban' don v
ab hor' red v
ab strac' tive a
a bun' dant a
ac cent' ed v a
ac' ci dent n
ac cost' ed v
ac' cu rate a
ac quir' ed
ac quire' ment n
ac' tive ly ad
ad mit' ted v
a dorn' ed v
ad van' tage n v
ad ven' ture n v
ad vis' es v
af flic' tion n
af ford' eth v
af front' ed v
af ter noon' n
ag' o ny n
a gre' ed v
a gree' ment n
a larm' ing a v
al le' giance
al li' ance n
al lure' ment n
al might'y a
al read' y ad
al' ter ed v
am bi' tion n
a muse' ment n
an' a lyze v
an' ces tor n
an' chor ed v
an' cient ly ad
an' ec dote n
an' swer ed v
an' ti dote n
an' ti quate v
anx' ious ly ad
a part' ment n
a pos' tle n
ap pa' rent a
ap peal' ed v
ap pear' ance n
ap' pe tite n
ap plaud' ed v
ap' po site a
ap proach' ed v
ar' bi ter n
ar' bo rous a
ar' du ous a
ar' gu ment n
a ris' eth v
ar ray' ed v
ar riv' ed v
ar' ro gant a
art' ful ly ad
at' ti cle n v
as pir' ing v a
as sem' bly n
as ser'tion n
as sist' ance n
as so' ciate n a v
as sum' ed v
as sur' ed v
at tack' ed v
at tain' ment n
at tempt' ed v
at tend' ant n a
at ten' tion n
at' ti tude n
av' a rice n
au' di ence n
aug ment' ed v
a wait' ed v
a wak' ed v
Beau' ti ful a
bed' cham ber n
be hold' ing v
be smear'ed v
be stow' ed v
be tray' ed v
bit' ter ness n
blas' phe my n
bois' ter ous a
bor' row ing v
brav' e ry n
bur' den some a
Cab' in et n
cal' um nies n
can' o py n v
ca'' pa ble a
car di nal n a
car' ri ed v
cat' a ract n
cer' tain ty n
char' ac ter n
char' iot n
cheer' ful ly ad
cin' na mon n
cit' i zen n
clean' li ness n
cler' gy man n
co in cide' v
col lect' ed v
com menc' ed v
com pan' ion
com par' ed v
com pas' sion n
com pel' led v
com plain' ed v
com' ple ment n
com plete' ly ad
com plex' ion n
com pli' ance n
com' pli cate a
com pli' ed v
com' pli ment n
com ply' ing v
com pos' ing v
con ceal' ed v
con cep' tion n
con clud' ed v
con cur' rence n
con duct' or n
con fer' red v
con' fer ence n
con' fi dent n a
con fin' ing v
con form' eth v
con found' ed a v
con fu' sion n
con nex' ion n
con' quer or n
con' se quence
con serv' er n
con sid' er v
con' so nant n a
con spi` red v
con' sta ble n
con' stan cy n
con' sti-tute v
con tem' plate v
con tend' ed v
con ten' tion n
con tin' gent n a
con trac' tion n
con' tra ry n a
con triv' ed v
con ve' nience n
con ver' sant a
con vey' ed v
con vict' ed v
co' pi ous a
cur rupt' ed v a
cot' ta ger n
cov' er ed v
cov' et ous a
coun' sel led v
coun' te nance n
coun' try man n
cred' i tor n
crim' i nal n
crit' i cism n
cu' po la n
Dan' ger ous a
de bauch' ed a
de ceas' ed a v
de ceit' ful a
de ceiv' ed v
de clar' ed v
de clin' ing a v
de feat' ed v
de fraud' eth v
de jec' tion n
de lay' ed v
de li cious a
de light' eth v
de mand' ed v
de part' ed v
de pend' ence n
de port' ment n
de pre' ciate v
de priv' ed v
de ri' sion n
de scrib' ed v
de scrip' tion n
de sir' ed v
des' per ate a
de spis' ed v
des' po tism n
des' ti tute a
de struc' tion n
de tach' ed v
de' vi ous a
de vo' tion n
di' a mond n
dif' fer ence n
dif' fi cult a
dif' fi dent a
di gest' ed v
dig' ni ty n
di min' ish
dis as' ter n
dis charg' ed v
dis cov' er v
dis cours' ing v
dis cre' tion n
dis eas' es n
dis may' ed v
dis mis' sion n
dis pens' eth v
dis play' ed v
dis qui' et n v
dis sem' ble v
dis sent' ers n
dis solv' ed v
dis tem' per n v
dis tinc' tion n
dis tin' guish
dis trac' tion n
dis tress' es n
dis turb'eth v
di ver' sion n
di vin' eth v
do mes' tic n
drunk' en ness n
du' ra ble a
du' ti ful a
Ea' ger ly ad
ear' li est a
ear' nest ness n
ea' si er a
ea' si ly ad
e di' tion n
ef fect' ed v
ef' flu ence n
el' e vates v
e lev' en a
el' o quence
eys' ian a
em' i nent a
em' per or n
emp' ti ness n
en am' our v
en clos' ed
en coun' ter n v
en cour' age v
en dear' ment n
en' er gy n
en grav' en v
en gross' ed v
en no' ble v
en rol' led v
en tan' gled v
en ter tain' v
e pis' tle n
ep' i taph n
eq' ui ty n
es pi' ed v
es sen' tial a
event' ful a
ev' i dent a
ex alt' ed v a
ex ceed' ing ad a
ex' cel lence n
ex cit' ed v
ex claim' ed v
ex cur' sion n
ex cos' es n v
ex hib' it v
ex ist' ence n
ex pect' est v
ex pen' sive a
ex plic' it a
ex pres' sion n
ex tort' ing v a
ex treme' ly ad
Fac' ul ty n
faith' ful ly ad
fam' i lies n
fam' ish ed v a
fan' ci ed v
fas' ci nous a
fa tigu' ed v
fear' ful ly ad
feath' er ed a v
fin' er ies n
fin' ish ed v a
fish' er men n
flat' ter er n
flow' er et n
fol' low ed v
fool' ish ness n
fop' pe ries n
for as much' c
for bear' ance n
for get' ful a
for got' ten v a
form' er ly ad
for' ti tude n
fre' quent ly ad
friv' o lous a
fro' ward ness n
ful fil' led v
Gen' e rous a
ge' ni us n
gen' tle man n
glit' ter ing a
grand' fa ther n
grate' ful ly ad
grat' i fy v
greed' i ness n
Hand' ker chief n
hap' pi ness n
har' den ed a v
heav' i ness n
here af' ter n ad
his' to ry n
hon' es ty n
hon' ey comb n
hot' head ed a
hyp' o crite n
I de' a n
ig' no rance n
im' i tate v
im mor' tal a
im pa' tience n
im plot' eth v
im port' ance n
im pos' ed v
im pres' sion n
im prop' er a
im pru' dence n
in ac' tive a
in ces' sant a
in' ci dent n a
in debt' ed a v
in' di cate v
in' di gent a
in dig' nant a
in' dus try n
in' fa my n
in' fan cy n
in fec' tion n
in' fi del n
in' flu ence n v
in i' tial a
in' ju ry n
in no cence n
in quir' y n
in scrip' tion n
in sip' id a
in' so lence n
in so much' a l
in' sti tute n v
in struc' tion n
in' ter est n
in ter' pret v
in ter' red v
in' ter view n
in' ti mate n v a
in' tri cate a
in tro duce' v
in vec' tive n a
is' su ed v
Jol' li ty n
ju di' cial a
La' dy ship n
lan' guag es n
la' zi ness n
leg' a cy n
leg' i ble a
ev' i ty n
lib' er al a
lib' er tine n a
li' bra ry n
list' en ed v
lit' tle ness n
live' li hood n
liv' er y n
lo qua' cious a
lux' u ry n
Ma gi' cian n
mag' is trate n
maj' es ty n
mal' a dy n
mas' ter-stroke n
med'i tate v
me lo' dious a
mem' o ries n
mer' cu ry n
mer' ri ment n
mes'sen ger n
met' a phor n
mir' a cle n
mod' es ty n
more o' ver ad
mo' tion less a
move' a ble a
moul' der ing a v
moun' tain ous a
mul' ti tude n
Na' ked ness n
nar ra' tion n
nar' ra tive n a
nat' u ral a n
need' less ly ad
neg' li gence n
no' ble man n
noth' ing ness n
nu' me rous a
O bei' sance n
o blig' ed v
ob tain' ed v
ob' vi ous a
oc ca' sion n v
oc' cu py v
of fen' sive a
of' fi cer n
of fi' cial n a
oft' en times ad
o mit' ted v
o' pen ness n
o pin' ion n
op pos' ed v
op pres' sor n
or' a tor n
or' i gin n
or' na ment n
o' ver ture n
Par' a graph n
par' lia ment n
par' ti cle n
part' ner ship n
pas' sa ges n
pas' sen ger n
pas' sion ate a
pa' tri arch n
pa' tri ot n a
pe cu' liar a
pen' al ty n
pen' e trate v
pen' i tence n
pen' ny- worth n
per ceiv' ed v
per cus' sion n
per fid' ious a
pe' ri od n
per' ju ry n
per' ma nent a
per mis' sion n
per mit' ted v
per ni' cious a
phy si' cian n
pi' e ty n
pit' i ful a
plan ta' tion n
pleas' ant ness n
plen' teous ly ad
po et' ic a
po' et ry n
pol' i cy n
po lite' ness n
pol lu' tion n
po si' tion n
pos sess' es v
pos ses' sor n
pos' si ble a
pos til' lion n
pov' er ty n
prac' ti cal a
praise' wor thy a
pre ci' sion n
ef er ence n
pre fer' ment n
pre ma ture' a
pre sent' ed v
pre sum' est v
pre ten' sion n
prim' i tive a
prin' ci ple n v
pris' on er n
prod' i gal n a
pro duc' ed v
pro fes' sion n
pro nounc' ed v
pro po' sal n
pro scrip' tion n
pros' per ous a
pro tec' tor n
prov' en der n
pro verb' ial a
pro vi' sion n
pub' lish ed v
pu' ri fy v
pur' pos ed v
pur su' ed v
Qual' i ty n
quan' ti ty n
quar' rel some a
quar' ter ed v
quick' en ed v
qui es' cence n
qui' et ness n
Ran' som ed v a
ra pa' cious a
rap' id ly ad
rat' i fy v
ra' tion al a
rav' ish ing v a
read' i ness n
re' al ly ad
re bound' ed v
re buk' ed v
re ci' tal n
reck' on er n
re clin' ed v
rec om mend' v
rec' om pense n v
re duc' tion n
re flec' tion n
re gard' less a
reg' i ment n
reg' u lar n a
re joic' ing v
re lat' ed v
re leas' ed v
re liev' er n
re main' der n
rem' e dy n v
re mit' tance n
re pair' ed v
re peat' ed v
re pin' ing v
re prov' eth v
re quest' ed v
re sem' blance n
re serv' ed v a
re sound' ing v a
re spec' tive a
re sum' ed v
re tire' ment n
ret' ro grade a
rev er ie' n
re vil' ed v
re volv' eth v
re ward' ed v
rid' i cule n v
ri dot' to n
ri' ot ous a
ro man' tic a
roy' al ty n
ru' in ed v a
Sal' a ry n
scan' da lous a
scat' ter ed v
sci' en ces n
scorn' ful ly ad
scru' pu lous a
se clud' ed v
se' cre cy n
se' cret ly ad
se di' tious a
se duce' ment n
se lect' ed v
sen' su al a
sen' ten ces n v
sen' ti ment n
se qua' cious a
se rene' ly ad
se' ri ous a
ser' vi ces n
ser' vi tude a
set' tle ment n
sev' en teen a
se vere' ly ad
shiv' er ing a v
sick' ness es n
sim' ple ton n
sim' u lar n
sin cere' ly ad
si' ne cure n
sin' gu lar a
skil' ful ly ad
slan' der ous a
slip' pe ry a
soft' en ed v
sol' emn ly ad
sol' id ness n
sol' i tude n
sov' e reign n a
speed' i ly ad
spir' it less a
stam' mer ed v
stud' i eth v
stu' di ous a
stu pen' dous a
sub mis' sion n
sub' sti tute n v
suc ceed' ed v
suc cess' ful a
suf' fer ance n
suf fi' cient a
sug gest' ed v
suit' a ble a
sump' tu ous a
sup' per less a
sup'pli cant n
sup pli' ed v
sup pos' ed v
sup pres' sion n
su preme' ly ad
sur pass' ed v
sur pris' ed a v
sur ren' der n v
sur round' ed v
sur viv' ed v
sus pect' ed a v
sus tain' ing v
swal' low eth v
syl' la ble n v
Talk' a tive a
te' dious ness n
tem' per ance n
ten' den cy n
ten' der ness n
ter' ri bly ad
the' a tre n
thor' ough ly ad
tor na' does n
trans ac' tion n
tran scend' eth v
tran scrib' ed v
trans form' ed a v
trans la' tion n
trav' el ler n
treas' ur ed v
trin' i ty n
triv' i al a
tri umph'ed v
troub' le some a
typ' i cal a
ty ran' nic a
tyr' an ny n
Un ea' sy a
un ruf' fled a
use' ful ness n
u' su al a
u' su ry n
ut' ter ance n
Va' por ous a
va' ri ed v
va' ri ous a
ve' hi cle n
ven' e rate v
ver' i ly ad
vex a' tious a
vīg' i lant a
vil' lan ous a
vin' e gar n
vi' o lence n
vir' tu ous a
vir' u lent a
vis' it or n
vo' ta ries n
Wan' der er n
weak' en ed v
wea'ri ed a v
where ev' er ad
wil' der ness n
wind' ing sheet n
wit' ti cism n
Yeo' man ry n
yes' ter day n ad
Zo' dĭ ac n
IV. Of FOUR.
ĕx' ē-cūt-ĕth v
ör'dĭ-nă-ry̆ n a
ō-rĭg'ĭ-năl n a
ăc knŏw'lĕdg·ĕd v
cŏm-prē-hĕnd' ĕd v
tĕs 'tĭ-nò-ny̆ n
A ban' don ed a v
a bit' i ties n
a bil'i ty n
ab' so lute ly ad
ab ste' mi ous a
ac cept' a ble a
ac ci dent' al a
ac com' plish ed a v
ac cu sa' tion n
ac quain' tan ces n
ac' tu al ly ad
ad' mir a ble a
ad mi ra' tion n
ad mo ni' tion n
ad o ra' tion n
ad van' ta ges n v
ad' ver sa ry n
af fec' tion ate a
ag' i tat ing v
a gree' a bly ad
al ge bra' ist n
a' li en ate v
al i ment' al a
al to geth' er ad
an nu' i ty n
an' te cham ber n
an tiq' ui ty n
anx i'e ties n
a pol' o gies n
ap pel la' tion n
ap pear' an ces n
ap pre hend' er n
ap pro ba' tion n
ar min' i an n a
ar tic' u late a v
as ton' ish merit n
Bar ba' ri an n
be nef' i cent a
ben e fi' cial a
be nev' o lence n
be nev' o lent a
Cal cu la' tion n
cal a man' co n
cal ci na' tion n
cal cu la' tor n
cal vi nist' ic a
ca pac' i ty n
ca tas' tro phe n
cel' e brat ed a v
cer' e mo ny n
cha me' le on n
chi can' e ry n
cir cum spec' tion n
cir' cum stan ces n
ci vil' i ty n
com mis' sion er n
com mu' ni cate v
com mu' ni ty n
com par' i son n
com pas' sion ate a v
com pen sa' tion n
con de scend' ed v
con sid' er eth v
con so la' tion n
con spic' u ous a
con sti tu' tion n
con tem pla' tion n
con ve' nient ly ad
con ve' nien cies n
con ver sa' tion n
cor re spond' ence n
cru' ci fi ed a v
De bauch' e ry n
dec o ra' tion n
ded' i cat ing v
de fi' cien cy n
del' i ca cy n
de liv' er ance n
der' o gat ing a v
des o la' tion n
de ter' min ed v
det es ta' tion n
det ri ment' al a
dif' fer ent ly ad
dif' fi cult y n
dig' ni fi ed a v
dil' a to ry a
dis ap point' ment n
dis cov' er y n
dis pen sa' tion n
dis po si' tion n
dis pu ta' tion n
dis si pa' tion n
dis so lu' tion n
dis tin' guish ed a v
dis tri bu' tion n
di vin' i ty n
Em bar'rass ment n
en am' mel led a v
en am' our ed a v
e bri' e ty n
e bul li tion n
e con' o my n
en deav' our ed v
en ter tain'ment n
en thu' si asm n
en vi' ron ed v
ep i dem' ic a
e rad' i cate v
er u di' tion n
es tab' lish ed a v
es ti ma' tion n
ex am' in ed v
ex em' pla ry a
ex hi bi' tion n
ex hor ta' tion n
ex pe' ri ence n v
ex po si' tion n
ex trav' a gance n
ex trem' i ty n
Fash' ion a ble a
fa' vour a ble a
fe lic' i ty n
fi del' i ty n
for get' ful ness n
for ni ca' tion n
for' ti fi ed a v
fru gal' i ty n
fu tu' ri ty n
Gen' e ral ly ad
ge' ni us es n
grad' u al ly ad
grat' i fi ed v
Hab i ta' tion n
har' mo niz ed v
hon' our a ble a
hos' pi ta ble a
hu man' i ty n
hu mil' i ty n
hy poc' ri sy n
I den' ti cal a
il lus' tri ous a
im per' fect ly ad
im pos' si ble a
im pris' on ment n
in ca' pa ble a
in ces' sant ly ad
in cli na' tion n
in com mo' ded v
in de pend' ence n
in dif' fer ent a
in dis tinct' ly ad
i den' ti ty n
i dol' a trize v
in dus' tri ous a
in' fi nite ly ad
in fir' mi ties n
in' flu en ced v
in for ma' tion n
in her' i tance n
in ju di' cious a
in quis' i tive a
in scru' ta ble a
in sen' si ble a
in sti tu' tion n
in teg' ri ty n
in tem' per ance n
in' ter cours es n
in' ter est ed a v
in ter mis' sion n
in ter' pret er n
in ter rupt' ing v
in ter ve' nient a
in ter ven' ed v
in' ti ma cy n
in tox' i cate v
in tro duc' er n
in vi ta' tion n
ir rev' er ence n
Lib' er al ly ad
lit' er a ry a
lit er a' ti n
lit' er a ture n
lo quac' i ty n
lux u' ri ous a
Mag nif' i cence n
major' i ties n
me di a' tor n
med i ta' tion n
mel' an cho ly n a
mer' ci ful ly ad
me trop' o lis n
mis be hav' iour n
mis' er a ble a
mod er a' tion n
mon' ast er y n
mo not' o nous a
mor tal' i ty n
Nat' ur al ly ad
nec' es sa ries n
ne fa' ri ous a
no bil' i ty n
non sen' si cal a
not with stand'ing c
nurs' er y-maid n
Ob liv' i on n
ob ser va' tion n
o be' dient ly ad
ob' du ra cy n
ob' vi at ed v
oc cu pa' tion n
oc' cu pi ed v
oc cur' ren ces n
om nip' o tence n
om nip' o tent a
op e ra' tion n
op po si' tion n
op pro' bri ous a
os ten ta' tion n
o ver aw' ed v
o ver hear' ing v
o' ver se er n
Par tic' u lar n a
pe cu' liar ly ad
per ad ven' ture ad
per' ma nent ly ad
per pet' u al a
per plex' i ty n
per' se cut ed a v
per' son al ly ad
phi lan' thro py n
phi los' o pher n
phi los' o phy n
pit' i a ble a
plu ral' ity n
po lit' i cal a
pa' ci fi er n
pre ben' da ry n
pre dom' i nate v
pal' at a ble a
pre rog' a tive n
pa lat' i nate n
pal li a' tion n
prof' it a ble a
prom' on to ry n
pal' li a tive n a
pal pi ta' tion n
Qual' i fi ed a v
Rec an ta' tios n
rec ol lec' tion n
rec ol lect' ing v
re col lec' tive a
rec om mend' eth v
re cov er ed v
re cov' er y n
re cep' ta ry n
rec re at' ing v
ref or ma' tion n
re mark' a ble a
re mark' a bly ad
re mem' ber ed v
rep e ti' tion n
re cip' i ent n
res ig na' tion n
res o lu' tion n
re spect' ful ly ad
ret ri bu' tion n
re u nit'ed v
rev e la' tion n
ru' mi nat ing v
Sac' ri fi cing v
sat is fac' tion n
sat' is fi ed v
sea' son a ble a
sec' re ta ry n
se cu' ri ty n
sep' a rat ed v
se ques' ter ed v a
se ren' i ty n
se' ri ous ly ad
se' ri ous ness n
se ver' i ty n
sig na liz' ing v
sim plic' i ty n
sin cer' i ty n
sit u a' tion n
so bri' e ty n
so ci' e ty n
so ci' e ties n
so lic' i tude n
sol' i ta ry a
sa cer do' tal a
stig' ma tiz ed v
su per' flu ous a
sac ra ment' al a
su per sti' tion a
su per sti' tious a
sus cep' ti ble a
Tem' po ra ry a
ter' mi nat ed v
ter res' tri al a
tab e fac' tion n
the at' ri cal a
tol er d' tion n
tran quil' li ty n
tran' si to ry a
tu mul' tu ous a
ty ran' ni cal a
Un as sist' ed a
un cer' tain ty n
un der stand' ing n v
un der tak' ing n v
un ex pect' ed a
un for' tu nate a
un hap' pi ly ad
u ni ver' sal a
un lim' it ed a
un pre par' ed a
Val' u a ble a
va ri' e ty n
ven' er a ble a
ven er a' tion n
ve rac' i ty n
ver' ifi ed v
vi cin' i ty n
Whence so ev' er a
where so ev' er ad
whom so ev' er p
who to ev' er p
won' der ful ly ad
V. Of FIVE.
Ac ci dent' al ly ad
ac com mo da tion n
ac com'pa ni ed v
am phi the' a tre n
ar gu men' ta tive a
Bac cha na' li an n
Char ac ter is' tic n a
christ i an' i ty n
con sci en' tious ly ad
con sid' er a ble a
con sid er a' tion n
con tin' u al ly ad
cu ri os' i ty n
De clam' a to ry a
de lib er ate ly ad
de lib er a' tion n
dis crim i na' tion n
dis in' ter est ed a
dis sim u la' tion n
E van gel' i cal a
ex am i na' tion n
ex pe' ri en ced a v
ex trav' a gant ly ad
ex trav' a gan cies n
For ti fi ca' tion n
Gen e ral' i ty n
gen e ros' i ty n
grat i fi ca' tion n
He red' i ta ry a
he ro' i cal ly ad
Im ag i na' tion n
im prac' ti ca ble a
in a bil' i ty n
in cor rup ti ble a
in dis pu ta ble a
in es' ti ma ble a
in ev' it a bly ad
in ex pres' si ble a
in fat' u at ed a
in ge nu' i ty n
in im' i ta ble a
in ju ri ous ly ad
in sin u a tion n
in tel lec tu al a
in ter pre ta' tion n
in tim' i dat ed a v
in tol er a ble a
in tox i ca' tion n
in va ri a ble a
in ves' ti gat ing v
ir re sist' i ble a
La bo' ri ous ly ad
Min is te' ri al a
Nec' es sa ri ly ad
Op por tu' ni ty n
Par tic' u lar ly ad
pop u lar' i ty n
prod i gal' i ty n
Reg u lar' i ty n
rep re sen ta' tion n
Sen si bil' i ty n
sen su al' i ty n
su per flu' i ty n
Un ac count' able a
un char' i ta ble a
un con' quer a ble a
un di min' ish ed a
un em bit' ter ed
un in ter rupt' ed a
u ni ver' si ty n
un rea son a ble a
un war' ran ta ble a
Vo lop' tu ous ness
VI. Of SIX.
Ec cle si as ti cal a
ex tra or' di na ry a
in corn pre hen' si ble a
su pe ri or' i ty n
un ac com' mo dat ing a
VII. Of .Seven. Eight. &c.
An ti tri ni ta' ri an n
Charac ter is' tical ness n
Dis sat is fac' to ri ness n
Ex tra or' di na ri ly ad
ex tra or' di na ri ness n
Hi e ro glyph' i cal lv ad
Im ma te ri al' i ty n
in cor rup ti bil' i ty n
Lat i tu di na' ri an n
Me te o ro log' i cal a
Per pen dic u lar' ity n
Rec on cil' i a to ry a
Su per er' u ga to ry a
Un in hab' i ta ble ness n
un phi lo soph' i cal ly ad
Val e tu di na' ri an n a
In com pre hen si bil' i ty
Con tra reg u lar i bil' i ty n
Hon o rif i ca bil i tu din' i ty n
An thro po mor phi tan i an is mi cal i a' tion a
Words which occur in the following six pages.
Ea'sy, les'sons, be-gin'ners, po-et'i-cal, scrip'ture, heav'ens,
doc'crine, dis-til', ten'der, show'ers, up.on', be-cause', pub'--
lish, as-cribe', great'ness, un'to, per'fect, judg'ment, with-out',
mak'eth, bring'eth, lift'eth, rais'eth, beg'gar, dung'--
hill, a-mong', prin'ces, in-her'it, glo'ry, pil'lars, wick'ed,
lent, dark'ness, pre.-vail', ad'ver-sa-ries, bro'ken, pie'ces, thun'--
der, ex-alt', an-oint ed, de-clare', fir'ma-ment, shew'eth,
han'dy-work, ut'ter-eth, know'ledge, con-vert'ing, tes'ti-mo--
ny, sim'ple, stat'utes, re-joic'ing, com-mand'ment, en-light'en--
ing, en-dur'ing, for-ev'er, right'eous, al-to-geth'er, de-sir'ed,
sweet'er, al'so, hon'ey, hon'ey-comb, more o'ver, ser'vant,
warn'ed, keep'ing, re-ward', prais'es, lov-ing-kind'ness, morn'--
ing, faith'ful-ness, ev'e-ry, joy'ful, sal-va'tion, be-fore', pres'--
ence, thanks'giv-ing, a-bove', pla'ces, form'ed, wor'ship,
mak'er, peo'ple, pas'ture, hea'then, won'ders, great'ly, fear'--
ed, na'tions, i'dols, hon'our, maj'es-ty, beau'ty, sanc'tu-a-ry,
kin'dreds, of'fer-ing, ho'li-ness, reign'eth, es-tab'lish-ed, moved,
right'eous-ly, ful'ness, there-of', there in', rejoice', com'--
eth, right'eous-ness, with-in', ho'ly, for-get', ben'e-fits, for--
giv'eth, in-iq'ui-ties, heal'eth, dis-eas'es, re-deem'eth, de--
struc'tion, crown'eth, tender, mer'cies, sat'is fi-eth, re-new'--
ed, ea'gles, ex'e-cut-eth, op-press'ed, Mo'ses, chil'dren, Is'--
ra-el, mer'ci-ful, gra'cious, an'ger, plen'teous, mer'cy, al'ways,
nei'ther, af'ter, re-ward'ed, ac-cord'ing, to'ward, re-mov'ed,
trans-gress'ion, fa'ther, pit'i eth, know'eth, re-mem'ber-eth,
flow er, flour'ish-eth, pass'eth, o'ver, ev-er-last'ing, cov'e--
nant, pre-par'ed, king'dom, rul'eth, an'gels, ex.cel', heark'en--
ing, min'is-ters, pleas'ure, do-min'ion, ver'y, cloth'ed, cov'er--
est, thy-self', gar'ment, stretch'est, cur'tain, lay'eth, cham'--
bers, wa'ters, char'i-ot, walk'eth, spi'rits, flam'ing, foun-da'--
tions, moun'tains, re buke', hast'ed, val'lies, found'ed,
send'eth, ass'es, hab-i ta'tions, branch'es, wa'ter-eth, caus'eth,
cat'tle, ser'vice, strength'en-eth, ex-tol', un-search'a ble, gen--
er-a'tion, an-oth'er, mighty, glo'ri ous, won'drous, ter'ri-ble, abun'dant-ly,
mem'o-ry, good'ness, com-pass'ion, pow'er, en--
dur'eth, through-out', up hold'eth, bow'ed, giv'est, sea'son,
o'pen-est, sat'is-fi est, de-sire', liv'ing, ful-fil', pre-serv'eth, de--
stroy', an'y, be'ing, go'eth, re-turn'eth, per'ish, reach'eth,
pre-serv'est, ex'cell ent, there'fore, un'der, shad'ow, fat'ness,
riv'er, fountain, con-tin'ue, up-right', hap'py, Ja'cob, hun--
gry, loos'eth, pris'on ers, lov'eth, strang'ers, re-liev'eth, fa'ther--
less, wid'ow, turn'eth, up'side.
A FEW EASY LESSONS FOR BEGINNERS,
FROM THE POETICAL PARTS OF SCRIPTURE.
GIVE ear, O ye heavens, and I will speak; and
hear, O earth, the words of my mouth. My
doctrine shall drop as the rain, my speech shall distil
as the dew; as the small rain upon the tender herb,
and as the showers upon the grass: Because I will
publish the name of the Lord; ascribe ye greatness
unto our God. He is the Rock, his work is perfect;
for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth, and
without iniquity; just and right is he.
The Lord maketh poor, and maketh rich: he bringeth
low, and lifteth up. He raiseth up the poor out
of the dust, and lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill,
to set them among princes, and to make them inherit
the throne of glory: for the pillars of the earth
are the Lord's, and he hath set the world upon them.
He will keep the feet of his saints, and the wicked
shall be silent in darkness; for by strength shall no
The adversaries of the Lord shall be broken to pieces;
out of heaven shall be thunder upon them: the Lord
shall judge the ends of the earth; and he shall give
strength unto his king, and exalt the horn of his anointed.
The heavens declare the glory of God; and the
firmament sheweth his handy-work. Day unto day
uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge.
The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul
the testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the
simple. The statutes of the Lord are right, rejoicing
the heart: the commandment of the Lord is pure, enlightening
the eyes. The fear of the Lord is clean,
enduring for ever: the judgments of the Lord are true
and righteous altogether. More to be desired are
they than gold, yea, than much fine gold; sweeter also
than honey, and the honey-comb. Moreover, by them
is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there
is great reward.
It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord, and
to sing praises unto thy name, O most High: To shew
forth thy loving-kindness in the morning, and thy faithfulness
every night. O come, let us sing unto the Lord:
let us make a joyful noise to the Rock of our salvation.
Let us come before his presence with thanksgiving, and
make a joyful noise unto him with psalms. For the
Lord is a great God, and a great King above all gods.
In his hand are the deep places of the earth: the
strength of the hills is his also. The sea is his, and
he made it: and his hands formed the dry land. O
come, let us worship and bow down: let us kneel before
the Lord our Maker: For he is our God, and we
are the people of his pasture, and the sheep of his
hand. O sing unto the Lord a new song: sing unto
the Lord, all the earth. Sing unto the Lord, bless his
name: shew forth his salvation from day to day.
Declare his glory among the heathen, his wonders
among all people. For the Lord is great, and greatly
to be praised: he is to he feared above all gods. —
For all the gods of the nations are idols: but the Lord
made the heavens. Honour and majesty are before him;
strength and beauty are in his sanctuary. Give unto the
Lord, O ye kindreds of the people, give unto the Lord
glory and strength. Give unto the Lord the glory due
unto his name: bring an offering, and come into his
O worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness; fear
before him, all the earth. Say among the heathen,
that the Lord reigneth: the world also shall be established
that it shall not be moved: he shall judge the
people righteously. Let the heavens rejoice, and let
the earth be glad; let the sea roar, and the fulness
thereof: Let the field be joyful, and all that is therein:
then shall all the trees of the wood rejoice before
the Lord: for he cometh, for he cometh to judge the
earth: he shall judge the world with righteousness,
And the people with his truth.
Bless the Lord, O my soul; and all that is within
me, bless his holy name. Bless the Lord, O my soul,
and forget not all his benefits: Who forgiveth all
thine iniquities; who healeth all thy diseases; who
redeemeth thy life from destruction; who crowneth
thee with loving-kindness and tender mercies; who
satisfieth thy mouth with good things: so that thy
youth is renewed like the eagle's.
The Lord executeth righteousness and judgment for
all that are oppressed. He made known his ways unto
Moses, his acts unto the children of Israel. The
Lord is merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and
plenteous in mercy. He will not always chide; neither
will he keep his anger for ever. He hath not
dealt with us after our sins, nor rewarded us according
to our iniquities. For as the heaven is high above
the earth, so great is his mercy toward them that fear
As far as the cast is from the west, so far hath he
removed our transgressions from us. Like as a father
pitieth his children, so the Lord pitieth them that fear
him. For he knoweth our frame; he remembereth
that we are dust. As for man, his days are as grass;
as a flower of the field so he flourisheth: For
wind passeth over it, and it is gone; and the place
thereof shall know it no more.
The mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting
upon them that fear him, and his righteousness
unto children's children; to such as keep his covenant,
and to those that remember his commandments
to do them. The Lord hath prepared his throne in the
heavens; and his kingdom ruleth over all. Bless the
Lord, ye his angels, that excel in strength, that do his
commandments, hearkening unto the voice of his word.
Bless ye the Lord, all ye his hosts; ye ministers of his
that do his pleasure. Bless the Lord, all his works in
all places of his dominion: Bless the Lord, O my
O Lord my God, thou art very great; thou art
clothed with honour and majesty; who coverest thyself
with light as with a garment; who stretchest out
the heavens like a curtain. Who layeth the beams
of his chambers in the waters; who maketh the clouds
his chariot; who walketh upon the wings of the wind;
who maketh his angels spirits; his ministers a flaming
fire; who laid the foundations of the earth, that it
should not be removed for ever.
Thou coveredst it with the deep as with a garment:
the waters stood above the mountains. At thy rebuke
they fled; at the voice of thy thunder they hasted
away. They go up by the mountains; they go down
by the vallies unto the place which thou hast founded
for them. Thou hast set a bound that they may not
pass over, that they turn not again to cover the earth.
He sendeth the springs into the vallies, which run
among the hills.
They give drink to every beast of the field: the
wild asses quench their thirst. By them shall the
fowls of the heaven have their habitation, which sing
among the branches. He watereth the hills from his
chambers: the earth is satisfied with the fruit of thy
works. He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle,
and herb for the service of man, that he may bring
forth food out of the earth, and wine that maketh
glad the heart of man, and oil to make his face to
shine, and bread which strenghtheneth man's heart.
I will extol thee, my God, O King; and I will bless
thy name for ever and ever. Every day will I bless
thee; and I will praise thy name for ever and ever.
Great is the Lord, and greatly to be praised; and his
greatness is unsearchable. One generation shall praise
thy works to another, and shall declare thy mighty
acts. I will speak of the glorious honour of thy majesty,
and of thy wondrous works. And men shall
speak of the might of thy terrible acts; and I will declare
They shall abundantly utter the memory of thy
great goodness, and shall sing of thy righteousness.
The Lord is gracious, and full of compassion; slow to
anger, and of great mercy. The Lord is good to
all; and his tender mercies are over all his works.
All thy works shall praise thee, O Lord; and thy
saints shall bless thee. They shall speak of the glory
of thy kingdom, and talk of thy power; to make
known to the sons of men his mighty acts, and the
glorious majesty of his kingdom. Thy kingdom is
an everlasting kingdom, and thy dominion endureth
throughout all generations.
The Lord upholdeth all that fall, and raiseth up all
those that be bowed down. The eyes of all wait upon
thee, thou givest them their meat in due season.
Thou openest thine hand, and satisfiest the desire
of every living thing. The Lord is righteous in
his ways, and holy in all his works. The Lord is
nigh unto all them that call upon him, to all that call
upon him in truth. He will fulfil the desire of them
SHORT DETACHED SENTENCES.
Proverbs, Moral Maxims, Choice Sayings, &c.
LOOSELY THROWN TOGETHER.
1. A GOOD tale is not the worse of being twice told.
2. A clean corner is not the worse of being searched.
3. Opinion is but a very sorry arbiter.
4. Concord bereaves the law.
5. Insipid wine may make good vinegar.
6. Charity concealeth faults.
7. A blot in the forehead cannot be hid.
8. If the best man's faults were written on his forehead,
he would pull his hat over his eyes.
9. A man's fault will be as big as a mountain, before
he himself can see it.
10. The best concealment of evil is not to commit it.
11. He who is conscious of guilt himself, commonly
endeavours to involve others.
12. Honesty is the best policy, and innocence the
13. It is bad meat that will not take salt, and as bad
a person who will not take advice.
14. He is a fool that will take no advice, and a fool
who takes every advice.
15. He who will be his own master, has often a fool
for his scholar.
16He who will neither obey father nor mother,
must obey the calf's skin.
17. The child whom you neglect to tutor at your
knee, you will not tutor when he comes to your ear.
18. It is difficult to straighten in the oak, the bend
that grew in the twig.
19. He who will not look before him, will have reason
to look behind him.
20. He who will not sow in a cold day, will not
reap in a warm one.
21. Where the river is most shallow, it makes the
22. The fox will run no farther than his feet will
23. He who does his work in season will be half idle.
24. When a man's substance is gone, his counsel is
25. The wisdom of a poor man is like a palace in a
26. Oft has counsel, fit for a king, come from the
head of a fool.
27. Tell not your mind to a friend that is silly, nor
to an enemy that is wise.
28. If you tell all you know, you will soon find
something to blush at.
29. What you do not hear to-day, you will not tell
30. He who tells many tales, often tells many lies.
31. It is not prudent for a man to publish all his
32. The tongue may cast a knot which the teeth
33. Report is a quick traveller, but an unsafe guide.
34. Much harm may come from the mistake of a
35. Replies are not always answers.
36 Slippery is the stone at the great man's door.
37. When the finger ceaseth to drop, the mouth
ceaseth to praise.
38. It is not believed the liberal can be drained, till
his pocket is turned inside out.
39. The stone that meets not with my foot, will
never hurt me.
40. Civility never got a man a broken head.
41. Wrecks are most frequent near the shore.
42. A man will sleep upon every disaster but his
43. It is hard to make good house-keeping from
44. As the climbing up of a sandy way is to the
feet of the aged, so is a wife full of words to a quiet
45. A good husband's wife is seldom bad; but it
were better for him to find her good, than make her so.
25. Slow is the sluggard to go to bed, and seven
times slower to rise.
47. They never threw away with one hand, who
had not occasion to gather with both.
48. The most uneasy seat at the ale-house is the
49. It is in vain to look for warm water under a
50. A covetous eye never got a good pennyworth.
51. It is when misfortune comes, that real friends
52. It is difficult to please the child who cannot tell
53. He that is angry without a cause, must be pleased
54. Diseases are the interest of sinful pleasures.
55. Fly the pleasures that will bite to-morrow.
56. There is seldom much joy without some grief
57. Too late repentance, is like sowing seed when
the season is over.
58. If we put off our repentance till another day,
we have a day more to repent of, and a day less to repent
59. Religion is the best armour in the world, but
the worst cloak.
60. He who increases the endearments of life, increases
also the terrors of death.
61. When our vices leave us, we flatter ourselves
that we leave them.
62. Vice is covered by wealth, and virtue by poverty.
63. Darkness may as well put on the name of light,
as a wicked man the name of a Christian.
64. Many a man shifts his sins as he does his
clothes; he puts off one to put on another: this is but
waiting upon the devil in a new livery.
65. If a man live and die a mere professor, it had
been better for him if he had lived and died a mere
66. A man may be a worshipper of the true God,
and yet not a true worshipper of God.
67. God takes notice of every man, as if there were
none else; and yet takes notice of all as if they were
but one man.
68. If you forget God when you are young, God
may forget you when you are old.
69. The chamber of the dying mortal, is the best
school for those students who would know themselves.
70. Vanity has many silly tricks; despotism, many
cruel devices; love, many strange ways; but folly is
71. It is not every head that will fit a crown, though
every upstart thinks himself fit to wear one.
72. To be covetous of applause, discovers a slender
merit; and self-conceit is the ordinary attendant of
73. Scholars are frequently to be met with, who
are ignorant of nothing — but their own ignorance.
74. Books are as often condemned for want of conception
in the reader, as want of ability in the writer.
75. Our greatest pleasures and virtues, our greatest
vices and sorrows, pass under the canopy of secrecy.
76. The highest pleasure in friendship, is a free communcation
of all thoughts, designs, and counsels.
77. There can be no friendship where there is no
78. Hearts may agree, though heads differ.
79. Some men are silent for want of matter, and
some are talkative for want of sense.
80. Frequently to laugh, is the surest way of being
81. Those who are satsfied with compliments, may,
with the chameleon, live on air.
82. The purse of the patient frequently protracts
83. They who drive away time spur a free horse.
84. Those who expose their persons to the assaults
of danger for fame, or for the defence of improper
conduct, certainly have more blood than brains to
85. When slanderers, gamesters, and drunkards, associate
with their chosen friends, they are in the greatest
86. Coxcombs may be very acceptable visitors to
those who are fond of seeing new clothes, hearing the
slanders of the day, and egotistical narrations.
87. Rich dress ennobles no man, since it is equally
the slave of every one whom chance has enabled to
88. A fop of fashion is said to be the mercer's
friend, the tailor's fool, and his own foe.
89. A beau dressed out is like the cinnamon tree;
the bark is worth more than the body.
90. Custom is the plague of wise men, and the idol
91. What is necessary cannot be said to proceed
92. That which a man envies in another, he would
be proud of, if he had it himself.
93. If a man is not content in the state he is in, he
will not be content in any state he would be in.
94. Some by wit may get wealth, but none by
wealth can get wit.
95. Wits are seldom prosperous; and prosperity has
brought many to their wit's end.
96. The prodigal robs his heir; the miser robs
97. Poverty wants some, luxury many, avarice all
98. We must answer for our riches, but our riches
cannot answer for us.
99. To have a portion in the world is a mercy; to
have the world for a portion is a misery.
100. There is an evil, says the wise man, which I
have seen under the sun, and it is common among men:
A man to whom God hath given riches wealth, and
honour, so that he wanteth nothing for his soul of
that he desireth, yet God giveth him not power to eat
thereof, but a stranger eateth it: This is vanity, and it
is an evil disease.
101. He that loveth silver shall not be satisfied with
silver; nor he that loveth abundance with increase.
Riches are indifferent things; good or bad as they are
used: be then as indifferent to them as they are to you.
What is the world to those who are in eternity, where
we must shortly be?
102. It is better to go to the house of mourning
titan to the house of feasting: the heart of the wise is
in the house of mourning; but the heart of fools is in
the house of mirth. Because sentence against an evil
work it not executed speedily, the heart of the suits
of men is fully set in them to do evil.
103. If we inquire after the cause, why men grow',
every day, more loose in their principles, and vicious
in their pratice, it seems to be, that in the places of
education of persons of all ranks, there is no book
taught that has any relation to the sacred writings.
104. Life is short. Death is certain. Cease to do
evil. Learn to do well. Make good use of time.
Give alms to the poor. Mind your own business.
Keep your tongue from evil. Sport not with the pain
of others. Speak not well of yourself, nor ill of others.
Be lively, but not light; solid, but not sad. Make
the word of God the rule of all you do.
105. Rise from table with an appetite, and you
will seldom sit down without one. Learn to pursue
virtue from the man that is blind, who never takes
a step, without first examining the ground with his
staff. Improve the wit you have bought at a dear rate,
and the wisdom you have gained by sad experience.
Speak of people's virtues, conceal their infirmities: if
you cannot say good, say no evil of them.
103. Remember now thy Creator in the days of thy
youth; while the evil days come not, nor the years draw
nigh, when thou shalt say, I have no pleasure in them.
Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thine heart be
hasty to utter any thing before God: for God is in
heaven, and thou upon earth; therefore let thy words
be few. Curse not the King, no, not in thy thought;
and curse not the rich in thy bed-chamber: for a bird
of the air shall carry the voice, and that which hath
wings shall tell the matter.
TWELVE GOOD RULES,
Found in the Study of King Charles the First.
Profane no divine ordinances. Touch no state matters.
Urge no healths. Pick-no quarrels.
Maintain no ill opinions. Encourage no vice.
Repeat no grievances. Reveal no secrets.
Make no comparisons. Keep no bad company.
Make no long meals. Lay no wagers.
RULES OF CONDUCT. — Seneca.
As time is precious, spend it not in vain;
Avoid all persons vicious and profane.
Undone let no part of your duty stand;
But always mind the proper point in hand.
All actions of your life let virtue guide,
And temp'rance o'er your appetites preside.
Use exercise enough health to promote,
And see that cleanliness be ne'er forgot.
Strive to be humble, patient, mild, and meek;
Whatever is praise-worthy always seek.
A regularity of life preserve; —
From these good rules be sure you never swerve;
So shall you constant health of body find,
And still enjoy a lasting peace of mind.
THE WAY TO WISDOM, &c.
TO be wise in our own eyes, to be wise in the
opinion of the world, and to be wise in the
sight of our Creator, are three things so very different
as rarely to coincide. Hear counsel and receive
instruction, that thou mayest be wise in thy latter
2. Poverty and shame shall be to him that refuseth
instruction; but he that regardeth reproof shall be
honoured. He that walketh with wise men shall be
wise; but a companion of fools shall be destroyed. A
wise son maketh a glad father; but a foolish son is
the heaviness of his mother.
3. A foolish son is a grief to his father, and bitterness
to her that bare him. A wise servant shall have
rule over a son that causeth shame, and shall have part
of the inheritance among the brethren. The eye that
mocketh at his father, and despiseth to obey his mother,
the ravens of the valley shall pick it out, and the
young eagles shall eat it.
4. Whoso curseth his father or his mother, his lamp
shall be put out in obscure darkness. Hearken unto
thy father that begat thee; and despise not thy mother
when she is old. Whoso robbeth his father of his
mother, and saith, It is no transgression; the same is
the companion of a destroyer. Hear instruction and
be wise, and refuse it not.
5. The Lord giveth wisdom; out of his mouth
cometh knowledge and understanding. Be not wise
in thine own eyes; fear the Lord, and depart from
evil. The Lord by wisdom hath founded the earth;
by understanding hath he established the heavens; by
his knowledge the depths are broken up, and the
clouds drop down the dew.
6. If thou be wise, thou shalt be wise for thyself;
but if thou scornest, thou alone shalt hear it. Wise
men lay up knowledge, but the mouth of the foolish
is near destruction. A wise man feareth, and departeth
from evil; but the fool rageth, and is confident.
7. The tongue of the wise useth knowledge aright;
but the mouth of fools poureth out foolishness. A fool
despiseth his father's instruction; but he that regardeth
reproof is prudent. A wise son maketh a glad father;
but a foolish man despiseth his mother. Folly is joy
to him that is destitute of wisdom; but a man of understanding
8. A reproof entereth more into a wise man than a
hundred stripes into a fool. Hear thou, my son, and
be wise, and guide thine heart in the way. Be not
among wine-bibbers; among riotous caters of flesh;
for the drunkard and the glutton shall come to poverty,
and drowsiness shall clothe a man with rags.
9. Who hath woe? who hath sorrow? who hath
contentions? who hath babbling? who hath wounds
without cause? who hath redness of eyes? They that
tarry long at the wine, they that go to seek mixed
wine. Look not thou upon the wine when it is red,
when it giveth its colour in the cup, when it moveth
itself aright; at the last it biteth like a serpent, and
stingeth like an adder.
10. Wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging; and
whosoever is deceived thereby is not wise. A fool
uttereth all his mind; but a wise man keepeth it in
till afterwards. Seest thou a man that is hasty in his
words? there is more hope of a fool than of him.
11. There be four things which are little upon the
earth, but they are exceeding wise: the ants are
a people not strong, yet they prepare their meat in
the summer; the conies are but a feeble folk, yet
make they their houses in the rocks; the locusts have
no king, yet go they forth all of them by bands.
the spider taketh hold with her hands, and is in king's
12. Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways
and be wise. Happy is the man that findeth wisdom.
Length of days is in her right hand; and in her
hand, riches and honour. Her ways are ways of pleasantness,
and all her paths are peace. Bow down
your heads to the dust, O ye children of men; be
silent, and receive with reverence instruction from on
13. Wherever the sun doth shine, wherever the
wind doth blow, wherever there is an ear to hear, and
a mind to conceive; there let the precepts of life be
made known, let the maxims of truth be honoured and
obeyed. All things proceed from God. His power
is unbounded; his wisdom is from eternity; and
goodness endureth for ever. He sitteth on his throne
in the centre; and the breath of his mouth giveth
to the world.
11. He toucheth the stars with his finger, and they
run on their course rejoicing. On the wings of the
wind he walketh abroad, and performeth his will through
all the regions of unlimited space. Order, and grace,
and beauty, spring from his hand. The voice of wisdom
speaketh in all his works. Justice and mercy
wait before his throne, benevolence and love enlighten
his countenance for ever.
15. Who is like to the Lord in glory Who in
power shall contend with the Almighty? Hath he any
equal in wisdom? Can any in goodness be compared
unto him? He it is, O man! who hath created thee;
thy station on earth is fixed by his appointment: the
powers of thy mind are the gifts of his goodness, the
wonders of thy frame are the works of his hand.
16. Proceed not to speak or to act before thou hast
weighed thy words, and examined the tendency of
every step thou shalt take so shall disgrace fly far
from thee, and in thy house shall shame be a stranger;
repentance shall not visit thee, nor sorrow dwell upon
thy check. The thoughtless man bridleth not his
tongue: he speaketh at random, and is entangled in
the foolishness of his own words.
17. As one that runneth in haste, and leapeth over
a fence, may fall into a pit on the other side, which he
doth not see; so is the man that plungeth suddenly
into any action, before he hath considered the consequences
thereof. Hearken, therefore, unto the
voice of Consideration: her words are the words of
wisdom, and her paths shall lead thee to safety and
18. Who art thou, O man! that presumest on thine
own wisdom? or why dost thou vaunt thyself on thine
own acquirements? The first step towards being wise,
is to know that thou art ignorant; and if thou wouldst
not be esteemed foolish in the judgment of others, cast
off the folly of being wise in thine own conceit.
19. As a plain garment best adorneth a beautiful
woman, so a decent behaviour is the greatest ornament
of wisdom. The speech of a modest man giveth
lustre to truth: He relieth not on his own wisdom
he weigheth the counsels of a friend, and receiveth the
20. But — behold the vain man, and observe the
arrogant; he clotheth himself in rich attire, he walketh
in the public street, he casteth round his eyes, and
courteth observation. He tosseth up his head, and
overlooketh the poor; he treateth his inferiors with
insolence, and his superiors in return look down on his
pride and folly with laughter.
21. He despiseth the judgment of others; he relieth
on his own opinion, and is confounded. He is puffed
up with the vanity of his imagination; his delight
to hear and to speak of himself all the day long. He
swalloweth with greediness his own praise; and the
flatterer in return eateth him up.
22. The heart of the envious man is gall and bitterness;
his tongue spitteth venom; the success of
neighbour breaketh his rest. He sitteth in his cell
pining; and the good that happeneth to another is
evil to him. Hatred and malice feed upon his heal
and there is no rest in him.
23He feeleth in his own breast no love of goodness;
and therefore believed his neighbour is like unto
himself. He endeavours to depreciate those who
excel him; and putteth an evil interpretation on
their doings. He lieth on the watch, and meditate
mischief; but the detestation of man pursueth him
he is crushed as a spider in his own web.
24. Hear the words of Prudence; give heed us
her counsels, and store them in thine heart. Her max
ims are universal; and all the virtues lean upon her,
she is the guide, and the mistress of human life. Put
a bridle on thy tongue; set a guard before thy lips;
the words of thine own mouth destroy thy peace.
25. Let him that scoffeth at the lame, take care
he halt not himself; whosoever speaketh of another
failings with pleasure, shall hear of his own with
shame. Of much speaking cometh repentance; but
silence is safety. Boast not of thyself, for it shall
contempt upon thee; neither deride another, for
26. A bitter jest is the poison of friendship; and
who restrains not his tongue, shall have trouble. Furnish
thyself with the accommodations proper to the
condition: yet spend not to the utmost of what they
canst afford, that the providence of thy youth may be
a comfort in thy old age. Let thy own business engage
thy attention; leave the care of the State to the
27. Let not thy recreations be expensive; lest the
pain of purchasing them exceed the pleasure thou hast
in their enjoyment. Neither let Prosperity put out the
eyes of Circumspection, nor Abundance cut off the
hands of Frugality: he that too much much indulgeth in the
superfluities of life, may live to lament the want of its
28. Forget not, O man, that thy station on earth is
appointed by the wisdom of the Eternal, who knoweth
thy heart, who seeth the vanity of all thy wishes, and
who often in mercy denieth thy requests. Murmur
not, therefore, at the dispensations of God; but correct
thine own heart: neither say within thyself, If I
had wealth, power, and leisure, I should he happy; for
know, they all bring to their several possessors their
29. The poor man seeth not the vexations and anxieties
of the rich, and therefore it is that he repineth at
his own lot. But envy not the appearance of happiness
in any man: for thou knowest not his secret
griefs. The nearest approach thou canst make to happiness
on this side the grave, is to enjoy from Heaven,
health, wisdom, and peace of mind.
30. These blessings, if thou possessest, and wouldst
preserve to old age, avoid the allurements of Voluptuousness,
and fly from her temptations. When she
spreadeth her delicacies on the board, when her wine
sparkleth in the cup, when she smileth upon thee, and
persuadeth thee to be joyful and happy; then is the
hour of danger, then let Reason stand firmly on her
guard. For, if thou hearkenest unto the words of thy
adversary, thou art deceived and betrayed.
31. The joy which she promiseth, changeth to madness:
and her enjoyments lead on to diseases and death.
Look round her board, cast thine eyes upon her guests,
and observe those who have been allured by her smiles,
who have have listened to her temptations. Are they not
meagre? are they not sickly? are they not spiritless?
32. Their short hours of jollity and riot are followed
by tedious days of pain and dejection; she hath debauched
and palled their appetites, that they have now
no relish for her nicest dainties: her votaries are become
her victims, the just and natural consequence which
God hath ordained, in the constitution of things, for
the punishment of those who abuse his gifts.
33. As blossoms and flowers are strewed upon the
earth by the hand of Spring; as the kindness of Summer
produceth in perfection the bounties of Harvest
so the smiles of Pity shed blessings on the children of
Misfortune. He who pitieth another, recommended
himself; but he who is without compassion, deserved
34. The butcher relenteth not at the bleating of
lamb; neither is the heart of the cruel softened with
distress. But the tears of the compassionate are sweeter
than dew-drops falling from roses on the bosom of
the earth. Shut not thine ear, therefore, against the
cries of the poor; neither harden thine heart against
the calamities of the innocent.
35. When the Fatherless call upon thee, when the
widow's heart is sunk, and she imploreth thy assistance
with tears of sorrow; O pity her affliction, and extend
thy hand to those who have none to help them. Where
thou seest the naked wanderer of the street shivering
with cold, and destitute of habitation, let bounty open
thine heart, let the wings of charity shelter him from
36. Whilst the poor man groaneth on the bed of
sickness, whilst the unfortunate languish in the horrors
of a dungeon, or the hoary head of age lifts up a
feeble eye to thee for pity: O how canst thou riot in
superfluous enjoyments, regardless of their wants, unfeeling
of their woes!
37. Consider, thou who art a parent, the importance
of thy trust. Upon thee it dependeth, in a great measure,
whether the child of thy bosom shall he a blessing
or a curse to thyself; an useful or worthless member
of the community. Prepare him with early instruction,
and season his mind with maxims of truth.
38. Watch the bent of his inclinations; set him right
in his youth: and let no evil habit gain strength with
his years. So shall he rise like a cedar on the mountains;
his head shall be seen above the trees of the forest.
A wicked son is a reproach to his father: but
he that doth right is an honour to his grey hairs.
39. Teach him obedience, and he shall bless thee;
teach him modesty, and he shall not be ashamed. Teach
him gratitude, and he shall receive benefits; teach him
charity, and he shall gain love. Teach him temperance,
and he shall have health; teach him prudence,
and fortune shall attend him.
40. Teach him justice, and he shall be honoured by
the world; teach him sincerity, and his own heart shall
not reproach him. Teach him diligence, and his
wealth shall increase: teach him benevolence, and his
mind shall be exalted. Teach him science, and his life
shall be useful; teach him religion, and his death shall
41. From the creatures of God let man learn wisdom,
and apply to himself the instruction they give.
Go to the desert, my son: observe the young stork of
the wilderness; let him speak to thy heart. He heareth
on his wing his aged sire; he lodgeth him in safety,
and supplieth him with food.
42. Be grateful then to thy father, for he it is that
provideth for thee; hear the words of his mouth, for
they are spoken for thy good; give ear to his admonition,
for it proceedeth from love. He hath watched
for thy welfare, he hath toiled for thy ease; do honour
therefore to his age, and let not his grey hairs be
treated with irreverence.
43. Think on thy helpless infancy, and the frowardness
of thy youth, and indulge the infirmities of
thy aged parents; assist and support them in the decline
of life. So shall their hoary heads go down to
the grave in peace: and thine own children, in reverence
of thy example, shall repay thy piety with filial
44. The man to whom God hath given riches,
blessed him with a mind to employ them aright,
peculiarly favoured, and highly distinguished. He
looketh on his wealth with pleasure; because it affordeth
him the means of doing good. He protecteth
the poor that are injured; he suffereth not the mightty
to oppress the weak.
45. He seeketh out objects of compassion; he in.
quireth into their wants; he relieveth them with judge
ment, and without ostentation. He assisteth and rewardeth
merit; he encourageth ingenuity, and liberally
promoteth every useful design. He considereth
the superfluities of his table as belonging to the poor,
and he defraudeth them not.
46. But woe unto him that heapeth up wealth in
abundance, and rejoiceth alone in the possession there
of; that grindeth the face of the poor, and considereth
not the sweat of their brows. He thriveth on oppression
without feeling; the ruin of his brother disturbeth
47. The tears of the orphan he drinketh as milk;
the cries of the widow are music to his ear. His heart
is hardened with the love of wealth; no grief or distress
can make impression upon it. But the curse of
iniquity pursueth him; he liveth in continual fear.
O! what are the miseries of poverty, in comparison
with the gnawings of this man's heart.
48. Let the poor man comfort himself, yea, rejoice;
for he hath many reasons: He sitteth down to his
morsel in peace, his table is not crowded with flatterers
and devourers. Debarred from the dainties of
the rich, he escapeth also their diseases. The bread
that he eateth, is it not sweet to his taste? the water he
drinketh, is it not pleasant to his thirst? yea, far more
delicious than the richest draughts of the luxurious.
49. His labour preserveth his health, and produceth
him a repose to which the downy bed of sloth is a
stranger. Let not the rich, therefore, presume on his
riches, nor the poor despond in his poverty; for the
providence of God dispenseth happiness to them both,
and the distribution thereof is more equally made than
the fool can believe.
50. Repine not, O man, that thou servest another:
it is the appointment of God, and hath many advantages;
it removeth thee from the cares and solicitudes
of life. The honour of a servant is his fidelity;
highest virtues are submission and obedience. Be patient,
therefore, under the reproofs of thy master; and,
when he rebuketh thee, answer not again; the silence
of thy resignation shall not be forgotten.
51. Be studious of his interest; be diligent in his
affairs; and faithful to the trust which he reposeth in
thee. Thy time and thy labour belong unto him;
defraud him not thereof, for he payeth thee for them.
And thou who art a master, be just to thy servant, if
thou expectest fidelity; be reasonable in thy commands,
if thou expectest obedience.
52. The spirit of a man is in him; severity and rigour
may create fear, but cannot command his love.
Mix kindness with reproof, and reason with authority;
so shall thy admonitions take place in his heart, and
his duty shall become his pleasure. He shall serve
thee faithfully from the motive of gratitude; and shall
obey thee cheerfully from the principle of love; and
fail not thou in return to give his diligence and fidelity
their proper reward.
53. As the rose breatheth sweetness from its own
nature, so the heart of a benevolent man produceth
good works. He enjoyeth the ease and tranquillity of
his own breast; and rejoiceth in the happiness and
prosperity of his neighbour. He openeth not his car
unto slander: the faults and the failings of men give
pain to his heart.
54. His desire is to do good, and he searcheth out
the occasions thereof; in removing the oppression of
another, he relieveth himself. Front the largeness of
his mind, he comprehendeth in his wishes the happiness
of all men; and from the generosity of his heart,
he endeavoureth to promote it.
55. O thou who art enamoured with the beauties of
Truth, and hast fixed thy heart on the simplicity of
her charms, hold fast thy fidelity to her, and forsake
her not: the constancy of thy virtue shall crown thee
with honour. The tongue of the sincere is rooted in
his heart; hypocrisy and deceit have no place in his
56. He is far above the meanness of dissimulation;
the words of his mouth are the thoughts of his heart.
Yet with prudence and caution he openeth his lips;
he studieth what is right, and speaketh with discretion.
He adviseth in friendship; he reproveth
freedom; and whatsoever he promiseth, shall surely
57. But the heart of the hypocrite is hid in his
breast: He masketh his words in the resemblance of
truth, while the business of his life is only to deceive.
He laugheth in sorrow; he weepeth in joy; and the
words of his mouth hav no interpretation. He passeth
his days in perpetual constraint; his tongue and
his heart are for ever at variance.
58. He laboureth for the character of a righteous
man; and huggeth himself in the thoughts of his cunning.
O fool, fool! the pains which thou takest to
hide what thou art, art, are more than would make thee
what thou wouldst seem: the children of Wisdom
shall mock at by cunning; and when, in the midst of
security, thy disguise is stripped off, the finger of Derision
shall point thee to scorn.
59. Let not mirth he so extravagant as to intoxicate
thy mind; nor thy sorrow so heavy, as to depress
thv heart; this world affordeth no good so transporting,
nor inflicteth any evil so severe as should raise thee far
above, or sink thee much beneath, the balance of moderation.
When thou halt obtained what most thou
soughtest after, behold it contenteth thee not.
60. Wherefore loseth the pleasure that is before thee
its relish? and why appeareth that which is yet to
come the sweeter? because thou art wearied with the
good of this; because thou knowest not the evil of
that which is not with thee. Know, that to be content
is to be happy.
61. Variety is to thee in the place of pleasure; but
that which permanently delighteth must be permanent.
When it is gone, thou repentest the loss of it:
though while it was with thee thou despisedst it. From
our delights ariseth pain: from our joys sorrow. As
joy is not without its allay of pain, so neither is sorrow
without its portion of pleasure
62. Joy and grief, though unlike, are united: Melancholy
itself often giveth delight: and the extremity
of joy is mingled with tears. The best things in the
hands of a fool may be turned to his destruction: and
out of the worst the wise will find the means of good.
63. Condemn not the judgment of another, because
it differeth from thine own: may not even both be in
an error? When thou esteemest a man for his titles,
and contemnest the stranger because he wanted them,
judgest thou not of the camel by his bridle? Weigh
not the loss thy friend hath suffered by the tears he
sheddeth for it; the greatest griefs are above the expressions
64. Esteem not an action because it is done with
noise and pomp: the noblest soul is that which doth
great things, and is not moved in the doing of them.
Attribute not the good actions of another to bad causes;
thou canst not know his heart: but the world
will know by this that thine is full of envy. There
is not in hypocrisy more vice than folly: to be honest
is as easy as to seem so.
65. Weak and ignorant as thou art, O man! humble
as thou oughtest to be, O child of the dust! wouldst
thou raise thy thoughts to infinite Wisdom? wouldst
thou see Omnipotence displayed before thee? contemplate
thine own frame. Fearfully and wonderfully
art thou made: praise, therefore, thy Creator with
awe, and rejoice before him with reverence.
66. After all other creatures wert thou created:
superiority and command were given thee over them
and of his own breath did he communicate to them
thy principle of knowledge. Know thyself then, the
pride of his creation; the link uniting divinity and
matter; behold a part of God himself within thee
remember thine own dignity; nor dare descend to evil
or to meanness.
67. There is but one God, the Author, the Creator,
the Governor of the world; Almighty, Eternal, and
Incomprehensible. The sun is not God, though his
noblest image. He enlighteneth the world with his
brightness; his warmth giveth life to the products of
the earth; admire him as the creature, the instrument
of God; but worship him not.
68. To the One, who is supreme, most wise, and
beneficent, and to him alone, belong worship, adoration,
thanksgiving, and praise. Who hath stretched out the
heavens with his hand; who hath described with his
finger the course of the stars. Who setteth bounds to
the ocean, which it cannot pass; and saith unto the
stormy winds, Be still.
69. Who shaketh the earth, and the nations tremble,
who darteth his lightnings, and the wicked are dismayed.
Who calleth forth worlds by the word of
his mouth; who smiteth with his arm, and they sink
into nothing. "O reverence the majesty of the Omnipotent!
and tempt not his anger, lest thou be destroyed."
70. The providence of God is over all his works
he ruleth and directeth with infinite wisdom. He
hath instituted laws for the government of the world
he hath wonderfully varied them in all beings; and
each, by his nature, conformeth to his will.
71. In the depth of his mind, he revolveth a
knowledge; the secrets of futurity lie open before
him. The thoughts of thy heart are naked to
view; he knoweth thy determinations before they are
made. With respect to his prescience, there is nothing
contingent; with respect to his providence, there
is nothing accidental.
72. Wonderful is he in all his ways; his counsels
are inscrutable; the manner of his knowledge transcendeth
thy conception. "Pay, therefore, to his wisdom
all honour and veneration; and bow down thyself
in humble and submissive obedience to his supreme
73. The Lord is gracious and beneficent; he hath
created the world in mercy and love. His goodness
is conspicuous in all his works; he is the fountain of
excellence, the centre of perfection. The creatures
of his hand declare his goodness, and all their enjoyments
speak his praise; he clotheth them with beauty,
he supporteth them with food; he preserveth them
with pleasure from generation to generation.
74. If we lift up our eyes to the heavens, his glory
shineth forth: if we cast them down upon the earth,
it is full of his goodness; the hills and the valleys rejoice
and sing; fields, rivers, and woods resound his
praise. But thee, O man! he hath distinguished with
peculiar favour, and exalted thy station above all creatures.
He hath endowed thee with reason to maintain
thy dominion; he hath fitted thee with language
to improve by society; and exalted thy mind with the
powers of meditation, to contemplate and adore his
75. In the laws he hath ordained as the rule of thy
life, so kindly hath he suited thy duty to thy tenure,
that obedience to his precepts is happiness to thyself.
The Lord is just and righteous; and will judge the
earth with equity and truth. Hath he established his
laws in goodness and mercy, and shall he not punish
the transgressors thereof? O think not, bold man! because
the punishment is delayed, that the arm of the
Lord is weakened; neither flatter thyself with hopes,
that he winketh at thy doings.
76. His eye pierceth the secrets of every heart, and
he remembereth them for ever: he respecteth not the
persons nor the stations of men. The high and
low, the rich and the poor, the wise and the ignorant
when the soul hath shaken off the cumbrous shack
of this mortal life, shall equally receive from the sentence
of God, a just and everlasting retribution; according
to their works. Then shall the wicked tremble
and be afraid; but the heart of the righteous
rejoice in his judgments.
THE HISTORY OF JOSEPH.
THE patriarch Jacob (or Israel) had twelve sons,
of whom Joseph and Benjamin, who were born
to him by Rachel, were the youngest. Now Israel
loved Joseph more than all his children, because he
was the son of his old age. And he made him a coat
of many colours. And when his brethren saw
their father loved him more than all his brethren, they
hated him, and could not speak peaceably unto him.
2. And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it his
brethren: And they hated him yet the more. And he
said unto them, Hear, I pray you, this dream which
I have dreamed. For, behold, we were binding sheaves
in the field, and lo, my sheaf arose, and also stood up,
right; and behold, your sheaves stood round about, and
made obeisance to my sheaf.
3. And his brethren said unto him, Shalt thou indeed
reign over us? or shalt thou indeed have dominion
over us? and they hated him yet the more for his
dreams, and for his words. And he dreamed yet another
dream, and told it his brethren, and said, Behold
I have dreamed a dream more, and behold the sun, and
the moon, and the eleven stars made obeisance to me.
And he told it to his father, and to his brethren.
4. And his father rebuked him, and said unto him,
What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? Shall I,
and thy mother, and thy brethren, indeed come to bow
down ourselves to thee, to the earth? And his breathren
envied him: But his father observed the saying.
And one day when his father sent him into the fields,
to inquire if it were well with his brethren, and
with the flocks, they conspired against him to slay
5. And Reuben heard it, and delivered him out of
their hands, and said, Let us not kill him, shed no
blood, but cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness,
and lay no hand upon him; that he might rid
him out of their hands, to deliver him to his father
again. And it came to pass when Joseph was come
unto his brethren, that they stript Joseph out of his
coat; and they took him and cast him into a pit; and
the pit was empty, there was no water in it.
13. At the same time, some Ishmeelites, merchants,
passed, by, going down to Egypt. And Judah said unto
his brethren, What profit is it if we slay our brother,
and conceal his blood? Come, and let us sell him
to the Ishmeelites, and let not our hand be upon him;
for he is our brother, and our flesh: And his brethren
were content. And they drew, and lift up Joseph out
of the pit, and sold him to the Ishmeelites for twenty
pieces of silver.
7. And Reuben returned unto the pit, and behold
Joseph was not in the pit: And he rent his clothes.
And he returned unto his brethren, and said, The
child is not; and I, whither shall I go? And they
took Joseph's coat, and killed a kid of the goats, and
dipped the coat in the blood. And they brought it to
their father, and said, This have we found: Know now
whether it be thy son's coat or no.
8. And he knew it, and said, It is my son's coat; an
evil beast hath devoured him: Joseph is, without
doubt, rent in pieces. And Jacob rent his clothes, and
put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son
many days. And all his sons, and all his daughters,
rose up to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted:
And he said, For I will go down into
grave unto my son mourning. Thus his father wept
9. And Joseph was brought down to Egypt:
Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard,
an Egyptian, bought him of the hands of the Ishmeelites,
which had brought him down thither. And the
LORD was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man:
And he was in the house of his master the Egyptian.
And his master saw that the LORD was with him, and
that the LORD made all that he did to prosper in his
10. And Joseph found grace in his sight, and he
served him: And he made him overseer over his
house; and all that he had he put into his hand. And
it came to pass, from the time that he had made him
overseer in his house, and over all that he had, that
the LORD blessed the Egyptian's house for Joseph's
sake: And the blessing of the LORD was upon all that
he had, in the house, and in the field.
11. And he left all that he had in Joseph's hand;
and he knew not ought he had, save the bread which
he did eat. — From this happy state, Joseph is again,
on account of his virtue and fidelity to his master,
plunged into distress, and exposed to very great misfortunes
and hardships. By a false accusation of his
master's wife, he is, by his order, put into prison, a
place where the king's prisoners were bound.
12. But the LORD was with Joseph, and showed
him mercy, and gave him favour in the sight of the
keeper of the prison. And the keeper of the prison
committed to Joseph's hand all the prisoners that were
in the prison; and whatsoever they did there, he was
the doer of it. The keeper of the prison looked not
to any thing that was under his hand; because the
LORD was with him: And that which he did, the
LORD made it to prosper.
11. And it came to pass, after these things, that the
chief butler of the king of Egypt, and his chief baker,
had offended their lord the king of Egypt. And he
put them in ward in the house of the captain of the
guard, into the prison, the place where Joseph was
bound. And they dreamed a dream, both of them in
one night, which Joseph interpreted to them in this
manner: That in three days, Pharaoh would restore
the butler unto his office; and that he would hang the
baker on a tree.
14. And it came to pass the third day, which was
Pharaoh's birth-day, that he did unto them as Joseph
had interpreted. Now Joseph had besought the butler,
saying, Think on me when it shall be well with
thee, and shew kindness, I pray thee, unto me; and
make mention of me unto Pharaoh, and bring me out
of this house. For indeed I was stolen away out of
the land of the Hebrews: And here also have I done
nothing, that they should put me into the dungeon.
Yet did not the chief butler remember Joseph, but forgat
15. And it came to pass, at the end of two full
years, that Pharaoh dreamed, and behold, he stood by
the river. And behold, there came out of the river
seven well-favoured kine, and fat-fleshed; and they
fed in a meadow. And behold, seven other kine came
up after them out of the river, ill-favoured and leanfleshed;.
and stood by the other kine, upon the brink
of the river.
16. And the ill-favoured and lean-fleshed kine did
eat up the seven well-favoured and fat kine. So Pharaoh
awoke. And he slept, and dreamed a second
time: And behold, seven ears of corn came up upon
one stalk, rank and good. And behold, seven thin
ears, and blasted with the east wind, sprung up after
them. And the seven thin ears devoured the seven
rank and full ears: and Pharaoh awoke, and behold it
was a dream.
17. And it came to pass in the morning, that his
spirit was troubled; and he sent and called for all the
magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof: And
Pharaoh told them his dream: but there was none
that could interpret them unto Pharaoh. Then spake
the chief butler unto Pharaoh, saying, I do remember
my faults this day. There was in the prison with me
and the chief baker, a young man, an Hebrew, servant
to the captain of the guard.
18. And we dreamed a dream in one night, and he
interpreted to us our dreams; and, as he interpreted them
us, so it was. Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph,
and they brought him hastily out of the dungeon; and
he shaved himself, and changed his raiment, and came
in unto Pharaoh. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I
have dreamed a dream, and there is none that can interpret
it: And I have heard say of thee, that thou
canst understand a dream, to interpret it.
19. Then Pharaoh told unto Joseph his dream. And
Joseph said unto Pharaoh, The dream of Pharaoh is
one: God hath shewed Pharaoh what he is about to
do. Behold, the seven good kine, and the seven full
ears of corn, are seven years of great plenty; and the
seven thin, ill-favoured kine, and the seven empty
ears blasted with the east wind, shall be seven years of
famine. And for that the dream was doubled unto
Pharaoh twice; it is because the thing is established by
God, and God will shortly bring it to pass.
20. Now, therefore, let Pharaoh look out a man
discreet and wise, and set him over the land of Egypt
to lay up the fifth part of the corn during the seven
plenteous years, that the land perish not through the
famine. And the thing was good in the eyes of Pharaoh,
and in the eyes of all his servants. And Pharaoh
said unto Joseph, Forasmuch as God hath shewed thee
all this, there is none so discreet and wise as thou art.
21. Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto
thy word shall all my people be ruled. Only in the
throne will I be greater than thou. And Pharaoh said
unto Joseph, See, I have set thee over all the land of
Egypt. And Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand,
and put it upon Joseph's hand, and arrayed him in
vestures of fine linen, and put a gold chain about his
neck. And he made him to ride in the second chariot
which he had; and they cried before him, Bow
the knee: And he made him ruler over all the land of
22. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I am Pharaoh,
and without thee shall no man lift up his hand or foot
in all the land of Egypt. And in the seven plenteous
years the earth brought forth by handfuls. And he
gathered up all the food of the seven years, which
were in the land of Egypt, and laid up the food in the
cities: The food of the field which was round about
every city laid he up in the same. And the seven
years of plenteousness, that was in the land of Egypt,
And the seven years of dearth began to come,
according as Joseph had said; and the dearth was in
all lands; but in all the land of Egypt there was
bread. And when all the land of Egypt was famished,
the people called to Pharaoh for bread: And Pharaoh
said unto all the Egyptians, Go unto Joseph, and what
he saith to you, do. And the famine was over all the
face of the earth: And Joseph opened all the storehouses,
and sold unto the Egyptians; and the famine
waxed sore in the land of Egypt.
24. And all countries came into Egypt to Joseph
for to buy corn; because that the famine was so sore
in all lands. Now when Jacob saw that there was
corn in Egypt, Jacob said unto his sons, Why do you
look one upon another? And he said, Behold I have
heard that there is corn in Egypt: Get you down
thither, and buy for us from thence; that we may
live and not die.
25. And Joseph's ten brethren went down to buy
corn in Egypt. But Benjamin, Joseph's brother, Jacob
sent not with his brethren: For he said, Lest peradventure
mischief befal him. And the sons of Israel
came to buy corn among those that came: For the
famine was in the land of Canaan. And Joseph was
the governor over the land, and he it was that sold to
all the people of the land: And Joseph's brethren
came, and bowed down themselves before him, with
their faces to the earth.
26. And Joseph saw his brethren, and he knew them
but made himself strange unto them, and spake roughly
unto them; and he said unto them, Whence come
ye? and they said, From the land of Canaan to buy
food. And Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew
not him. And Joseph remembered the dreams which
he dreamed of them, and said unto them, Ye are spies;
to see the nakedness of the land you are come.
27. And they said unto him, Nay, my lord, but to
buy food are thy servants come. We are all one man's
sons: We are true men; thy servants are no spies.
And he said unto them, Nay, but to see the nakedness
of the land you are come. And they said, Thy servants
are twelve brethren, the sons of one man in the
land of Canaan; and behold, the youngest is this day
with our father, and one is not.
28. And Joseph said unto them, That is it that I
spake unto you, saying, Ye are spies. Hereby ye shall
be proved: By the life of Pharaoh, ye shall not go
forth hence, except your youngest brother come hither.
Send one of you, and let him fetch your brother, and
ye shall be kept in prison, that your words may be
proved, whether there be any truth in you: Or else;
by the life of Pharaoh, surely ye are spies.
29. And he put them all together into ward three
days. And Joseph said unto them the third day;
This do, and live: For I fear God. If ye be true
men, let one of your brethren be bound in the house
of your prison: Go ye, carry corn for the famine of
your houses. But bring your youngest brother unto
me: So shall your words be verified, and ye shall not
die. And they did so.
30. And they said one to another, We are verily
guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the
anguish of his soul, when he besought us; and we
would not hear: Therefore is this distress come upon
us. And Reuben answered them, saying, Spake I not
unto you, saying, Do not sin against the child; and
ye would not hear? Therefore, behold also, his blood
is required. And they knew not that Joseph understood
them: For he spoke unto them by an interpreter.
31. And he turned himself about from them, and
wept; and returned to them again, and communed
with them, and took from them Simeon, and bound
him before their eyes. Then Joseph commanded to
fill their sacks with corn, and to restore every man's
money into his sack, and to give them provision for
the way: And thus did he unto them. And they
laded their asses with the corn, and departed thence.
32. And as one of them opened his sack, to give
his ass provender in the inn, he espied his money:
For behold it was in his sack's mouth. And he said
unto his brethren, My money is restored; and lo, it is
even in my sack: and their heart failed them, and
they were afraid, saying one to another, What is this
that God hath done unto us?
33. And they came unto Jacob their father, unto
the land of Canaan, and told him all that befel unto
them. And Jacob their father said unto them, Me
have ye bereaved of my children: Joseph is not, and
Simeon is not, and ye will take Benjamin away: All
these things are against me. And Reuben spake unto
his father, saying, Slay my two sons, if I bring him
not to thee: Deliver him into my hand, and I will
bring him to thee again.
31. And he said, My son shall not go down with
you: For his brother is dead, and he is left alone; if
mischief befal him by the way in the which ye go,
then shall ye bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to
the grave. And the famine was sore in the land. And
it came to pass when they had eaten up the corn
which they had brought out of Egypt, their father
said unto them, Go again, buy us a little food.
35. And Judah spake unto him, saying, The man
did solemnly protest unto us, saying, Ye shall not see
my face, except your brother be with you. If thou wilt
send our brother with us, we will go down, and buy
thee food. But, if thou wilt not send him, we will
not go down: For the man said unto us, Ye shall not
see my face, except your brother be with you. And
Israel said, "Wherefore dealt ye so ill with me, as to
tell the man whether ye had yet a brother?
36. And they said, The man asked us straitly of
our state, and of our kindred, saying, Is your father
yet alive? Have ye another brother? and we told
him according to the tenor of these words. Could we
certainly know that he would say, Bring your brother
down? and Judah said unto Israel his father, Send
the lad with me, and we will arise and go; that we
may live and not die, both we and thou, and also our
37. I will be surety for him: Of my hand shalt
thou require him: If I bring him not unto thee, and
set him before thee, then let me bear the blame forever.
And their father Israel said unto them, If it
must be so now, do this; take of the best fruits in the
land in your vessels, and carry down the man a present,
a little balm, and a little honey, spices, and myrrh,
nuts, and almonds.
38. And take double money in your hand: and the
money that was brought again in the mouth of your
sacks, carry it again in your hand; peradventure it
was an oversight. Take also your brother, and arise,
go again unto the man. And God Almighty give you
mercy before the man, that he may send away your
other brother, and Benjamin. If I be bereaved of my
children, I am bereaved.
14. And the men took that present, and they took
double money in their hand, and Benjamin; and rose
up, and went down to Egypt, and stood before Joseph.
And when 'Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said
to the ruler of his house, Bring these men home, and
slay, and make ready: For these men shall dine with
me at noon. And the man did as Joseph bade; and
the man brought the men into Joseph's house.
40. And the men were afraid, because they were
brought into Joseph's house, and they said, Because of
the money that was returned in our sacks, at the first
time, are we brought in; that he may seek occasion
against us, and fall upon us, and take us for bond-men
and our asses. And they came near to the steward of
Joseph's house, and they communed with him at the
door of the house, and said, O Sir, we came indeed
down at the first time to buy food.
41. And it came to pass when we came to the inn,
that we opened our sacks, and behold, every man's
money was in the mouth of his sack, our money in
full weight; and we have brought it again in our
hand. And other money have we brought down in
our hands to buy food: We cannot tell who put our
money in our sacks. And he said, Peace be to you;
fear not: Your God, and the God of your father, hath
given you treasure in your sacks. I had your money.
42. And he brought Simeon out unto them. And
the man brought the men into Joseph's house, and gave
them water, and they washed their feet, and he gave
their asses provender. And they made ready the present
against Joseph came at noon: For they heard that
they should eat bread there. And when Joseph came
home, they brought him the present which was in their
hand, into the house, and bowed themselves to him
to the earth.
43. And he asked them of their welfare, and said,
Is your father well, the old man of whom ye spake?
Is he yet alive? And they answered, Thy servant our
father is in good health, he is yet alive: and they bowed
down their heads, and made obeisance. And he
lift up his eyes, and saw his brother Benjamin, his
mother's son, and said, Is this your younger brother,
of whom ye spake unto me? And he said, God be
gracious unto thee, my son.
44. And Joseph made haste; for his bowels did
yearn upon his brother: And he sought where to weep,
and he entered into his chamber, and wept there. And
he washed his face, and went out, and refrained himself,
and said, Set on bread. And they set on for him
by himself, and for them by themselves, and for the
Egyptians, which did eat with him, by themselves.
45. And they sat before him, the first-born according
to his birth-right, and the youngest according to
his youth: and the men marvelled one at another,
And he took and sent messes unto them from before
him: But Benjamin's mess was five times so much as
any of theirs. And they drank, and were merry with
46. And he commanded the steward of his house,
saying, Fill the men's sacks with food, as much as
they can carry, and put every man's money in his sack's
mouth. And put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack's
mouth of the youngest, and his corn-money: And he
did according to the word that Joseph had spoken,
As soon as the morning was light, the men were sent
away, they and their asses.
47. And when they were gone out of the city, and
not yet far off, Joseph said unto his steward, Up, follow
after the men; and when thou dost overtake
them, say unto them, Wherefore have ye rewarded
evil for good? Is not this it in which my lord drinketh;
and whereby indeed he divineth? Ye have done evil
in so doing. And he overtook them, and he spake
unto them these same words.
48. And they said unto him, Wherefore saith my
lord these words? God forbid that thy servants should
do according to this thing. Behold, the money, which
we found in our sack's mouths, we brought again unto
thee out of the land of Canaan: How then should we
steal out of thy lord's house silver or gold? With
whomsoever of thy servants it be found, both let him
die, and we will also be my lord's bond-men.
49. And he said, Now also let it be according unto
your words: He with whom it is found shall be my
servant; and ye shall be blameless. Then they speedily
took down every man his sack to the ground, and
opened every man his sack. And he searched, and
began at the eldest, and left at the youngest: And the
cup was found in Benjamin's sack. Then they rent
their clothes, and laded every man his ass, and returned
to the city.
30. And Judah and his brethren came to Joseph's
house, (for he was yet there), and they fell before him
on the ground. And Joseph said unto them, What
deed is this that ye have done? wot ye not that such
a man as I can certainly divine? And Judah said,
What shall we say unto my lord? What shall we speak?
or how shall we clear ourselves? God hath found out
the iniquity of thy servants: Behold we are thy servants,
both we, and he also with whom the cup is
31. And he said, God forbid that I should do so;
but the man in whose hand the cup is found, he shall
be my servant, and, as for you, get ye up in peace unto
your father. Then Judah came near unto him, and
said, Oh my lord, let thy servant, I pray thee, speak a
word in my lord's ears, and let not thine anger burn
against thy servant: For thou art even as Pharaoh.
My Lord asked his servants, saying, Have you a father,
or a brother?
52. And we said unto my lord, We have a father,
an old man, and a child of his old age, a little one;
and his brother is dead, and he alone is left of his
mother, and his father loveth him. And thou saidst
unto thy servants, Bring him down unto me, that I
may set mine eyes upon him. And we said unto my
lord, The lad cannot leave his father: For, if he should
leave his father, his father would die.
53. And thou saidst unto thy servants, Except your
youngest brother come down with you, you shall see
my face no more. And it came to pass, when we
came up unto thy servant my father, we told him the
words of my lord. And our father said, Go again,
and buy us a little food. And we said, We cannot go
down: If our youngest brother be with us, then will
we go down; for we may not see the man's face, except
our youngest brother be with us.
51. And thy servant my father said unto us, Ye
know that my wife bare me two sons. And the one
went out from me, and I said, Surely he is torn in
pieces; and I saw him not since. And if ye take this
also from me, and mischief befal him, ye shall bring
down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. Now,
therefore, when I come to thy servant my father, and
the lad be not with us; (seeing that his life is bound
up in the lad's life); it shall come to pass, when he
seeth that the lad is not with us, that he will die.
55. And thy servant shall bring down the gray hairs
of thy servant our father with sorrow to the grave.
For thy servant became surety for the lad unto my
father, saying, If I bring him not unto thee, then I shall
bear the blame to my father for ever. Now, therefore,
I pray thee, let thy servant abide instead of the lad, a
bond-man to my lord; and let the lad go up with his
brethren. For how shall I go up to my father, and the
lad he not with me? lest peradventure I see the evil
that shall come on my father.
56. Then Joseph could not refrain himself before all
them that stood by him; and he cried, Cause every
man to go out from me: And there stood no man with
him, while Joseph made himself known unto his brethren.
And he wept aloud: And the Egyptians and
the house of Pharaoh heard. And Joseph said unto
his brethren, I am Joseph: Doth my father yet live?
and his brethren could not answer him: For they
were troubled at his presence.
57. And Joseph said unto his brethren, Come near
to me. I pray you; and they came near; and he said,
I am Joseph your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt.
Now therefore be not grieved, nor angry with yourselves,
that ye sold me hither: For God did send me
before you, to preserve life. For these two years hath
the famine been in the land: And yet there are five
years, in the which there shall be neither eating nor
58. And God sent me before you, to preserve you
a posterity in the earth, and to save your lives by a
great deliverance. So now it was not you that sent me
hither, but God: And he hath made me a father to
Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout
all the land of Egypt. Haste you, and go up to
my father, and say unto him, Thus saith thy son Joseph,
God hath made me lord of all Egypt; come
down unto me, tarry not.
59. And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and
thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and
thy children's children, and thy flocks and thy herds,
and all that thou hast. And there will I nourish thee,
(for yet there are five years of famine:) Lest thou, and
thy household, and all that thou hast, come to poverty.
And behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother
Benjamin, that it is my mouth that speaketh unto you.
60. And you shall tell my father of all my glory in
Egypt, and of all that you have seen; and ye shall
haste, and bring down my father hither. And he fell
upon his brother Benjamin's neck, and wept; and
Benjamin wept upon his neck. Moreover he kissed
all his brethren, and wept upon them: And after that
his brethren talked with him.
61. And Joseph, according to the commandment of
Pharaoh, having given his brethren waggons, and provisions,
sent them away. And they went up out of
Egypt, and came into the land of Canaan unto Jacob
their father, and told him, saying, Joseph is yet alive,
and he is governor over all the land of Egypt.
62. And Jacob's heart fainted, for he believed them
not. And they told him all the words of Joseph, which
he had said unto them: And when he saw the waggons
which Joseph had sent to carry him, the spirit of
Jacob their father revived. And Israel said, It is
enough; Joseph my son is yet alive: I will go and see
him before I die.
63. And Israel, with his sons, and his sons sons, his
daughters, and his sons daughters, took his journey
into Egypt. And Joseph made ready his chariot, and
went up to meet Israel his father, to Goshen; and presented
himself unto him: And he fell on his neck, and
wept on his neck a good while.
61. And Israel said unto Joseph, Now let me die,
since I have seen thy face, because thou art yet alive.
And Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years.
And Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he, and his father's house:
And Joseph lived an hundred and ten years.
65. The history of Joseph's life is doubtless one of
the most entertaining and eventful which all antiquity
can boast of. Upon it are inscribed, in most lively
characters, at once the terrible effects of malice and
envy, and the watchful care of Providence over the
cause of injured virtue and innocence.
66. But the most remarkable thing that claims our
attention here, is the surprising likeness betwixt the
whole narrative and the history of Jesus Christ,
whom it may truly be said, "The archers have sorely
"grieved him, but his bow abode in its strength, and
"the arms of his hands were made strong by the
"hands of the mighty God of Jacob."
67. As the sufferings and glory of Joseph issued in
the common salvation of the lives of Pharaoh's subjects
and the family of Jacob, who was a Syrian ready to
perish; even so thy sufferings, and thy glory, O thou
once humbled, but now exalted Redeemer, were ordained
for the salvation of the world, both Jews and
Gentiles, from a far more dreadful destruction than a
famine of bread or water! Go unto this Joseph for
the supply of your numerous wants, ye that are ready
68. His fulness shall never be exhausted, be their
number ever so great who receive out of it. O, that
his glory might be the joy of our heart, and the grand
theme of every tongue! With what cheerfulness ought
we to forsake the stuff of all terrestrial things, when
Joseph is alive, that we may be with him, where he
is, and enjoy those blessings that are on the head of
Jesus Christ, and on the crown of the head of him
that was separated from his brethren!"
ADVICES TO A YOUNG MAN.
I PRESUME you desire to be happy here and hereafter:
you know there are a thousand difficulties
which attend this pursuit; some of them perhaps you
foresee, but there are multitudes which you could never
think of. Never trust, therefore, to your own understanding
in the things of this world, where you can
have the advice of a wise and faithful friend; nor dare
venture the more important concerns of your soul, and
your eternal interests in the world to come, upon the
mere light of nature, and the dictates of your own reason;
since the word of God, the advice of Heaven,
lies in your hands.
2. Vain and thoughtless, indeed, are those children
of pride, who chuse to turn heathens in the midst of
Great Britain; who live upon the mere religion of nature,
and their own stock, when they have been trained
up among all the superior advantages of Christianity,
and the blessings of divine revelation and grace!
Whatever your circumstances may be in this world,
still value your Bible as your best treasure; and, whatever
be your employment here, still look upon religion
as your best business. Your Bible contains eternal
life in it, and all the riches of the upper world; and
religion is the only way to become a possessor of them.
3. To direct your carriage towards God, converse
particularly with the book of Psalms: David was a
man of sincere and eminent devotion. To behave
aright among men, acquaint yourself with the whole
book of Proverbs: Solomon was a man of large experience
and wisdom. And to perfect your directions
in both these, read the Gospels and the Epistles; you
will find the best of rules and the best of examples
there, and those more immediately suited to the Christian
4. As a man, maintain strict temperance and sobriety,
by a wise government of your appetites and
passions: as a neighbour, influence and engage all
around you to be your friends, by a temper and carriage
made up of prudence and goodness; and let the
poor have a certain share in all your yearly profits: as
a trader, keep that golden sentence of our Saviour
ever before you, "Whatsoever ye would that men
"should do unto you, do you also unto them."
5. In every affair of life, begin with God; consult
him in every thing that concerns you; view him as the
author of all your blessings, and all your hopes, — as
your best friend, and your eternal portion. Meditate
on him in this view, with a continual renewal of your
trust in him, and a daily surrender of yourself to him;
till you feel that you love him most entirely, that you
serve him with sincere delight, and that you cannot
live a day without God in the world.
6. You know yourself to be a man, an indigent creature,
and a sinner, and you profess to be a Christian, a
disciple of the blessed Jesus; but never think you knew
Christ or yourself as you ought, till you find a daily
need of him for righteousness and strength, for pardon
and sanctification; and let him he your constant introducer
to the great God, though he sit upon a throne of
grace. Remember his own, words, John xiv. 6. "No
"man cometh to the Father, but by me." Make
prayer a pleasure, and not a task; and then you will
not forget nor omit it.
7. If ever you have lived in a praying family, never
let it be your fault if you do not live always in one.
Believe that day, that hour, or those minutes, to be all
wasted and lost, which any worldly pretences would
tempt you to save out of the public worship of the
church, the certain and constant duties of the closet,
or any necessary services for God and godliness; beware
lest a blast attend it, and not a blessing. If
God had not reserved one day in seven to himself, I
fear religion would have been lost out of the world;
and every day of the week is exposed to a curse,
which has no morning religion.
8. See that you watch and labour, as well as pray.
Diligence and dependence must be united in the practice
of every Christian. "Tis the same wise man acquaints
us, that the hand of the diligent, and the blessing
of the Lord join together to make us rich, in the
treasures of body or mind, time or eternity. 'Tis
your duty indeed, under a sense of your own weakness,
to pray daily against sin; but if you would effectually
avoid it, you must also avoid temptation, and
every dangerous opportunity. Set a double guard
wheresoever you feel or suspect an enemy at hand.
The world without, and the heart within, have so
much flattery and deceit in them, that we must keep
a sharp eye upon both, lest we are trapt into mischief
9. Honour, profit, and pleasure, have been sometimes
called the world's trinity; they are its three chief
idols; each of them is sufficient to draw a soul off from
God, and ruin it for ever. Beware of them, therefore,
and of all their subtle insinuations, if you would be
innocent or happy. Remember that the honour which
comes from God, the approbation of Heaven, and of
your own conscience, are infinitely more valuable than
all the esteem or applause of men. Dare not venture
one step out of the road of heaven, for fear of being
laughed at for walking strictly in it. 'Tis a poor religion
that cannot stand against a jest.
10. Sell not your hopes of heavenly treasures, not
any thing that belongs to your eternal interest, for any
of the advantages of the present life: What shall it
profit a man to gain the whole world, and lose his own
soul? Remember also the words of the wise man, He
that loveth pleasure shall be a poor man; he that indulges
himself in wine and oil, that is, in drinking, in
feasting, and in sensual gratifications, shall not be rich.
Preserve your conscience always soft and sensible. If
but one sin force its way into that tender part of the
soul, and dwell easy there, the road is paved for a
11. Keep this thought ever in your mind — It is a
world of vanity and vexation in which you live: the
flatteries and promises of it are vain and deceitful;
prepare, therefore, to meet disappointments. Many
of its occurrences are teazing and vexatious. In every
ruffling storm without, possess your spirit in patience,
and let all be calm and serene within. Clouds and
tempests are only found in the lower skies; the heavens
above are ever bright and clear. Let your heart
and hope dwell much in these serene regions; live as
a stranger here on earth, but as a citizen of heaven, if
you will maintain a soul at ease.
12. Ever carry about with you such a sense of the
uncertainty of every thing in this life, and of life itself,
as to put nothing off till to-morrow, which you can
conveniently do to-day. Dilatory persons are frequently
exposed to surprize and hurry in every thing
that belongs to them: The time is come, and they
are unprepared. Let the concerns of your soul and
your shop, your trade and your religion, be always in
such order, as far as possible, that death, at a short
warning, may be no occasion of a disquieting tumult
in your spirit, and that you may escape the anguish of
a bitter repentance in a dying hour. Farewell.
13. Phronimus, a considerable East-land merchant,
happened upon a copy of these advice's about the time
when he permitted his son to commence a partnership
with him in his trade; he transcribed them with his
own hand, and made a present of them to the youth,
together with the articles of partnership. Here, young
man, said he, is a paper of more worth than these articles.
Read it over once a month, till it is wrought
in your very soul and temper. Walk by these rules,
and I can trust my estate in your hands. Copy out
these counsels in your life, and you will make me and
yourself both easy and happy.
THE WAY TO WEALTH;
POOR RICHARD IMPROVED.
I HAVE heard that nothing gives an Author so great
pleasure, as to find his works respectfully quoted
be others. Judge then how much I must have been
gratified by an incident I am going to relate to you. —
I stopped my horse lately, where a great number of
people were collected at an auction of merchant-goods.
The hour of sale not being come, they were conversing
on the badness of the times: And one of the company
called to a plain clean old man, with white locks, Pray,
Father Abraham, what think you of the times? Will
not these heavy taxes quite ruin the country? How shall
we ever be able to pay them? What would you advise
us to? *
*Dr Franklin, wishing to collect, into one piece, all the sayings
upon the following subjects, which he had dropped in the course of
the Almanacks called Poor Richard, introduces Father
Abraham for this purpose. Hence is is that Poor Richard is so often
2. Father Abraham stood up, and replied, if you
would have my advice, I will give it you in short; 'for a
word to the wise is enough,' as Poor Richard says. —
They joined in desiring him to speak his mind,
gathering round him, he proceeded as follows.
"FRIENDS, (said he), the taxes are indeed very heavy
and, if those laid on by the government were the only
ones we had to pay, we might more easily discharge
them; but we have many others, and much more
grievous to some of us. We are taxed twice as much
by our idleness, three times as much by our pride, and
four times as much by our folly; and from these taxes
the commissioners cannot ease or deliver us, by allowing
an abatement. However, let us hearken to good
advice, and something may be done for us.
3. "It would be thought a hard government, that
should tax its people one-tenth part of their time to be
employed in its service; but idleness taxes many of us
much more; sloth, by bringing on diseases, absolutely
shortens life. 'Sloth, like rust, consumes faster than
labour wears, while the used key is always bright,'
as Poor Richard says, — 'But, dost thou love life? then
'do not squander time, for that is the stuff life is made
'of,' as Poor Richard says. — How much more than is
necessary, do we spend in sleep! forgetting that 'the
'sleeping fox catches no poultry, and that there
'be sleeping enough in the grave,' as Poor Richard
4. "If time be of all things the most precious,
wasting time must be,' as Poor Richard says, 'the
greatest prodigality;' since, as he elsewhere tells us,
'Lost time is never found again; and what we call
'time enough, always proves little enough.' — Let us
quoted, and that, in the present title, he is said to be improved — Not
withstanding the stroke of humour in the concluding paragraph of
this address, Poor Richard [Saunders] and Father Abraham have
proved, in America, that they are no common preachers. [And shall
we, my Countrymen, refuse good sense, and saving knowledge, because
it comes from the other side of the water?]
then up and be doing, and doing to the purpose; for,
diligence, we shall do more with less perplexity.
'Sloth makes all things difficult, but industry all easy:
'and he that riseth late, must trot all day, and shall
'scarce evertake his business at night; while laziness
'travels so slowly, that poverty soon overtakes him.
'Drive thy business; let not that drive thee: and
'early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy,
'wealthy, and wise,' as Poor Richard says.
5. "So, what signifies wishing and hoping for better
times? We may make these times better, if we bestir
ourselves. 'Industry needs not wish; and he that
'lives upon hope will die fasting. There are no gains
'without pains; then help hands, for I have no lands;'
or, if I have, they are smartly taxed. 'He that hath
'a trade, hath an estate; and he that hath a calling,
'hath an office of profit and honour,' as Poor Richard
says. But then the trade must be worked at, and the
calling well followed, or neither the estate nor the
office will enable us to pay our taxes. if we are
industrious, we shall never starve; for, at the working
'man's house hunger looks in, but dares not enter.'
Nor will the bailiff or the constable enter; for 'Industry
pays debts, while despair increaseth them.'
6. ''What though you have found no treasure, nor
'has any rich relation left you a legacy? 'Diligence
'is the mother of good luck; and God gives all things
'to industry. Then plow deep while sluggards sleep,
'and you shall have corn to sell and to keep.' Work
while it is called to-day, for you know not how much
you may be hindered to-morrow. 'One to-day is
'worth two to-morrows,' as Poor Richard says: and
farther, 'Never leave that till to-morrow, which you
'can do to-day.' — If you were a servant, would you
not be ashamed that a good master should catch you
idle? Are you then your own master? Be ashamed
to catch yourself idle, when there is so much to be
done for yourself, your family, your country, and
7. "Handle your tools without mittens: Remember
that the cat in gloves catches no mice,' as Poor Richard
says. — It is true, there is much to be done, and perhaps
you are weak-handed; but stick to it steadily, and you
will see great effects; for, 'Constant dropping wears
'away stones; and, by diligence and patience, the mouse
'ate in two the cable; and little strokes fell great oak.'
Methinks I hear some of you say, Must a man afford
himself no leisure? I will tell thee, my friend, what
Poor Richard says; 'Employ thy time well, if thou
'meanest to gain leisure; and, since thou art not sure
'of a minute, throw not away an hour.'
8. "Leisure is time for doing something useful
This leisure the diligent man will obtain, but the lazy
man never; for, 'a life of leisure, and a life of lazing
'are two things. Many, without labour, would
'by their wits only, but they break for want of stock;'
whereas industry gives comfort, and plenty,and respect.
''Fly pleasures, and they will follow you; the
'spinner has a large shift: and now I have a sheep and
'a cow, every body bids me good-morrow.' But,
with our industry, we must likewise be steady, settled
and careful, and oversee our own affairs with our own
eyes, and not trust too much to others; for, as Poor
'I never saw an oft-removed tree,
'Nor yet an oft-removed family,
'That throve so well as those that settled be.'
9. 'Three removes are as bad as a fire. Keep thy
'shop, and thy shop will keep thee:' and again, 'If you
'would have your business done, go; if not, send.'
'He that by the plough would thrive,
'Himself must either hold or drive.'
'The eye of a master will do more work than both
'his hands:' and again, 'Want of care does us more
'damage than want of knowledge;' and again, 'Not
'to oversee workmen is to leave them your purse
'open.' Trusting too much to others care, is the ruin
of many; for, 'In the affairs of this world, men are
'saved, not by faith, but by the want of it.' But a
man's own care is profitable; for, If you would have
'a faithful servant, and one that you like, serve yourself.
'A little neglect may breed great mischief: for want
'of a nail, the shoe was lost; for want of a shoe, the
'horse was lost; and for want of a horse, the rider was
'lost,' being overtaken and slain by the enemy, — all
for want of a little care about a horse-shoe nail.
10. "So much for industry, my friends, and attention
to one's own business; but to these we must add
frugality, if we would make our industry more certainly
successful. A man may, if he knows not how
to save as he gets, 'keep his nose all his life to the
'grind-stone, and die not worth a groat at last. A
'fat kitcben makes a lean will; and,
'Many estates are spent in the getting,
'Since women, for tea, forsook spinning and knitting,
'And men, for their punch, forsook hewing and splitting.'
'If you would be wealthy, think of saving, as well as
'of getting. The Indies have not made Spain rich,
'because her outgoes are greater than her incomes.'
Away, then, with your expensive follies, and you will
not then have so much cause to complain of hard times,
heavy taxes, and chargeable families; for,
'Women and wine, game and deceit,
'Make the wealth small, and the want great.'
11 'What maintains one vice, would bring up two
children.' You may think, perhaps, that a little tea,
or a little punch now and then, diet a little more costly,
clothes a little finer, and a little entertainment now and
then, can be no great matter; but remember, Many
'a little makes a mickle.' Beware of little expences;
'A small leak will sink a great ship,' as Poor Richard
says. And again, 'Who dainties love, shall beggars
'prove:' and moreover, 'Fools make feasts, and wise
'men eat them.' Here you are all got together to this
sale of fineries and nick-nacks. You call them goods;
but, if you do not take care, they will prove evils to
some of you. You expect they will be sold cheap, and
perhaps they may for less than they cost; but, if you
have no occasion for them, they must be dear to you.
12. "Remember what Poor Richard says, 'Buy
what thou hast no need of, and ere long thou shalt sell
thy necessaries.' And again, 'At a great pennyworth
pause a while.' He means, that perhaps the cheapness
is apparent only, and not real; or the bargain, by
straitening thee in thy business, may do thee more harm
than good. For, in another place, he says, Many
have been ruined by buying good pennyworths.
Again, 'It is foolish to lay out money in a purchase
of repentance;' and yet this folly is practised every
day at auctions, for want of minding the Almanack.
Many persons, for the sake of finery on the back, have
gone with a hungry belly, and half starved their
families. 'Silks and sattins, scarlets and velvets, put
'out the kitchen. fire,' as Poor Richard says.
13. "These are not the necessaries of life; they can
scarcely be called the conveniencies: and yet, only
because they look pretty, how many want to have
them! By these, and other extravagancies, the genteel
are reduced to poverty, and forced to borrow of those
whom they formerly despised, but who, through industry
and frugality, have maintained their standing:
In which case, it appears plainly, that 'a ploughman
'on his legs, is higher than a gentleman on his knees,'
as Poor Richard says. Perhaps they have had a small
estate left them, which they knew not the getting of.
They think it is day, and will never be night; that
'a little, to be spent out of so much, is not worth
14. "Always taking out of the meal tub, and never
putting in, soon comes to the bottom,' as Poor
Richard says; 'and then, when the well is dry, they
'know the worth of water.' But this they might
have known before, if they had taken his advice.
'If you would know the value of money, go and try
'to borrow some; for he that goes a borrowing, goes
'a sorrowing,' as Poor Richard says; and indeed so
does he that lends to such people, when he goes to get
it in again. Poor Dick farther advises, and says,
'Fond pride of dress is sure a very curse;
'Ere fancy you consult, consult your purse.'
And again, 'Pride is as loud a beggar as want, and a
'great deal more saucy.'
15. "When you have bought one fine thing, you
must buy ten more, that your appearance may be
of a piece. But Poor Dick says, It is easier to
suppress the first desire, than to satisfy all that fol'low
it:' And it is as truly folly for the poor to ape
the rich, as for the frog to swell in order to equal
'Vessels large may venture more,
But little boats should keep near shore.'
It is, however, a folly soon punished: for, as Poor
Richard says, 'Pride that dines on vanity, sups on
'contempt; Pride breakfasted with Plenty, dined with
'Poverty, and supped with Infamy.' And, after all,
of what use is this pride of appearance, for which so
much is risked, so much is suffered? It cannot promote
health, nor ease pain: It makes no increase of merit
in the person: it creates envy; it hastens misfortune.
16. But what madness must it be to run in debt
for these superfluities? We are offered, by the terms
of this sale, six months credit; and that perhaps has
induced some of us to attend it, because we cannot
spare the ready money, and hope now to be fine
without it. But, ah! think what you do when you run
in debt; you give to another power over your liberty.
If you cannot pay at the time, you will be ashamed to
see your creditor; you will be in fear when you speak
to him; you will make poor pitiful sneaking excuses,
and, by degrees, come to lose your veracity, and sink
into base, downright lying: for 'the second vice is
'lying, the first is running into debt,' as Poor Richard
says. And again, to the same purpose, 'Lying rides
'upon Debt's back: whereas a free-born Briton
ought not to be ashamed nor afraid to see or speak to
any man living.
17. "But poverty often deprives a man of all spirit
and virtue. 'It is hard for an empty bag to stand up'right.'
What would you think of that prince, or of
that government, who should issue an edict forbidding
you to dress like a gentleman or gentlewoman, on
pain of imprisonment or servitude? Would you not
say, that you are free, have a right to dress as you
please, and that such an edict would be a breach of
your privileges, and such a government tyrannical?
And yet you are about to put yourself under that tyranny,
when you run in debt for such dress! Your
creditor has authority, at his pleasure, to deprive you
of your liberty, by confining you in gaol for life, or by
selling you for a servant, if you should not be able to
18. "When you have got your bargain, you may
perhaps think little of payment: But, as Poor Richard
says, 'Creditors have better memories than debtors
'creditors are a superstitious sect, great observers of
'set days and times.' The day comes round before
you are aware, and the demand is made before you are
prepared to satisfy it; or, if you bear your debt in
mind, the term which at first seemed so long, will, as
it lessens, appear extremely short. Time will seem to
have added wings to his heels as well as his shoulders.
'Those have a short Lent, who owe money to be paid
'at Easter.' At present, perhaps, you may think yourselves
in thriving circumstances, and that you can bear
a little extravagance without injury: But,
'For age and want save white you May,
'No morning-sun lasts a whole day.'
19. "Gain may be temporary and uncertain, but
ever, while you live, expence is constant and certain;
and, 'It is easier to build two chimneys, than to keep
'one in fuel,' as Poor Richard says. — So, 'Rather go
'to bed supperless, than rise in debt.'
'Get what you can, and what you get hold:
'Tis the stone that will turn all your lead into gold.'
And when you have got the philosopher's stone, surely
will no longer complain of bad times, or the difficulty
of paying taxes. This doctrine, my friends, is
reason and wisdom: But, after all, do not depend too
much upon your own industry, and frugality, and prudence,
though excellent things: for they may all be
blasted without the blessing of Heaven; and, therefore,
ask that blessing humbly, and be not uncharitable to
those that at present seem to want it, but comfort and
help them. Remember, Job suffered, and was afterwards
20. "And now, to conclude, Experience keeps a
dear school, but fools will learn in no other,' as Poor
Richard says, and scarce in that; for, it is true, 'we
'may give advice, but we cannot give conduct.' How.-
ever, remember this, 'They that will not be counselled,
cannot be helped;' and farther, that 'If you will
'not hear Reason, she will surely rap your knuckles,'
as Poor Richard says." — Thus the old gentleman
ended his harangue. The people heard it, and approved
the doctrine — and immediately practised the
contrary, just as if it had been a common sermon;
for the auction opened, and they began to buy extravagantly.
21. I found the good man had thoroughly studied
my Almanacks, and digested all I had dropt on these
topics during the course of twenty-five years. The
frequent mention he made of me, must have tired anyane
else; but my vanity was wonderfully delighted
with it, though I was conscious, that not a tenths part
of the wisdom was my own which he ascribed to me,
but rather the gleanings that I had made of the sense
of all ages and nations. However, I resolved to be
the better for the echo of it; and, though I had at
fist determined to buy stuff for a new coat, I went
away, resolved to wear my old one a little longer.
Reader, if thou wilt do the same, thy profit will be
great as mine.
I am, as ever,
Thine to serve thee,
PEOPLE generally retain, to their last moment, that
ruling passion which influenced their actions during
life. Mr Lagny, who was a great calculator, having
become insensible in his last illness, Mr Maupertuis
approached his bed, and endeavoured to rouse him
a little, by calling 'Mr Lagny, what is the square
of 12?' '144,' replied Mr Lagny, and then expired.
2. Sir John Mason, who was privy counsellor to
four princes, and admitted to the most important transactions
of state for thirty years together, delivered himself
thus: 'All my experience and inquiry into things,
'have brought me to these solid thoughts, namely, Se'riousness
is the greatest wisdom, temperance the best
'physic, and a good conscience the best estate.'
3. When Garrick shewed Dr Johnson his fine house,
gardens, statues, pictures, &c. at Hampton Court, what
ideas did they awaken in the mind of that great man?
Instead of flattering compliment, which was expected,
'Ah! David, David,' said the Doctor, clapping his
hand upon the little man's shoulder, 'These are the
'things which make a death-bed terrible.'
4. A certain gentleman, upon his death-bed, laid this
one command upon his wild son, That he should every
day of his life be an hour alone; which he constantly
observed; and, thereby growing serious, became a new
man. A man secluded from company, has nothing
but the devil and himself to tempt him; but he that
converses much in the world, has almost as many snares
as he has companions.
5. A certain libertine, of a most abandoned character,
happened accidentally to stroll into a church, where
he heard the 5th chapter of Genesis read; importing,
that so long lived such and such persons, and yet the
conclusion was, 'they died?' Seth lived 912 years,
and he died — Enos 905, and he died — Methuselah 969,
and he died. The frequent repetition of the words, he
died, notwithstanding the great length of years they had
lived, struck him so deeply with the thought of death
and eternity, that, through divine grace, he became a
most exemplary Christian.
6. It being told Philip of Macedon, that several calumnies
were spread against him by the Athenian orators;
'It shall be my care,' said the prince, 'by my
'life and actions to prove them liars.' This prince
was so apprehensive of the dangerous charms of earthly
grandeur and pleasure, that he appointed one of his
pages to call upon him every morning, to mind him of
his mortality, and to say, Remember, Sir, you are a man
as if they only were duly qualífied to enjoy earthly
greatness, who always remembered, that they must
soon part with it.
7. A Sultan, amusing himself with walking, observed
a Dervise sitting with a human skull in his lap, and
appearing to be in a very profound reverie; his attitude
and manner surprised the Sultan, who demanded the
cause of his being so deeply engaged in reflection?
'Sire' said the Dervise, ' this skull was presented to
'me this morning; and I have from that moment been
'endeavouring, in vain, to discover whether it is the
'skull of a powerful Monarch like your Majesty, or
'a poor Dervise like myself.' A humbling considoration
'Earth's highest station ends in here he lies,
And dust to dust, concludes her noblest song.'
8. Cyrus, the emperor of Persia, after he had long
been attended by numerous armies, and vast trains of
courtiers, ordered this inscription to be engraven on
his tomb, as an admonition to all men of the approach
of death, and the desolation that follows it, namely,
'O man! whosoever thou art, and whencesoever
'comest, I know that thou wilt come to the same con'dition
in which I now am. I am Cyrus, who brought
'the empire to the Persians; do not envy me, I be'seech
thee, this little piece of ground which covereth
9. The Rev. Mr Berridge, being once visited by a
very loquacious young lady, who, forgetting the modesty
of her sex, and the superior gravity of an aged
divine, engrossed all the conversation of the interviewwith
small talk concerning herself. When she rose to
retire, he said, 'Madam, before you withdraw, I have
'one piece of advice to give you, and that is, when
'you go into company again, after you have talked
'half an hour without intermission, I recommend it
'you to stop a while, and see if any other of the com'pany
has any thing to say.'
10. Socrates, having received a blow on the head,
observed, That it would be well if people knew when
it was necessary to put on a helmet. Being kicked by
a boisterous fellow, and his friends wondering at his
patience; 'What,' said he, 'if an ass should kick me,
'must I call him before the judge?' Being attacked
with opprobrious language, he calmly observed, That
the man was not yet taught to speak respectfully.
And, when informed of some derogating speeches one
had used of him behind his back, he made only this
facetious reply, 'Let him beat me too when I am absent.'
11. A babbler, being at table with a number of persons,
among whom was one of the sages of Greece,
expressed his astonishment, that a man so wise did not
utter a single word. The sage instantly replied, 'A
'fool cannot hold his tongue.' — 'Take away from the
'conversations of the generality of persons, in most
'companies, their slanders against the absent, their
'shallow criticisms, their ignorant political opinions,
'and their barren witticisms against religion, and you
'will find that, upon a just calculation, those who speak
'the most, do not say more than those who keep a
12. Cyrus, when a youth, being at the court of his
grandfather Cambyses, undertook, one day, to be the
cup-bearer at table. It was the duty of this officer to
taste the liquor before it was presented to the King.
Cyrus, without performing this ceremony, delivered
the cup, in a very graceful manner, to his grandfather.
The King observed the omission, which he imputed to
forgetfulness. 'No,' replied Cyrus, 'I was afraid to
'taste, because I apprehended there was poison in the
'liquor; for, not long since, at an entertainment which
'you gave, I observed that the lords of your court,
'after drinking of it, became noisy, quarrelsome, and
'frantic. Even you, Sir, seemed to have forgotten
'that you were a king.'
13. For some years before the death of the great
Mr Hervey, he visited very few of the principal persons
in his neighbourhood. Being once asked, Why
he so seldom went to see the neighbouring gentleman
who yet shewed him all possible esteem and respect?
He answered, 'I can hardly name a polite family where
'the conversation ever turns upon the things of God.
'I hear much frothy and worldly chit-chat, but not a
'word of Christ; and I am determined not to visit
'those companies where there is not room for my
'Master, as well as for myself.' The gift of speech is
the greatest prerogative of our rational nature, and it is
a pity that such a superior faculty should be debased to
the meanest purposes.
Suppose all our stately vessels, that pass and repass
the ocean, were to carry out nothing but tinsel and
theatrical decorations, and were to import nothing but
glittering baubles, and nicely fancied toys; would such
a method of trading be well judged in itself, or beneficial
in its consequences? Articulate speech is the instrument
of much nobler commerce, intended to transmit
and diffuse the treasures of the mind. And will
not the practice be altogether as injudicious, must not
the issue be infinitely more detrimental, if this vehicle
of intellectual wealth be freighted only with pleasing
14. Mr Locke having been introduced, by Lord
Shaftesbury, to the Duke of Buckingham and Lord
Halifax: these three noblemen, instead of conversing
with the philosopher, as might naturally have been
expected, on literary subjects, in a very short time sat
down to cards. Mr Locke, after looking on for some
time, pulled out his pocketbook, and began to write
with great attention. One of the company, observing
this, took the liberty of asking him what he was
'My Lord,' says Locke, 'I am endeavouring, as
far as possible, to profit by my present situation; for,
'having waited with impatience for the honour of being
'in company with the greatest geniuses of the age, I
'thought I could do nothing better than to write down
'your conversation; and, indeed, 'I have set down the
'substance of what you have said for these two hours'
This well timed ridicule had its desired effect; and
these Noblemen, fully sensible of its force, immediately
quitted their play, and entered into a conversation
more rational, and better suited to the dignity of their
'I think it very wonderful,' says Addison, 'to see
'persons of the bests ense, passing away a dozen hours
'together in shuffling and dividing a pack of cards,
'with no other conversation but what is made up of
'a few game phrases, and no other ideas but those of
'black or red spots, ranged together in different
'figures. They seem, however, to be the delight of
'vast numbers of mankind; and even men who pro'fess
to have a superiority of taste, and a greater ex'tent
of knowledge than others, pass away much of
'their time in this useless, and often injurious pursuit.
'Would not a man laugh to hear any one of this
'species complaining that life is short?'
Were a man every day, to throw a purse of money,
or even a single guinea, into the sea; he would be
looked upon as a madman, and his friends would soon
confine him for such. But a man, who throws away
that which is of more value than gold, than mines,
than the whole world; even his time, his health, his
peace, and his soul; such an one is admired, esteemed,
and applauded by the greater part of mankind.
What is time's worth? Ask death-beds, they can tell
15. The Rev. Mr James Hervey, being one day on
a journey, a lady, who happened to be in the same
carriage with him, was expatiating, in a very particular
manner, on the amusements of the stage; as
being, in her esteem, superior to any other pleasures.
Among other things, the said, 'There was the pleas'ure
of thinking on the play before she went; the
'pleasure she enjoyed, when there; and the pleasure
'of ruminating upon it, when in her bed at night.'
Mr Hervey, who sat and heard her discourse, without
interrupting her, when she had concluded, said to her,
in a mild manner, That there was one pleasure more,
'besides what she had mentioned, that she had forgot,
'What can that be?' said she, for sure I have included
'every pleasure, when I have considered the enjoyment
'before-hand, — at the time, — and afterwards. Pray,
'Sir, what is it?' To which Mr Hervey, with a grave
look, and in a manner peculiar to himself, answered,
'Madam, the pleasure that it will give you on your
A clap of thunder, or a flash of lightning, could not
have struck her with more surprise. The stroke went
to her very heart, and she had not one word more
to say — but seemed quite occupied in thinking upon
it. In short, the consequence of that well-timed word
was, that she never went any more to the play-house,
but became a pious woman, and a follower of those
pleasures which would afford her true satisfaction on
This story, says my author, I had from Mr Hervev's
own mouth; and though, through humility, he told it
me as of a third person, yet I found afterwards, on
good authority, that it was himself. — May all who
read this account, and are lovers of the stage, consider
seriously, the pleasure time so spent will give them on
their death-bed; and if they judge it will afford them
consolation at that hour, let them go on in such employ
of their time: But if not — may they seek for pleasures
in the knowledge of Jesus Christ, and him crucified,
whom to know is life eternal.
O! that the votaries of mirth, whose life is a continued
round of merriment and whim, would bestow
one serious reflection on the variety of human woes!
It might teach them to be less enamoured with the
few languid sweets that are thinly scattered through
this vale of tears, and environed with such a multitude
of ragged thorns. It might teach them, no longer to
dance away their years, with a giddy rambling impulse;
to aspire, with a determined aim, after those happy
regions, where delights, abundant and unembittered,
16. A certain lady, having spent the afternoon and
evening at cards, and in gay company; when she came
home, found her servant-maid reading a pious book.
'Poor melancholy soul,' said she, what pleasure canst
thou find in poring so long over a book like that?' —
When the lady went to bed she could not fall asleep,
but lay sighing and weeping so much, that her servant,
overhearing her, came and asked her, once and again,
what was the matter with her? At length she burst
out into a flood of tears, and said, 'O! it was one
'word I saw in your book, that troubles me; there
'I saw that word eternity.' The consequence of this
impression was, that she laid aside her cards, forsook
her gay company, and set herself seriously to prepare
for another world.
17. An Italian Bishop struggled through great difficulties
without repining, and met with much opposition
in the discharge of his duty, without discovering
the least impatience. An intimate friend of his,
who highly admired those virtues, which he thought
impossible to imitate, one day asked the Bishop, if he
could communicate his secret of being always easy?
'Yes,' replied the old man, 'I can teach you my secret
'with great facility; it consists in nothing more than
'making a right use of my eyes.' His friend begged
him to explain himself.
'Most willingly,' returned the Bishop: 'In what'ever
state I am, I first of all look up to heaven, and
'remember that my principal business here is to get
'there; I then look down upon the earth, and call to
'mind how small a space I shall occupy in it, when I
'come to be interred. I then look abroad in the
'world, and observe what multitudes there are, who
'in all respects, more unhappy than myself.
'Thus I learn where true happiness is placed, where
all our cares must end, and how very little reasurance
I have to repine or to complain.'
18. The best course of moral instruction, says Saurin,
is death; which puts an end to the most specious
titles, the most dazzling grandeur, and the most delicious
life. The great Prince Saladin, although a Mahometan,
was wiser than many Christians. After he
had subdued Egypt, passed the Euphrates, and conquered
cities without number; after he had retaken
Jerusalem, and performed exploits more than human,
in those wars which superstition had stirred up for the
recovery of the Holy Land, he finished his life in the
performance of an action, which ought to be transitted
to the latest posterity.
A moment before he uttered his last sigh, he called
the herald, who had carried his banner before him in all
his battles; he commanded him to fasten to the top of
a lance, the shroud in which the dying prince was soon
to be buried. 'Go,' said he, 'carry the lance, un'furl
the banner; and, while you lift up this standard,
'proclaim — This, this is all that remains, of all the
'glory of Saladin the Great, the Conqueror and King
'of the Empire.' —
I thank you, (says Hervey) ye relics of sounding
titles and magnificent names. Ye have taught me
more of the littleness of the world, than all the volume,
of my library. Your nobility arrayed in a winding--
sheet; your grandeur mouldering in an urn, are the
most indisputable proofs of the nothingness of created
things. Never, surely did Providence write this important
point in such legible characters as in the ashes
of my Lord, or on the corpse of his Grace.
15. Queen Caroline, one day, observing that her
daughter, the late Princess of Orange, had made one
of the Ladies stand by her an unreasonable time, while
The cause is, Conscience — Conscience oft
Her tale of guilt renews;
Her voice is terrible, tho' soft,
And dread of death ensues!
Then anxious to be longer spar'd,
Man mourns his fleeting breath:
All evil then seems light, compar'd
With the approach of Death!
'Tis judgment shakes him; There's the fear
That prompts his wish to stay;
He has incurr'd a long arrear,
And must despair to pay.
Pay! — Follow Christ, and all is paid:
His death your peace ensures;
Think on the grave where he was laid,
And calm descend to your's.
19. THE CHRISTIAN'S DEATH.
"Oh most delightful hour by man
"Experienc'd here below;
"The hour that terminates his span,
"His folly, and his woe.
"Worlds should not bribe me back to tread
"Again life's dreary waste;
"To see my days again o'erspread
"With all the gloomy past.
"My home, henceforth, is in the skies,
"Earth, seas, and sun, adieu;
"All heaven unfolded to my eyes,
"I have no sight for you."
Thus spake Aspasio, firm possest
Of Faith's supporting rod;
Then breath'd his soul into its rest,
The bosom of his God.
He was a man among the few
Sincere on virtue's side,
And all his strength from Scripture drew,
To hourly use apply'd.
That rule he priz'd; by that he fear'd,
He hated, hop'd, and lov'd;
Nor ever frown'd, or sad appear'd,
But when his heart had rov'd.
For he was frail as thou or I,
And evil felt within,
But when he felt it, heav'd a sigh,
And loath'd the thought of sin.
Such liv'd Aspasio, and at last
Call'd up from earth to heav'n,
The gulph of death triumphant pass'd
By gales of blessing driven.
His joys be mine, each reader cries,
When my last hour arrives:
They shall be yours, my verse replies,
Such only be your lives.
20. THE NEGRO'S COMPLAINT.
Forc'd from home, and all its pleasures,
Afric's coast I left forlorn,
To increase a stranger's treasures,
O'er the raging billows born.
Men from Europe bought and sold me,
Paid my price in paltry gold;
But, tho' theirs they have enroll'd me,
Minds are never to be sold.
Still in thought as free as ever,
What are Europe's rights, I ask,
Me from my delights to sever?
Me to torture? me to task?
Fleecy locks, and black complexion,
Cannot forfeit Nature's claim:
Skins may differ, but affection
Dwells in white and black the same.
Why did all-creating Nature
Make the plant for which we toil?
Sighs must fan it; tears must water,
Sweat of ours must dress the soil.
Think, you masters, iron hearted,
Sitting at your jovial boards;
Think how many blacks have smarted,
For the sweets your cane affords.
Is there, as you sometimes tell us,
Is there One who reigns on high?
Has he bid you buy and sells us,
Speaking from his throne, the sky?
Ask him, if your knotted scourges,
Fetters, blood-extorting screws,
Are the means which duty urges
Agents for his will to use?
Hark! he answers; wild tornadoes,
Strewing yonder sea with wrecks,
Wasting towns, plantations, meadows,
Is the voice with which he speaks.
He, foreseeing what vexations
Afric's sons should undergo,
Fix'd these tyrants' habitations
Where his whirlwinds answer, No.
By our blood in Afric wasted,
Ere our necks receiv'd the chain
By the sorrows that we tasted,
Crossing, in your barks, the main;
By our sufferings, since ye bought us
To the mean, degrading smart;
All sustain'd with patience, taught us
Only by a broken heart:
Deem our nation brutes no longer,
Till some reason you shall find
Worthier of regard, and stronger
Than the colour of our kind.
Slaves to gold — whose sordid dealings
Tarnish all your boasted pow'rs;
Prove that you have human feelings,
Ere you proudly question ours.
21. VERSES, supposed to be written by ALEXANDER SELKIRK, during
his solitary abode in the Island of Juan Fernandez.
I am monarch of all I survey,
My right there is none to dispute;
From the centre all round to the sea,
I am lord of the fowl and the brute.
Oh, Solitude! where are the charms,
That sages have seen in thy face?
Better dwell in the midst of alarms,
Than reign in this horrible place.
I am out of humanity's reach,
I must finish my journey alone;
Never hear the sweet music of speech;
I start at the sound of my own.
The beasts that roam over the plain,
My form with indifference see:
They are so unacquainted with man,
Their tameness is shocking to me.
Society, friendship, and love,
Divinely bestow'd upon man,
Oh had I the wings of a dove,
How soon would I taste you again!
My sorrows I then might assuage
In the ways of Religion and Truth;
Might learn from the wisdom of age,
And be cheer'd by the sallies of youth.
Religion! what treasures untold
Reside in that heavenly word!
More precious than silver or gold,
Or all that this earth can afford.
But the sound of the church-going bell
These vallies and rocks never heard;
Ne'er sigh'd at the sound of a knell,
Or smil'd when a Sabbath appear'd.
Ye winds, that have made me your sport,
Convey, to this desolate shore,
Some cordial endearing report
Of a land I shall visit no more.
My friends, do they now and then send
A wish or a thought after me?
O tell me I yet have a friend,
Though a friend I am never to see.
How fleet is a glance of the mind!
Compar'd with the speed of its flight,
The tempest itself lags behind,
And the swift-winged arrows of light.
When I think of my own native land,
In a moment I seem to be there;
But, alas! recollection at hand
Soon hurries me back to despair.
But the sea-fowl is gone to her nest,
The beast is laid down in his lair;
Ev'n here is a season of rest,
And I to my cabin repair.
There is mercy in every place;
And mercy — encouraging thought!
Gives even affliction a grace,
And reconciles man to his lot.
22. ODE TO MELANCHOLY.
Come, Melancholy! silent pow'r,
Companion of my lonely hour,
To sober thought confin'd;
Thou sweetly sad ideal guest,
In all thy soothing charms confess'd
Indulge my pensive mind.
No longer wildly hurried through
The tides of mirth, that ebb and flow
In folly's noisy stream,
I from the busy crowd retire,
To court the objects that inspire
Thy philosophic dream.
Thro' yon dark grove of mournful yews,
With solitary steps I muse,
By thy direction led:
Here, cold to pleasure's tempting forms,
Consociate with my sister worms,
And mingle with the dead.
Ye midnight horrors! awful gloom!
Ye silent regions of the tomb!
My future peaceful bed;
Here shall my weary eyes be clos'd,
And ev'ry sorrow lie repos'd
In death's refreshing shade.
Ye pale inhabitants of night,
Before my intellectual sight
In solemn pomp ascend:
O tell how trifling now appears
The train of idle hopes and fears,
That varying life attend!
Ye faithless idols of our sense,
Here own how vain your fond pretence,
Ye empty names of joy!
Your transient forms like shadows pass,
Frail offspring of the magic glass,
Before the mental eye.
The dazzling colours, falsely bright,
Attract the gazing vulgar sight
With superficial state:
Thro' reason's clearer optics view'd,
How stript of all its pomp, how rude
Appears the painted cheat!
Can wild ambition's tyrant pow'r,
Or ill-got wealth's superfluous store,
The dread of death controul?
Can pleasure's more bewitching charms,
Avert or soothe the dire alarms
That shake the parting soul?
Religion! ere the hand of fate
Shall make reflection plead too late,
My erring senses teach,
Amidst the flatt'ring hopes of youth,
To meditate the solemn truth
These awful relics preach.
Thy penetrating beams disperse
The mist of error, whence our fears
Derive their fatal spring:
'Tis thine the trembling heart to warm,
And soften to an angel form
The pale terrific king.
When sunk, by guilt, in sad despair,
Repentance breathes her humble pray'r,
And owns thy threat'nings just;
Thy voice the shudd'ring suppliant cheers
With mercy calms her torturing fears,
And lifts her from the dust.
Sublim'd by thee, the soul aspires
Beyond the range of low desires,
In nobler views elate;
Unmov'd her destin'd change surveys,
And, arm'd by faith, intrepid pays
The universal debt.
In death's soft slumber lull'd to rest,
She sleeps, by smiling visions blest,
That gently whisper peace:
Till the last morn's fair op'ning ray
Unfolds the bright eternal day
Of active life and bliss.
23. RURAL CHARMS.
Sweet Auburn! loveliest village of the plain!
Where health and plenty cheer'd the lab'ring swain;
Where smiling spring its earliest visit paid,
And parting summer's ling'ring blooms delay'd
Dear lovely bow'r of innocence and ease!
Seats of my youth, when ev'ry sport could please!
How often have I loiter'd o'er thy green,
Where humble happiness endear'd each scene!
How often have I paus'd on ev'ry charm!
The shelter'd cot, the cultivated farm,
The never-failing brook, the busy mill,
The decent church that topp'd the neighbouring hill;
The hawthorn bush, with seats beneath the shade,
For talking age and whisp'ring lovers made.
How often have I bless'd the coming day,
When toil, remitting, lent its turn to play,
And all the village-train, from labour free,
Led up their sports beneath the spreading tree!
While many a pastime circled in the shade,
The young contending as the old survey'd;
And many a gambol frolick'd o'er the ground,
And sleights of art, and feats of strength went round;
And still, as each repeated pleasure
Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspir'd.
Sweet was the sound, when oft, at evening's close,
Up yonder hill the village murmur rose:
There, as I pass'd with careless steps and slow,
The mingling notes came soften'd from below.
The swain, responsive as the milkmaid sung:
The sober herd, that low'd to meet their young;
The noisy geese, that gabbled o'er the pool;
The playful children, just let loose from school;
The watch-dog's voice, that bay'd the whisp'ring wind
And the loud laugh, that spoke the vacant mind:
These all, in sweet confusion, sought the shade,
And fill'd each pause the nightingale had made.
21. DESCRIPTION OF A COUNTRY ALE-HOUSE.
Near yonder thorn, that lifts its head on high,
Where once the sign-post caught the passing eye;
Low lies that house, where nut-brown draughts inspir'd;
Where gray-beard mirth, and smiling toil, retir'd;
Where village-statesmen talk'd, with looks profound,
And news, much older than their ale, went round.
Imagination fondly stoops, to trace
The parlour splendours of that festive place: —
The white-wash'd wail; the nicely-sanded floor;
The varnish'd clock, that click'd behind the door;
The chest, contriv'd a double debt to pay,
A bed by night, a chest of drawers by day;
The pictures, plac'd for ornament and use,
The twelve good rules, the royal game of goose;
The hearth, except when winter chill'd the day,
With aspen boughs, and flowers, and fennel, gay;
While broken tea-cups, wisely kept for show,
Rang'd o'er the chimney, glisten'd in a row.
Vain transitory splendours! could not all
Reprieve the tott'ring mansion from its fall!
Obscure it sinks; nor shall it more impart
An hour's importance to the poor man's heart:
Thither no more the peasant shall repair
To sweet oblivion of his daily care;
No more the farmer's news, the barber's tale,
No more the woodman's ballad shall prevail;
No more the smith his dusky brow shall clear,
Relax his pond'rous strength, and lean to hear.
The host himself no longer shall be found
Careful to see the mantling bliss go round;
Nor the coy maid, half willing to be press'd,
Shall kiss the cup, to pass it to the rest.
25. CHARACTER OF A COUNTRY SCHOOLMASTER.
Beside yon straggling fence, that skirts the way
With blossom'd furze, unprofitably gay,
There, in his noisy mansion, skill'd to rule,
The village-master taught his little school. —
A man severe he was, and stern to view:
I knew him well; and every truant knew.
Well had the boding tremblers learn'd to trace
The day's disasters in his morning face:
Full well they laugh'd, with counterfeited glee,
At all his jokes — for many a joke had he:
Full well the busy whisper, circling round,
Convey'd the dismal tidings when he frown'd.
Yet he was kind: or, if severe in aught,
The love he bore to learning was in fault.
The village all declar'd how much he knew:
'Twas certain he could write — and cypher too;
Lands he could measure; terms and tides presage;
And even the story ran, that he could — guage.
In arguing, too, the parson own'd his skill;
For, ev'n though vanquish'd, he could argue still;
While words of learned length, and thund'ring sound,
Amaz'd the gazing rustics rang'd around;
And still they gaz'd; and still the wonder grew,
That one small head — could carry all he knew.
26. ON DUELLING.
The point of honour has been deem'd of use,
To teach good manners and to curb abuse:
Admit it true, the consequence is clear,
Our polish'd manners are a mask we wear,
And, at the bottom, barb'rous still and rude,
We are restrain'd, indeed, but not subdu'd;
The very remedy, however sure,
Springs from the mischief it intends to cure,
And savage in its principle appears,
Tried, as it should be, by the fruit it bears.
The cause is plain, and not to be denied,
The proud are always most provok'd by pride.
Few competitions but engender spite,
And those the most, where neither has a right;
Their own defects, invisible to them,
Seen in another, they at once condemn;
And though self-idoliz'd in every case,
Hate their own likeness in a brother's face.
'Tis hard, indeed, if nothing will defend
Mankind from quarrels but their fatal end,
That now and then a hero must decease,
That the surviving world may live in peace.
Perhaps, at last, close scrutiny may show
The practice dastardly, and mean, and low,
That men engage in it compell'd by force,
And fear, not courage, is its proper source,
The fear of tyrant custom, and the fear
Lest fops should censure us, and fools should sneer
At least to trample on our Maker's laws,
And hazard life, fur any or no cause,
To rush into a fixt eternal state,
Out of the very flames of rage and hate,
Or send another shiv'ring to the bar
With all the guilt of such unnat'ral war,
Whatever use may urge, or honour plead,
On reason's verdict is a madman's deed.
Am I to set my hfe upon a throw
Because a bear is rude and surly? No —
A moral, sensible, and well-bred man
Will not affront me, and no other can.
Were I empow'r'd to regulate the lists,
They should encounter with well-loaded fists.
A Trojan combat would be something new,
Let DARES beat ENTELLUS black and blue;
Then each might shew, to his admiring friends,
In honourable bumps, his rich amends,
And carry, in contusions of his skull,
A satisfactory receipt in full.
27. ON RETIREMENT AND CONTEMPLATIVE LEISURE.
Hackney'd in business, wearied at that oar,
Which thousands, once fast chain'd to, quit no more
But which, when life at ebb runs weak and low,
All wish, or seem to wish, they could forego;
The statesman, lawyer, merchant, man of trade,
Pants for the refuge of some rural shade,
Where, all his long anxieties forgot,
Amid the charms of a sequester'd spot,
Or recollected only to gild o'er,
And add a smile to what was sweet before,
He may possess the joys he thinks he sees,
Lay his old age upon the lap of ease,
Improve the remnant of his wasted span,
And, having liv'd a trifler, die a man.
Thus conscience pleads her cause within the breast,
Though long rebell'd against, not yet suppress'd,
And calls a creature, form'd for God alone,
For heaven's high proposes, and not his own,
Calls him away from selfish ends and aims,
From what debilitates, and what inflames;
From cities humming with a restless crowd,
Sordid as active, ignorant as loud,
Whose highest praise is that they live in vain,
The dupes of pleasure, or the slaves of gain;
Where works of man are cluster'd close around,
And works of God are hardly to be found;
To regions where, in spite of sin and woe,
Traces of Eden are still seen below,
Where mountain, river, forest, field, and grove,
Remind him of his Maker's pow'r and love.
'Tis well, if look'd for at so late a day,
In the list scene of such a senseless play,
True wisdom will attend his feeble call,
And grace his action, ere the curtain fall.
Souls that have long despis'd their heav'nly birth,
Their wishes all impregnated with earth,
For threescore years employ 'd with ceaseless care,
In catching smoke and feeding upon air,
Conversant only with the ways of men,
Rarely redeem the short remaining ten.
Invet'rate habits choak th' unfruitful heart,
Their fibres penetrate its tend'rest part,
And, draining its nutritious pow'rs to feed
Their noxious growth, starve ev'ry better seed.
Happy, if full of days— but happier far,
If, ere we yet discern life's evening star,
We can escape from custom's ideot sway,
To serve the Sov'reign we were born t' obey.
But some retire to nourish hopeless woe,
Some seeking happiness not found below,
Some to comply with humour, and a mind
To social scenes by nature disinclin'd,
Some sway'd by fashion, some by deep disgust,
Some self-impoverish'd, and because they must,
But few, that court Retirement, are aware
Of half the toils they must encounter there.
Lucrative offices are seldom lost
For want of pow'rs proportion'd to the post;
Give ev'n a dunce th' employment he desires,
And he soon finds the talents it requires;
A business with an income at its heels,
Furnishes always oil fur its own wheels.
But in his arduous enterprize to close
His active years with indolent repose,
He finds the labours of that state exceed
His utmost faculties, severe indeed.
'Tis easy to resign a toilsome place,
But not to manage leisure with a brace;
Absence of occupation is not rest,
A mind quite vacant is a mind distress'd.
An idler is a watch that wants both hands,
As useless if it goes as when it stands.
A mind unnerv'd, or indispos'd to bear
The weight of subjects worthiest of her care,
Whatever hopes a change of scene inspires,
Must change her nature, or in vain retires.
WILLIAM COWPER, ESQ.
8. On the Receipt of his Mother's Picture.
Oh that those lips had language! Life has pass'd
With me but roughly since I heard thee last.
Those lips are thine — thy own sweet smiles I see,
The same that oft in childhood solac'd me;
Voice only fails, else how distinct they say,
"Grieve not, my child, chace all thy fears away!'
The meek intelligence of those dear eyes
(Blest be the art that can immortalize,
The art that baffles time's tyrannic claim
To quench it) here shines on me, still the same.
Faithful remembrancer of one so dear,
Oh welcome guest, though unexpected, here
Who bid'st me honour with an artless song,
Affectionate, a mother lost so long.
I will obey, not willingly alone,
But gladly, as the precept were her own
And, while that face renews my filial grief,
Finley shall weave a charm for my relief —
Shall steep me in Elysian reverie,
A momentary dream, that thou art she.
My mother! when •I learn'd that thou wast dead,
Say, wast thou conscious of the tears I shed?
Hover'd thy spirit o'er thy sorrowing son,
Wretch even then, life's journey just begun?
Perhaps thou gav'st me, though unseen, a kiss;
Perhaps a tear, if souls can weep in bliss —
Ah that maternal smile! it answers — Yes.
I heard the bell toll'd on the burial day,
I saw the hearse that bore thee slow away,
And, turning from my nurs'ry-window, drew
A long, long sigh, and wept a last adieu!
Put was it such? — It was. — Where thou art gone
Adieus and farewells are a sound unknown.
May I but meet thee on that peaceful shore,
The parting sound shall pass my lips no more!
Thy maidens griev'd themselves at my concern,
Oft gave me promise of a quick return.
What ardently I wish'd, I long believ'd,
And, disappointed still, was still deceiv'd;
By disappointment every day beguil'd,
Dupe of to-morrow, even from a child.
Thus many a sad to-morrow came and went,
Till, all my stock of infant sorrows spent,
I learn'd, at last, submission to my lot,
But, though I less deplor'd thee, ne'er forgot.
Where once we dwelt, our name is heard no more,
Children not thine, have trod my nurs'ry floor;
And where the gard'ner Robin, day by day,
Drew me to school along the public way,
Delighted with my bawble coach, and wrapt
In scarlet mantle warm and velvet capt,
'Tis now become a history little known,
That once we call'd the past'ral house our own.
Short-liv'd possession! but the record fair,
That mem'ry keeps of all thy kindness there,
Still outlives many a storm that has effac'd
A thousand other themes, less deeply trac'd.
Thy nightly visit to my chamber made,
That thou might'st know me safe and warmly laid;
Thy morning bounties ere I left my home,
The biscuit, or confectionary plum;
The fragrant waters on my cheeks bestow'd,
By thy own hand, till fresh they shone and glow'd:
All this, and, more endearing still than all,
Thy constant flow of love, that knew no fall,
Ne'er roughen'd by those cataracts and breaks
That humour interpos'd too often makes;
All this still legible in mem'ry's page,
And still to be so, till my latest age,
Adds joy to duty, makes me glad to pay
Such honours to thee as my numbers may;
Perhaps a frail memorial, but sincere,
Not scorn'd in heav'n, though little notic'd here.
Could time, his flight revers'd, restore the hours
When, playing with thy vesture's tissu'd flow'rs,
The violet, the pink, and jessamine,
I prick'd them into paper with a pin,
(And thou wart happier than myself the while,
Would'st softly speak, and stroke my head, and smile.
Could those few pleasant hours again appear,
Might one wish bring them, would I wish them here?
I would not trust my heart — the dear delight
Seems so to be desir'd, perhaps I might. —
But, no — what here we call our life is such,
So little to be lov'd, and thou so much,
That I should ill requite thee to constrain
Thy unbounded spirit into bonds again.
Thou, as a gallant bark from Albion's coast,
(The storms all weather'd, and the ocean cross'd)
Shoots into port at some well-haven'd isle,
Where spices breathe, and brighter seasons smile,
There sits quiescent on the floods that show
Her beauteous form reflected clear below,
While airs impregnated with incense play
Around her, fanning light her streamers gay;
So thou, with sails how swift! hast reached the shore,
"Where tempests never beat nor billows roar. *"
And thy lov'd consort on the dang'rous tide
Of life, long since, has anchor'd at thy side.
But me, scarce hoping to attain that rest,
Always from port with-held, always distress'd —
Me howling winds drive devious, tempest-toss'd,
Sails ript, seams op'ning wide, and compass lost;
And, day by day, some current's thwarting force,
Sets me more distant from a prosp'rous course.
But oh the thought, that thou art safe, and he!
That thought is joy, arrive what may to me.
My boast is not that I deduce my birth
From loins enthron'd and rulers of the earth;
But higher far my proud pretensions rise —
The son of parents pass'd into the skies.
And now, farewell — time, unrevok'd, has run
His wonted course, yet what I wish'd is done.
By contemplation's help, not sought in vain,
I seem t' have liv'd my childhood o'er again;
To have renew'd the joys that once were mine,
Without the sin of violating thine;
And, while the wings of fancy still are free,
And I can view this mimic show of thee,
Time has but half succeeded in his theft —
Thyself remov'd, thy power to soothe me left.
29. THE POWERS OF IMAGINATION.
— — — — — I never may believe
These antic fables, nor these fairy toys;
Lovers and madmen have such seething brains,
Such shaping fantasies, that apprehend
More than cool reason ever comprehends.
The lunatic, the lover, and the poet,
Are of imagination all compact:
One sees more fairies than vast space can hold;
The madman. While the lover, all as frantic,
Sees Helen's beauty in a brow of Egypt.
The poet's eye, in a fine phrenzy rowling,
Doth glance from heav'n to earth, from earth to heav'n;
And, as imagination bodies forth
The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen
Turns them to shape, and gives to airy nothing
A local habitation, and a name.
30. THE HURRY OF THE SPIRITS IN A BRAIN FEVER.
My frame of nature is a ruffled sea,
And my disease the tempest. Nature feels
A strange commotion in her inmost centre;
The throne of Reason shakes. Be still my thoughts;
Peace and he still. In vain my reason gives
The peaceful word, my spirit strives in vain
To calm the tumult and command my thoughts.
This flesh, this circling blood, these brutal powers
Made to obey, turn rebels to the mind,
Nor hear its laws. The engine rules the man.
Unhappy change! When Nature's meaner springs
Fir'd to impetuous ferments, break all order;
When little restless atoms rise and reign
Tyrants in sovereign uproar, and impose
Ideas on the mind; confus'd ideas
Of non-existents and impossibles,
Who can describe them? Fragments of old dreams,
Borrow'd from midnight, torn from fairy fields
And fairy skies, and regions of the dead,
Abrupt, ill-sorted. O 'tis all confusion!
If I but close my eyes, strange images
In thousand forms and thousand colours rise,
Stars, rainbows, moons, green dragons, bears, and ghost
An endless medley, rush upon the stage,
And dance and riot wild in Reason's court
31. THE PULPIT.
— — — — — The pulpit
Must stand acknowledg'd, while the world shall stand,
The most important and effectual guard,
Support, and ornament, of virtue's cause.
here stands the messenger of truth: there stands
The legate of the skies! — His theme divine,
His office sacred, his credentials clear.
— I venerate the man whose heart is warm,
Whose hands are pure, whose doctrine and whose life,
Coincident, exhibit lucid proof
That he is honest in the sacred cause.
To such I render more than mere respect,
Whose actions say that they respect themselves.
But, loose in morals and in manners vain.
In conversation frivolous, in dress
Extreme, at once rapacious and profuse;
Frequent in park with lady at his side,
Ambling and prattling scandal as he goes;
But rare at home, and never at his books,
Or with his pen, save when he scrawls a card;
Constant at routs, familiar with a round
Of ladyships, a stranger to the poor;
Ambitious of preferment for its gold,
And well prepar'd, by ignorance and sloth,
By infidelity and love o' th' world,
To make God's work a sinecure; a slave
To his own pleasures and his patron's pride:
From such apostles, oh, ye mitred heads,
Preserve the church! and lay not careless hands
On sculls that cannot teach, and will not learn.
Would I describe a preacher, such as Paul,
Were he on earth, would hear, approve, and own,
Paul should himself direct me. I would trace
His masterstrokes, and draw from his design.
I would express him simple, grave, sincere,
In doctrine uncorrupt; in language plain,
And plain in manner; decent, solemn, chaste,
And natural in gesture; much impress'd
Himself, as conscious of his awful charge,
And anxious mainly that the flock he feeds
May feel it too; affectionate in look,
And tender in address, as well becomes
A messenger of grace to guilty men.
Behold the picture! Is it like? — Like whom?
The things that mount the rostrum with a skip,
And then skip down again: pronounce a text;
Cry — hem; and, reading what they never wrote,
Just fifteen minutes, huddle up their work,
And, with a well-bred whisper, close the scene!
32. THE ARRIVAL OF THE POST WITH THE NEWSPAPERS.
He comes, she herald of a noisy world,
With spatter'd boots, strapp'd waist, and frozen locks,
News from all nations lumb'ring at his back.
True to his charge the close-pack'd load behind,
Yet careless what he brings, his one concern
Is to conduct it to the destin'd inn,
And, having dropt th' expected bag — pass on.
He whistles as he goes, light-hearted wretch,
Cold and yet cheerful: messenger of grief,
Perhaps, to thousands, and of joy to some,
To him indifferent whether grief or joy.
Houses in ashes, and the fall of stocks,
Births, deaths, and marriages, epistles wet
With tears that trickled down the writer's cheeks,
Fast as the periods from his fluent quill,
Or charg'd with am'rous sighs of absent swains,
Or nymphs responsive, equally affect
His horse and him, unconscious of them all.
But, oh th' important budget! usher'd in
With such heart-shaking music, who can say
What are its tidings? have our troops awak'd
Or do they still, as if with opium drugg'd,
Snore to the murmurs of th' Atlantic wave?
Is India free? and does she wear her plum'd
And jewell'd turban with a smile of peace?
Or do we grind her still? the grand debate,
The popular harangue, the tart reply,
The logic, and the wisdom, and the wit,
And the loud laugh — I long to know them all;
I burn to set the imprison'd wranglers free,
And give them voice and utt'rance once again.
Now stir the fire, and close the shutters fast,
Let fall the curtains, wheel the sofa round,
And while the bubbling and loud hissing urn
Throws up a steamy column, and the cups
That cheer, but not inebriate, wait on each,
So let us welcome peaceful evening in,
And hear the news, that wander from afar
To entertain us as we sit at tea.
This folio of four pages, happy work!
What is it but a map of busy life,
Its fluctuations and its vast concerns?
'Tis pleasant, through the loop-holes of retreat,
To peep at such a world. To see the stir
Of the great Babel, and not feel the crowd.
To hear the roar she sends through all her gates
At a safe distance, where the dying sound
Falls a soft murmur on th' uninjur'd ear.
Thus sitting, and surveying thus at ease
The globe and its concerns, I seem advanc'd
To sonic secure and more than mortal height,
That lib'rates and exempts me from them all.
It turns submitted to my view, turns round
With all its generations; I behold
The tumult and am still. The sound of war
Has lost its terrors ere it reaches me,
Grieves but alarms me not. I mourn the pride
And av'rice that makes man a wolf to man,
Hear the faint echo of those brasen throats
By which he speaks the language of his heart,
And sigh, but never tremble, at the sound.
He travels and expatiates, as the bee
From flow'r to flow'r, so he from land to land;
The manners, customs, policy of all
Pay contribution to the store he gleans;
He sucks intelligence in ev'ry clime,
And spreads the honey of his deep research
At his return, a rich repast for me.
He travels and I too. I tread his deck,
Ascend his topmast, through his peering eyes
Discover countries, with a kindred heart.
Suffer his woes, and share in his escapes;
While fancy, like the finger of a clock,
Runs the great circuit, and is still at home.
33. HYMN ON THE SEASONS.
These, as they change, Almighty Father, these,
Are but the varied God. The rolling year
Is full of thee. Forth in the pleasing spring
Thy beauty walks, thy tenderness and love.
Wide flush the feilds: the soft'ning air is balm;
Echo the mountains round; the forest smiles;
And ev'ry sense, and ev'ry heart is joy.
Then comes thy glory in the summer months,
With light and heat refulgent. Then thy sun
Shoots full perfection thro' the swelling year.
And oft thy voice in dreadful thunder speaks;
And oft at dawn, deep,noon, or falling eve,
By brooks and groves, in hollow whisp'ring gales.
Thy bounty shines in autumn unconfin'd,
And spreads a common feast for all that lives.
In winter, awful thou! with clouds and storms
Around thee thrown, tempest o'er tempest roll'd,
Majestic darkness! on the whirlwind's wing
Riding sublime, thou bidst the world adore,
And humblest nature with thy northern blast.
Mysterious round! what skill, what force divine,
Deep felt in these appear! a simple train,
Yet so delightful mix'd, with such kind art,
Such beauty and beneficence combin'd;
Shade, unpereeiv'd, so sofening into shade;
And all so forming an harmonious whole;
That, as they still succeed, they ravish still.
But wand'ring oft, with brute unconscious gaze,
Man marks not thee, marks not the mighty hand,
That, ever busy, wheels the silent spheres;
Works in the secret deep; shoots, steaming, thence
The fair profusion that o'ersprcads the spring;
Flings from the sun direct the flaming day;
Feeds ev'ry creature; hurls the tempest forth;
And, as on earth this, grateful change revolves,
With transport touches all the springs of life.
Nature, attend! join, every living soul,
Beneath the spacious temple of the sky,
In adoration join; and ardent, raise
One general song! To him, ye vocal gales,
Breathe soft, whose spirit in your freshness breathes:
Oh talk of him in solitary glooms!
Where o'er the rock, the scarcely-waving pine
Fills the brown shade with a religious awe.
And ye, whose bolder note is heard afar,
Who shake th' astonish'd world, lift high to heav'n
Th' impetuous song, and say from whom you rage.
His praise, ye brooks, attune, ye trembling rills;
A nd let me catch it as I muse along.
Ye headlong torrents, rapid and profound;
Ye softer floods, that lead the humid maze
Along the vale; and thou majestic main,
A secret world of wonders in thyself,
Sound his stupendous praise; whose greater voice
Or bids you roar, or bids your roarings fall.
Soft roll your incense, herbs, and fruits, and flow'rs,
In mingled clouds to him; whose sun exalts,
Whose breath perfumes you, and whose pencil paints.
Ye forests, bend, ye harvests, wave to him;
Breathe your still song into the reaper's ear,
As home he goes beneath the joyous moon.
Ye that keep watch in heav'n, as earth asleep
Unconscious lies, effuse your mildest beams,
Ye constellations! while your angels strike,
Amid the spangled sky, the silvo lyre.
Great source of day! best image here below
Of thy Creator, ever pouring wide,
From world to world, the vital ocean round,
On nature write with ev'ry beam his praise.
The thunder rolls: be husked the prostrate world;
While cloud to cloud returns the solemn hymn.
Bleat out afresh, ye hills; ye mossy rocks,
Retain the sound: the broad responsive low,
Ye vallies, raise; for the Great Shepherd reigns,
And his unsuff'ring kingdom yet will come.
Ye woodlands all, awake; a boundless song
Burst from the groves; and when the restless day
Expiring, lays the warbling world asleep,
Sweetest of birds! sweet Philomela, charm
The list'ning shades, and teach the night his praise.
Ye chief, for whom the whole creation smiles!
At once the head, the heart, and tongue of all,
Crown the great hymn! in swarming cities vast,
Assembled men, to the deep organ join,
The long resounding voice, oft breaking clear,
At solemn pauses, thro' the swelling base:
And as each mingling flame increases each,
In one united ardour rise to heav'n.
Or if you rather chuse the rural shade,
And find a fane in every sacred grove;
There let the shepherd's flute, the virgin's lay,
The prompting seraph, and the poet's lyre,
Still sing the God of seasons as they roll.
For we, when I forget the darling theme,
Whether the blossom blows, the summer ray
Russets the plain, inspiring autumn gleams,
Or winter rises in the black'ning east;
Be my tongue mute, may fancy paint no more,
And, dead to joy, forget my heart to beat!
Should fate command me to the farthest verge
Of the green earth, to distant barb'rous climes,
Rivers unknown to song, where first the sun
Gilds Indian mountains, or his setting beam
Flames on th' Atlantic isles; 'tis nought to me,
Since God is ever present, ever felt,
In the void waste, as in the city full;
And where he vital spreads, there must be joy.
When ev'n at last the solemn hour shall come
And wing my mystic flight to future worlds,
I cheerful will obey; there, with new pow'rs,
Will rising wonders sing: I cannot go
Where UNIVERSAL LOVE not smiles around,
Sustaining all you orbs, and all their suns,
From seeming evil still educing good,
And better thence again, and better still,
In infinite progression. — But I lose
Myself in Him, in LIGHT INEFFABLE!
Come,then, expressive silence, muse His praise.
SUBJOINED TO. THE BILLS OF MORTALITY FOR THE PARISH
OF ALL-SAINTS, IN THE TOWN OF NORTHAMPTON
Improve-the present hour, for all beside
Is a mere feather on a torrent's side
COULD I, from Heav'n inspir'd, as sure presage
To whom the rising year shall prove his last;
As I can number in my punctual page,
And item down the victims of the past;
How each would trembling meet the mournful sheet,
On which the press might stamp him next to die;
And, reading here his sentence. how replete
With anxious meaning, Heav'n-ward turn his eye!
Time then would seem more precious than the joys
In which he sports away the treasure now
And pray'r, more reasonable than the noise
Of drunkards, or the Music-drawing bow.
Then, doubtless, many a trifler on the brink
Of this world's hazardous and headlong shore,
Forc'd to a pause, would feel it good to think,
Told that his setting-sun must rise no more.
Ah, self-deceiv'd! could I, prophetic, say,
Who next is fated, and who next, to fall,
The rest might then seem privileg'd to play;
But, naming none, the voice now speaks to all.
Pale Death, with equal foot, strikes wide the door
Of royal halls and hovels of the poor
WHILE thirteen moons saw smoothly run
The Nen's barge-laden wave,
All these, Life's rambling journey done,
Have found their home, the Grave.
Was Man (frail always), made more frail
Than in foregoing years?
Did Famine or did Plague prevail,
That so much death appears?
No. These were vig'rous as their sires,
Nor Plague nor Famine came;
This annual tribute, Death requires,
And never waves his claim.
Like crowded forest-trees we stand,
And some are mark'd to fall;
The axe will smite at God's command,
And soon shall smite us all.
Green as the Bay-tree, ever green
With its new foliage on,
The Gay, the Thoughtless, I have seen.
I pass'd — and they were gone.
Read, ye that run! the solemn truth
With which I charge my page;
A Worm is in the Bud of Youth,
And at the Root of Age.
No present Health can Health insure
For yet an hour to come;
No med'cine, though it often cure,
Can always baulk the tomb.
Despise not my good counsel.
HE Who sits from day to day,
Where th prison'd lark is hung,
Heedless of his loudest lay,
Hardly knows that he has sung.
Where the watchman in his round
Nightly lifts his voice on high,
None, accustom'd to his sound,
Wakes the sooner for his cry.
So, your verse-man I, and clerk,
Yearly in my song proclaim
Death at hand — yourselves his mark —
And the foe's unerring aim.
Duly at my time I come,
Publishing to all aloud —
Soon the grave must be your home,
And your only suit, a shrowd.
But the monitory strain,
Oft repeated in your ears,
Seems to sound too much in vain,
Wins no notice, wake no fears.
Can a truth, by all confess'd,
Of such magnitude and weight,
Grow by being oft compress'd,
Trivial as a parrot's prate?
Pleasure's call attention wins,
Hear it often as we may;
New as ever seem our sins,
Though committed every day.
Death and judgment, Heav'n and Hell —
These alone, so often heard,
No more move us than the bell
When some stranger is interr'd.
Oh then, ere the turf or tomb
Cover us from ev'ry eye,
Spirit of instruction, come,
Make us learn that we must die!
Words in which the Pronunciation varies from the Spelling.
Accompt Ac count' n
accomptant ac count' ant n
allelujah al le lu' ya n
apophthegm ap' o them n
apropos ap ro po' ad
assignee as si ne' n
asthma ast' ma n
asthmatic ast mat' ic a
asthmatical ast mat' i cal a
Bayonet Ba' un et n
bdellium del' lium n
beauish bo' ish a
belles lettres bel let' ter n
billet-doux bil le doo' n
boatswain bo'sn n
bureau bu ro' n
burial ber' i al n
bury ber' y v
busy biz' y a
busily biz' i ly ad
business biz' ness n
Canoe Ca noo' n
carte blanche cart blansh' n
chamois sha moy'
chevaux de frise shevodefrize' n
cockswain cok' sun n
colonel cur' nel n
comptrol con trol' v
comptroller con trol' ler n
connoisseur connis shure' n
courtesy curt'sy n v
cucumber cow'cum ber n
Droughty Drou'tyorthy a
droughtiness drou' ti ness n
Encore ong core' ad
eschalot sha lot' n
Flambeau Flam' bo n
Gaoler jail' er n
Hallelujah Hal le lu' ya n
hautboy ho' boy n
housewife huz' wif n
hiccough hic' cup n v
Jonquille Jun kill' n
Nephew Nev' ew n
phial _ vi' al n
phthisic tiz' ic n
phthisical tiz' ic al' a
portmanteau port man to n
Rondeau ron' do n
roquelaure rok' i lo n
Sapphire Saf fir n a
satiety sa si' e ty n
sceptick skep' tick n
scrutoire scru tore' n
sewer so' er n
shamois sham' y n
Turkois Tur kez' n
twopence tup'ence n
Veneer Fe neer' v
Women Wim'en n
Words esteemed Synonymous.
Abandon forsake leave relinquish desert quit, v. — Abate diminish
decrease lessen, v. — Abdicate renounce resign, v. — Abhor hate loath
detest, v — Abject low mean beggarly, a — Abolish abrogate disannul
repeal revoke, v. — Abstemious sober temperate, a — Abuse affront intult
n v. — Accept take receive, v. — Acid sharp sour, a. — Acquainted
familiar intimate, a. — Acquiesce agree consent, v. — Address air mien
behaviour manners deportment carriage, n. — Administration management
conduct government direction, n. — Admonition advice counsel,
n. — Advantageous profitable beneficial, a. — Affirm aver assert avouch
attest declare swear protest maintain, v — Agreement contract bargain,
n. — Allurements attractions charms, n. — Always continually perpetually,
ad. — Amazement astonishment wonder surprise consternation,
n. — Arrogance pride vanity haughtiness presumption, n. — Artifice
stratagem trick device finesse cunning, n. — Rapid swift speedy
quick, a. — Assist succour help relieve, v — Audaciousness effrontery
impudence boldness, n. — Authority power dominion, n. — Avaricious
covetous miserly niggardly, a. — Avoid shun fly, v. — Battle combat
fight, n v. — Beautiful handsome pretty, a. — Benevolence benignity kindness
tenderness humanity, n. — Besides furthermore moreover, ad —
Billow wave surge, n. — Bliss felicity happiness, n. — Bounty liberality
generosity, n. — Bravery resolution intrepidity courage valour, n. —
Brook rivulet stream, n. — Business trade profession, n. — Calamity misfortune
disaster, n. — Care caution prudence discretion, n. — Celebrated
famous renowned illustrious, a. — Changeable inconstant fickle
steady, a. — Chastise punish discipline correct, v. — Choaked
smothered, a. — Circumspection caution consideration, n. — Cloakbag
portmanteau trunk, n. — Commerce trade traffic, n. — Compassion commiseration
pity, n. — Compel constrain oblige force, v. — Complaisant
polite well-bred, a. — Comprehend conceive understand, v. — Conceal
dissemble disguise, v. — Condition state situation, n. — Confines hams
bounds, n. — Conquer subdue overcome, v. – Crooked deformed humpbacked,
a. — Customs mariners fashions, n. — Danger hazard risk venture,
n. — Dejected dull lowspirited melancholy, a. — Detriment harm
hurt injury mischief, n. — Devotion religion piety, n. — Difference dispute
quarrel, n. — Disclose discover divulge reveal tell, v. — Disease distemper
sickness, n. — Disgraceful scandalous, a — Diverting merry gay,
a. — Doubt suspense uncertainty, n. — Drunk Cuddled intoxicated, a. —
Effigy image statue, n. — Emolument gain lucre profit, n. – Endow
establish institute found,v. — Enormous huge vast immense,a. — Esteem
regard veneration respect, n. — Excursion ramble jaunt, n. — Excuse pardon
forgive, v. Fanciful fantastical maggotty whimsical, a. — Fashion
figure form, n. — Frankness plainness ingenuousness sincerity, n. — Give
present offer, v. – Headstrong obstinate opinionative stubborn inflexible,
a. — Idea imagination thought notion, n. — Immediately instantly
now presently, ad. — Impediment obstruction obstacle, n. — Impertinent
impudent saucy, a. — Indigence poverty need want necessity, n. —
Instruct learn teach, v. — Laziness sloth sluggishness, n. — Manifest
publish proclaim, v. — Mariner sailor seaman, n. — Notes remarks
servations, n. — Novel tale romance story, n. — Opinion sentiment
thought, n. — Peace quiet tranquillity, n. — Permit tolerate suffer,
Restore return surrender, v. — Robust strong stout sturdy, a. — Rogue
sharper thief, n. — Spire steeple tower, n.
A Collection of Nouns.
Head face ears eyes nose mouth lips tongue teeth gums jaws throat
chin cheeks brows hair skull brain neck arms hands thumbs fingers
knuckles nails shoulders elbows wrists hack breast sides ribs thighs
joints knees legs feet heels toes ankles skin bones veins blood nerves
Mutton beef veal lamb fowl fish flesh eggs liens chickens salt broth
soup mustard pepper pudding tart pie herring sauce steak bacon pork,
pottage gruel honey gravy-vinegar malt salmon trout eel ham ale beer
porter whisky runs brandy gin shrub wine punch milk butter cheese
curd whey cream loaf bun bread cake meal pease beans wheat oats
barley rye tea sugar coffee chocolate potatoes onions leeks cabbage cauliflower
greens parsley cresses turnips carrots berries apples pears
Tobacco snuff soap starch blue pins needles pen ink inkhorn desk
.table paper parchment vellum pounce pencil square roller folder seal
wax wafers pencase razor strap hone powder pomatum comb hat wig
bonnet nightcap stock shirt shift napkin handkerchief coat waistcoat
petticoat gown stays buttons breeches garters stockings shoes boots
spurs buckles ruffle tucker ribbon gloves muff mittens apron shawl
Cupboard chair shelf porringer trencher plates saltcellar spoon knife
fork bowl tankard glass bottle basket bed cradle bolster pillow blankets
sheets carpet tablecloth towel curtains chimney grate tongs shovel poker
candlestick snuffers extinguisher lamp lantern chest lock key hinges
trunk drawers press bason looking-glass pot potlid pan fryingpan ladle
fender fleshhook gridiron girdle mortar pestle kettle tray spit jack
besom brush picture clock watch canister saucer cup mug jug.
Lion lioness elephant leopard tiger tigress panther rhinoceros bear
fox unicorn camel dromedary buffalo bull cow bullock heifer calf
calves horse mare poney colt filly boar sow swine hog pig dog cat mouse
mice rat sheep ram ewelamb goat deer fawn stag hind hart roe-buck doe
hound spaniel hare monkey ape mastiff rabbit squirrel badger beaver,
otter ferret dormouse polecat weasel porcupine hedge-hog.
Eagle eaglet vulture hawk kite stork raven owl crow crane dove,
pigeon turtle cock hen pullet chicken drake duck gander goose geese
gosling turkey peacock swan pheasant linnet lark thrush blackbird
nightingale parrot cuckoo magpie goldfinch sparrow robin wren
Insect ant emmet pismire bee drone wasp hornet beetle fly butterfly
gnat toad frog viper snake serpent worm maggot mite grasshopper
moth silkworm caterpillar lizard adder mole.
Fish whale crocodile dolphin tortoise shark turbot sturgeon salmon
cod haddock whiting flounder skate trout gudgeon eel sole lobster carp
shrimp cockle muscle herring mackrel sprat perch roach pike.
Books of the Old Testament. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers
Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, I Samuel, II Samuel, I Kings,
II Kings, I Chronicles, II Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job
Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Isaiah, Jeremiah,
Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah,
Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi.
Books of the New Testament. Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Acts,
Romans, I Corinthians, II Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians,
Colossians, I Thessalonians, II Thesalonians, I Timothy, II Timothy,
Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, James, I Peter, II Peter, I John, II
John, III John, Jude, Revelation.
Time Century Year Quarter Martinmas Candlemas Whitsunday
Lammas. Month. January February March April May June July August
September October November December. Week. Sabbath Monday
Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday. Day Hour Minute Second.
Countries in Europe, with their capital Cities. Scotland, Edinburgh.
England, London. Ireland, Dublin. France, Paris. Dutch-Netherlands,
Amsterdam. Spain, Madrid. Portugal, Lisbon. Germany,
Vienna. Russia, Petersburg. Poland, Warsaw. Sweden, Stockholm.
Denmark, Copenhagen. Norway, Bergen. Prussia, Berlin. Naples,
Naples. Italy, Rome. Bohemia, Prague. Hungary, Presburg.
Austrian-Netherlands, Brussels. Switzerland, Berne. Turkey,
Constantinople. EUROPE, ASIA, AFRICA, AMERICA.
Titles, Occupations, &.c. Accomptant adjutant admiral advocate agent
alderman ambassador apothecary apprentice archbishop architect attorney
auctioneer Bailie baker banker barber baron baroness baronet
barrister basketmaker bellhanger bishop blacksmith bleacher boatman
boatswain bonnetmaker bookbinder bookseller brazier brewer bricklayer
brickmaker broker brushmaker builder butcher butler Cabinetmaker
candlemaker captain carpenter carrier carter carver cashier chairman
chamberlain chancellor chaplain chymist clerk clockmaker clothier
coachmaker coachman cobbler collector collier colonel combmaker commander
commissary commissioner commodore comptroller confectioner
constable corsul convener cook cooper coppersmith corkcutter cornet
corporal count countess curate currier customer cutler Dancingmaster
deacon dean-of-guild dentist distiller ditcher divine doctor draper drayman
drover druggist drummajor drummer duke duchess Earl embroiderer
emperor empress engineer engraver ensign envoy esquire exciseman
Factor falconer farmer farrier fencingmaster fiddler fifer fiscal
fisher fishmonger fuller foreman forester founder fowler furrier Gamekeeper
gaoler gardener gauger general gilder glazier glover goldsmith
governor grazier grenadier grocer gunner gunsmith Haberdasher
habitmaker hairdresser hatter herald heritor hosier hostler housekeeper
hunter huntsman husbandman Innkeeper insurer ironmonger Jeweller
jockey joiner journeyman judge justice King knight Labourer lady
lawyer leathermerchant lieutenant limner linendraper lintdresser lord
Magistrate major mantuamaker manufacturer marblecutter marchioness
marine mariner marquis mason mate mathematician mayor mayoress
measurer mercer merchant messenger midshipman midwife miller
milliner millwright miner minister moderator musician Nailer notary
Officer optician organist Painter papermaker pavier perfumer pewterer
physician pilot pinmaker piper plasterer plenipotentiary ploughman
plumber porter postillion postmaster potter preacher preses president
prince princess printer procurator professor provost purser Quarrier
quartermaster queen Recorder rector reedmaker ropemaker Saddler
sailor sawyer schoolmaster sealcutter secretary serjeant shepherd sheriff
shoemaker shorenraster silkdyer singingmaster skinner slater smith
saopboiler soldier solicitor spiritdealer stabler stationer statuary staymaker
steward stockingmaker stockjobber supervisor surgeon, surveyor
Taylor or tailor tallowchandler tanner teacher tinker tinpateworker
tobacconist townclerk treasurer trumpeter trunkmaker turner Undertaker
upholsterer Vicar vintner viscount viscountess Waiter watchmaker
wheelwright wigmaker wright writer Yeoman.
Names of Men. Adam Allan Alexander Andrew Angus Archibald
Arthur Aaron Abraham Augustus Ambrose Anthony Arnold Austin
Bartholomew Bernard Benjamin Charles Christopher Colin Clement
Danie1 David Donald Edward Ebenezer Edmund Eleazar Elias Ewen
Francis Ferdinand Frederick George Gabriel Gregory Gervas Gideon
Gilbert Henry Humphrey Hugh Horatio Hector Isaac John James
Jacrob Joshua Joseph Jeremiah Jonathan Job Josias Julian Kenneth
Lewis Luke Laurence Leopold Michael Mark Moses Matthew Maurice
Martin Malcolm Matthias Mungo Murdoch Nathan Nicol Niel
Ninian Norman Nathaniel Oliver Obadiah Paul Peter Philip Patrick
Quintin Robert Richard Ralph Roland Reynold Roger Raphael
Roderick Samuel Simon Stephen Samson Silvester Simeon Solomon
Thomas Timothy Toby Theophilus Theodosius Valentine Vincent
Of Women. Alice Anne Amelia Augusta Abigail Arabella Agnes
Barbara Betty Beatrice Catherine Charlotte Caroline Cloe Christian
Sicily Dorothy Dorcas Diana Deborah Eleanor Euphemia Elisabeth
Father Frances Flora Grace Grizel Helen Henrietta Hannah Isabel
Janet Joan Jean Jessy Lettice Louisa Lucretia Lydia Lucy Mary
Margaret Martha Matilda Margery Magdalene Maud Phillis Penelope
Priscilla Phebe Rachel Rebecca Rhoda Ruth Rosetta Rosalinda
Sarah Susan Sophia Sibil Theresa Theodosia.
WORDS the same in Sound, or nearly so, but different in Spelling
A, the indefinite article
aye, for ever
Abel, a man's name
acre, of land
Achor, a valley
ally, a friend
an, an article
Anne, a woman's name
ail, to be sick
ant, an insect
aunt, a relation
heir, to an estate
all, the whole
awl, a shoemaker's tool
altar, for sacrifice
alter, to change
anchor, of a ship
anker, 10 gallons
ascent, going up
auger, a tool
augur, a soothsayer
accept, to receive
except, to object
affect, to act upon
effect, to accomplish
aught, any thing
ought, to befit
ate, did eat
eight, in number
axe, to cut wood with
acts, of parliament
Baize, coarse cloath
bays, honorary crowns
bass, in music
bear, to support
bacon, swines flesh
baken, in an oven
bale, of silk
ball, a round substance
bawl, to cry out
bate, to lessen
better, to improve
bettor, who bates
bean, a kind of pulse
been, participle of to be
be, to exist
bee, an insect
beach, the shore
beech, a tree
beer, malt liquor
bier, for the dead
berry, small fruit
bury, to inter
beet, a plant
beat, to strike
bony, full of bones
blew, did blow
blue, a colour
boarder, a tabler
border, the edge
boar, the male of swine
bore, to make a hole
bridal, nuptial feast
bridle, of a horse
boll, a measure
bowl, a hollow vessel
bough, a branch
bow, to bend
beau, a man of dress
bo, a word of terror
bow, to shoot with
bread, to eat
bred, brought up
bruise, a hurt
brews, he doth brew
brute, a beast
boy, a male child
buoy, to bear up
buy, to purchase
baron, a lord
butt, 126 gallons
kettle, a vessel
ceil, to overlay
seal, to stamp
cell, a cave
sell, to dispose of
capitol, a fortress
carat, four grains
carrot, a garden root
caster, a thrower
castor, a beaver
censer, an incense-pan
censor, a reformer
cent, an hundred
sent, be sent
scent, a smell
session, act of sitting
chagrin, ill humour
shagreen, a fish skin
collar, for the neck
chord, in music
cord, a small rope
cite, to summon
sight, act of seeing
climb, to go up
Clime, a climate
coarse, not fine
corse, a dead body
course, race way
correcter, more exact
corrector, who corrects
cougher, one who
coffer, a chest
command, to govern
commend, to plaice
kine, two or more cows
consort, a companion
concert, of music
coomb, four bushels
complement, full number
compliment, act,of civility
coquette, an airy girl
coquet, to treat with
appearence of love
cousin, a relation
cozen, to cheat
cygnet, a young swan
signet, a seal
ceiling, of a room
sealing, setting a seal
chews, doth chew
chuse, to make
clause, an article
calendar, a register
calender, to dress cloth
cellar, for liquors
seller, one who sells
cannon, a great gun
canon, a rule
council, an assembly
cingle, a girth
Dam, to stop water
damn, to condemn
deer, an animal
descent, going down
dissent, to disagree
doe, a she-deer
dose, a medicine
doze, to slumber
Donse, a town
dunce, a blockhead
dun, a colour
divide, to separate
dust, dried earth
dost, for doest
Ear, of the head
year, twelve months
eye, to see with
expanse, a body widely
expand, to stretch
expend, to spend
fane, a temple
feign, to dissemble
feint, a pretence
feat, an exploit
feet, our feet
fir, a tree
fur, of wild beasts
fool, an idiot
flea, an insect
flee to run from
freeze, with cold
frieze, coarse cloth
feu, a lease
few, not many
foul, not clean
fowl, a bird
four, in number
four, in number
,phrase, mode of speech
felloe, of a wheel
fellow, an associate
Gall, bitter substances
gaul, a Frenchman
gait, manner of walking;
gate, a large door
guilt, of sin
groan a sigh
grate, for coals
grater, a coarse file
greave, a fetter or armour
grieve, to afflict
Hail, to salute
hale, to pull violently
hair, of the head
hare, an animal
hart, a beast
heart, the seat of life
heal, to cure
heel, of thefoot
he'll, he will
here, in this place
herd, of cattle
heard, did hear
horde, a clan
hoard, to lay up
hie, to hasten
hew, to cut
hue, a colour
Hugh, a man's name
him, that man
hymn, a song
ho, an interjection
hoe, a garden tool
hole, a hollow place
hoop for a barrel
whoop, to cry out
hour, 60 minutes
our, our own
hall, large room
haul, to pull
I'll, I will
aisle, of a church
isle an island
oil, liquid fat
idol, an image
inn, a public house
indite, to compose
indict, to impeach
incite, to stir up
Jam, conserve of fruits
jamb, the posts if a door
Jewry, belonging to the
jury, sworn persons
Kill, to murder
kiln. for drying grain
knight, a title
night, time of darkness
knag, a knot in wood
nag, a horse
knave, a rogue
nave, of a wheel
knew, did know
new, not old
knead, to bake
know, to understand
knit, to join
nit, the egg of a louse
knot, in a tree
key, for a lock
quay for landing goods
Latter, the last
letter, written message
lade, to load
Leeds, a city
leads, doth lead
leak, to let water in
leek, a plant
lessen, to make less
lesson, in reading
lier, in wait
liar, who tells lies
lyre, a musical instrument
limb, leg or arm
limn, to paint
lough, a lake
lock, of a door
lee, opposite the wind
lamb, a young sheep
lamm, to teat soundly
lived, did live
lose, to suffer loss
loose, to unbind
maid, a virgin
mane, of a horse
male, the he
matrass, a glass vessel
mattress, to rest on
matross, a soldier in the
mayor, of a town
mare, female of a horse
marshal, to arrange
mean, of small value
meet, to assemble
mete, to measure
medal, an ancient coin
meddle, to interpose
meter, a measurer
mite, a small insect
metal, gold, &c.
mown, cut down
moat, a ditch
mote, in the eye
mansion, a place of resisdence
mention, to express
manner a form
manor a lord's jurisdiction
miner, worker in mine.
neigh, as a horse
none, not any
nun, a religious maid
Oar, to row with
ore, unrefined metal
O, an interjection
one, in number
won, did win
pail, a wooden vessel
pain, sensation of uneasi.ness
pane, of glass
panel, a square of wood.
pannel, of a saddle
pare, to cut
pause, a stop
paws, of a best
piece, a part
peal, in ringing
peel, to take off the rind
peer, a noblernan
pier, of a bridge
pall, funeral cloth
Paul, a man's name
Peter, a man's name
phleme, an instrument
place, of abode
plaice, a fat fish
plumb, to sound
pole, a long
poll, register of votes
plait, a fold
plate, wrought silver
psalter, the psalms,
salter, a seller of salt
pleas, law suits
please, to give pleasure,
plane:, a joiner's tool
practise, to exercise
pray, to petition
principle, first cause
prophet, an inspired person
prier, one who inquires
pour, to flow
president, that presides
precedent, an example
princes, sons of kings
princess, daughter of a
pool, standing water
pull, to drag
Quean, a worthless woman
queen, a king's wife
rein, of a bridle
reign, to rule
raiser, one who raises
razor, for shaving
raise, to lift up
rays, of the sun
raze, to cut down
read, to peruse
Reid, a surname
reed, a rush
red, a colour
read, did read
wrest, to force
rheum, watery matter
room, a chamber
Rome, a city
rhomb, a quadrangular
rap, a smart blow
wrap, to fold
rye, a kind of grain
ring, a circle
wring, to twist
rite, a ceremony
write, with a pen
wright, a workman
rode, did ride
road, the high-way
row'd, did row
rose, did rise
rote, by heart
wrote, did write
wrought, did work
ruff, a sort of neckcloth
rung, did ring
rood, 40 poles
rabbet, a joint in carpentry
rabbit, a furry animal
Sail, of a ship
saver, a preserver
salary, stated hire
celery, an herb
scene, of a play
seine, a fishing-net
sea, the ocean
seam, a joining
seem, to appear
sees, doth see
seize, to lay hold of
seignior, grand Turk
shear, to clip
sine, a line
sign, a token
slight, to despise
sloe, fruit of the blackthorn
slow, not speedy
sole, of the foot
soar, to mount up
sore, an ulcer
sower, that sows
some, a part
sum, the whole
sow, to scatter seed
sew, with a needle
son, a male child
sun, fountain of light
swoon, to faint
stare, to look earnestly
steal, to practise theft
straight, not crooked
sucker, a young twig
seer, a prophet
sear, to burn
same, of like kind
saim, hogs lard
senate, an assembly
se'nnight, a week
stake, a post
steak, a slice of beef
symbol, a type
cymbal, a musical instrument
Tail, the end
tale, a story
tacks, small nails.
tare, weight allowed
tear, to rend
there, in that place
their, belonging to them
threw, did throw
through, from end to
throne, chair of state
thyme, a plant
time, measure of duration
toe, of the foot
tow, of hemp or flax
two, a couple
tong, of a buckle
tongue, organ of speech
ton, 20 hundred weight
tun, 2 pipes
tray, a hollow trough
trey, three at cards
tear, of the eye
tier, a row
throe, extreme agony
throw, to cast
Thames, a river
tames, who subdues
Vale, a valley
veil, a covering
vain, meanly proud
vane, to shew the wind
vein, of the blood
voice, sound by the mouth
verge, utmost border
virge, a dean's mace
Wade, to go in water
weigh'd, in a balance
wain, a waggon
wane, to decrease
wall, of a building
wawl, to howl
wait, to stay for
weight, for scales
wear, to have on'
weather, state of air
whither, to what
whether, which of the
wether, a sheep
way, a road
weigh, to balance
week, seven days
wean, to take from the
ween, to think
waist, the middle
waste, to destroy
would, was willing
Wales, a principality
wails, he laments
Yoke, of oxen
yolk, of an egg
yew, a tree
A Table of Numbers expressed both by Letters and Figures
Numbers. Cardinal. Ordinal.
I. or 1 One or the First
II. 2 Two Second
III. 3 Three Third
IV. 4. Four Fourth
V. 5 Five Fifth
VI. 6 Six Sixth
VII. 7 Seven Seventh
VIII. 8 Eight Eighth
IX. 9 Nine Ninth
X. 10 Ten Tenth
XI. 11 Eleven Eleventh
XII. 12 Twelve Twelfth
XIII. 1.3 Thirteen Thirteenth
XIV. 14 Fourteen Fourteenth
XV. 15 Fifteen Fifeenth
XVI. 16 Sixteen Sixteenth
XVII. 17 Seventeen Seventeenth
XVIII.. 18 Eighteen Eighteenth
XIX. 19 Nineteen. Nineteenth
XX. 20 Twenty Twentieth
XXI. 21 Twenty one Twenty first
XXII. 22 Twenty two Twenty second
XXIII. 23 Twenty three Twenty third
XXIV. 24• Twenty four Twenty fourth
XXV. 25 Twenty five Twenty fifth
XXVI. 26 Twenty six Twenty sixth
XXVII. 27 Twenty seven Twenty seventh
XXVIII. 28 Twenty eight. Twenty eighth
XXIX. 29 Twenty nine Twenty ninth
XXX 30 Thirty Thirtieth
XXXI. or 31 Thirty one or the Thirtyfirst
XXXII. 32 Thirty two Thirty second
XXXIII. 33 Thirty three Thirty third
XXXIV. 34. Thirty four Thirty fourth
XXXV. 35 Thirty five Thirty fifth
XXXVI. 36 Thirty six Thirty sixth
XXXVII. 37 Thirty seven Thirty seventh
XXXVIII 38 Thirty eight Thirty eighth
XXXIX. 39 Thirty nine Thirty ninth
XL. 40 Forty Fortieth
XLI. 41 Forty one Forty first
XLII. 42 Forty two Forty second
XLIII. 43 Forty three Forty third
XLIV. 44 Forty four Forty fourth
XLV. 45 Forty five Forty fifth
XLVI. 46 Forty six Forty sixth
XLVII. 47 Forty seven Forty seventh
XLVIII. 48 Forty eight Forty eighth
XLIX. 49 Forty nine Forty ninth
L. 50 Fifty Fiftieth
LI. 51 Fifty one Fifty first
LII. 52 Fifty two Fifty second
LIII. 53 Fifty three Fifty third
LIV. 54 Fifty four Fifty fourth
LV. 55 Fifty five Fifty fifth
LVI. 56 Fifty six Fifty sixth
LVII. 57 Fifty seven Fifty seventh
LVIII. 58 Fifty eight Fifty eighth
LIX. 59 Fifty nine Fifty ninth
LX. 60 Sixty Sixtieth
LXI. 61 Sixty one Sixty first
LXII. 62 Sixty two Sixty second
LXIII. 63 Sixty three Sixty third.
LXIV. 64 Sixty four Sixty fourth
LXV. 65 Sixty five Sixty fifth
LXVI. 66 Sixty six Sixty sixth
LXVII. 67 Sixty seven Sixty seventh
LXVIII. 68 Sixty eight Sixty eighth
LXIX. 69 Sixty nine Sixty ninth
LXX. 70 Seventy Seventieth
LXXI. or 71 Seventy one or the Seventy first
LXXII. 72 Seventy two Seventy second
LXXIII. 73 Seventy three Seventy third
LXXIV. 74 Seventy four Seventy fourth
LXXV. 75 Seventy five Seventy fifth
LXXVI. 76 Seventy six Seventy sixth
LXXVII. 77 Seventy seven Seventy seventh
LXXVIII. 78 Seventy eight Seventy eighth
LXXIX. 79 Seventy nine Seventy ninth
LXXX. 80 Eighty Eightieth
LXXXI. 81 Eighty one Eighty first
LXXXII. 82 Eighty two Eighty second
LXXXIII. 83 Eighty three Eighty third
LXXXIV. 84 Eighty four Eighty fourth
LXXXV. 85 Eighty five Eighty fifth
LXXXVI. 86 Eighty six Eighty sixth
LXXXVII. 87 Eighty seven Eighty seventh
LXXXVIII. 88 Eighty eight Eighty eighth
LXXXIX. 89 Eighty nine Eighty ninth
XC. 90 Ninety Nine/jab
XCI. 91 Ninety one Ninety first
XCII. 92 Ninety two Ninety second
XCIII. 93 Ninety three Ninety third
XCIV. 94 Ninety four Ninety fourth
XCV. 95 Ninety five, Ninety fifth
XCVI. 96 Ninety six Ninety sixth
XCVII. 97 Ninety seven Ninety seventh
XCVIII. 98 Ninety eight Ninety eighth
XCIX. 99 Ninety nine Ninety ninth
C. 100 One hundred The hundredth
CC. 200 Two hundred Two hundredth
CCC. 300 Three hundred Three hundredth
CCCC. 400 Four hundred Four hundredth
D. 500 Five hundred Five hundredth
DC. 600 Six hundred Six hundredth
DCC. 700 Seven hundred Seven hundredth
DCCC. 800 Eight hundred Eight hundredth
DCCCC. 900 Nine hundred Nine hundredth
M. 1000 A thousand The thousandth
PRINCIPLES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR.
WHAT is Engliſh Grammar? The art of ſpeaking or
writing the Engliſh language with propriety.
Of what does Grammar treat? Letters, ſyllables, words,
and ſentences, make up the whole ſubject of Grammar.
What is a letter? A letter is a mark or character, being
the leaſt part of a word; of which there are twenty-ſix in the
language. viz. a, b, c, &c.
How are they divided? Into vowels and conſonants.
What is a vowel? A letter which makes a perfect ſound
How many vowels are there? Seven; a, e, i, o, u, w, y.
What is a diphthong? Two vowels meeting in one ſyllable;
as ai in aim.
How are they divided? Into proper and improper.
When is a diphthong proper? When both vowels are
ſounded; as, oi in oil, ou in thou.
When is a diphthong improper? When only one of the
vowels is ſounded; as, a in day, e in teach, o in road.
What is a triphthong? Three vowels meeting in one ſyllable;
as, uee in queen, eau in beauty, ieu in lieu.
What is a conſonant? A letter which cannot be ſounded,
or but imperfectly, without a vowel.
How many conſonants are there? Nineteen; b, c, d, f, g,
j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, ſ, t, v, x, z
What is a ſyllable? Any perfect ſound, making a word or
part of a word.
What does a ſyllable conſiſt of? A ſyllable conſiſts of one
or more letters; as, a, at, com.
How do you know what number of ſyllables are in a word?
From the number of vowels it contains.
Can there be a ſyllable without a vowel? No.
Are there always as many ſyllables in a word as there are
vowels in it? Yes; except when two vowels meet and make
a diphthong; as ai in air; three a triphthong; as ieu in lieu;
or ſilent e be added; as in give; or inſerted; as in comely.
What is accent? Accent is a peculiar way of diſtinguiſhing
one ſyllable of a word from the reſt.
How is this diſtinction made? Either by dwelling longer
upon one ſyllable than the reſt, as in glo'ry, mu'ſic, fa'ther;
or by giving it a ſmarter percuſſion of the voice in utterance;
as in hap'pen, clev'er, bat'tle.
What is emphaſis? Emphaſis is the raiſing, or depreſſing
of the voice upon a word, or words in a ſentence.
What is the uſe of emphaſis? Emphaſis ennobles the word
to which it belongs, and preſents it in a ſtronger light to the
What are the names of the principal points, which denote the pauſes
or ſtops in reading? Comma [,] ſemicolon [;] colon [:] period [.] interrogation
[?] admiration [!] and parentheſis [()].
What does a comma denote? A comma generally denotes a little elevation
of the voice, is the ſhorteſt paufe, and ſhould be continued while
you may count one.
What does a ſemicolon denote? A ſemicolon ſometimes denotes a cadence,
and ſometimes an elevation of the voice, according as the ſenſe
requires, and ſhould he continued while you may count one, two.
What does a colon denote? A colon denotes a little depreſſion of the
voice, and requires a pauſe while you may count one, two, three.
What does a period denote? A period denotes a full cadence of the
voice, and ought to be held while you may count one, two, three, four.
When is a point of interrogation uſed? At the end of a queſtion, and
requires a pauſe equal to a period, and an elevation of the voice, if the
queſtion be aſked by a verb; in other caſes it requires a cadence. It
likewiſe diſtnguiſhes a real queſtion from a ſentence in the imperative
When is a point of admiration uſed? After a word or ſentence that
expreſſes ſurpriſe or emotion, and denotes a modulation of the voice,
and a pauſe ſuited to the expreſſion.
When is a parentheſis uſed? A parentheſis (to be avoided as much as
poſſible) is uſed when one ſentence is included in another, and requires
a pauſe (both at the beginning and end of it) much the ſame with a
comma. It alfo denotes a depreſſion of the voice, and a haſty, pronunciation.
Note. It is impoſſible to define the preciſe quantity or duration of
each of the foregoing pauſes, as a diſcourſe may be read in a quicker or
Beſides the above, there are other marks uſed for the following purpoſes,
Quotation (""), diſtinguiſhes a borrowed paſſage. — Index or hand
(☞), points out ſomething very remarkable. — Hyphen (-), divides
words into ſyllables. — Accent ('or') points out the ſyllable on which
the force of the voice is to be placed. Apoſtrophe ('), Caret, (^), and
Elipſis (—), or (***), or (----) denote an omiſſion — Paragraph
denotes the beginning of a new ſubject. — Crotchets , contain ſomething
mentioned by the bye. — Aſteriſm (*), Dagger (†), Parallel Lines
(‖), Small Figures (1 2 3) and Letters (a b c), are all uſed to lead the
reader to ſome note on the margin, or bottom of the page.
What is a word? A diſtinct articulate ſound, which men
have made the ſign of ſome idea, thought or notion.
Of what does a word conſiſt? A word conſiſts of one or
more ſyllables; as hate, hateful, hatefully.
What is ſimple word? A ſimple word is that which is
not mixed or compounded; as, no, to, or, in.
What is a compound word? A compound word is made
up of two or more words; as, nowithſtanding, whatſoever.
What is a primitive word? A primitive word is that
which comes from no other, either in the ſame language, or
from another language; as, church, Amen.
What is a derivative word? A word which comes from
ſome other word, in the ſame language; as, ſinful, from ſin;
or from another language; as manual, from manus.
How many ſorts of derivations are there among Engliſh
words? Seven; viz. Adjectives from ſubſtantives; as fearful,
from fear: Adverbs from ſubſtantives; as hourly, from
hour: Verbs from ſubſtantives; as ſtrengthen, from ſtrength:
Subſtantives for adjectives; as, greatneſs, from great: Adverbs
from adjectives; as, baſhfully, from: Verbs from
adjectives; as, whiten, from white: Participles from verbs as,
loving and loved from love.
What words ought to be diſtinguiſhed in writing by beginning
with a capital litter? The firſt word of any writing, letter
or diſcourſe; the next word after a period; the pronoun I, and
the interjection O; the firſt word of every ſentence quoted
from an author, or introduced as ſpoken by another; every
title and proper name of a perſon or place; and the firſt word
of every line or verſe in poetry.
How many different kinds of words, or parts of ſpeech,
are there in the Engliſh language? Nine; 1. Article, 2.
noun, 3. adjective, 4. pronoun, 5. verb, 6. adverb, 7. prepoſition,
8. conjunction, and 9. interjection.
What is an article? An article is a word put before nouns,
to point out the extent of their ſignification, as, a man, the man.
What is a noun or ſubſantive? A noun or ſubſtantive is
the name of any perſon, place, or thing, which we conceive to
exiſt; as, Peter, Perth, patience.
What is an adjective? An adjective is a word which expreſſes
ſome quality or property of the ſubſtantive, to which it
is joined; as, a high mountain, a hard table.
What is a pronoun? A pronoun is a word uſed inſtead of
a noun, to prevent the repetition thereof; as, inſtead of
James we ſay he; of Mary, — ſhe; of table, — it.
What is a verb? A verb is a word which ſignifies to be,
to do, or to ſuffer; as I am, I write, I am beaten.
What is an adverb? An adverb is a word added to verbs,
adjectives, or other adverbs, to expreſs ſome circumſtance
belonging to them; as, he reads well; truly diſtinct; very
What is a prepoſition? A prepoſition is a word which is
put before nouns and pronouns, to expreſs the relation or
connexion between different words; as, he came from Leith,
with a letter from the Captain to the Governor, by which he
was admitted into the Cattle.
What is a conjunction? A conjunction is a word which
joins words and ſentences together; as Peter and John read
very well; but rather too faſt.
What is an interjection? An interjection is a word uſed to
expreſs ſome ſudden emotion of the mind; as, Alas! The
heavy news make me tremble.
An Exerciſe on the Parts of Speech.
2 5 1 3 3 2 7 1 2
Flattery has the ſame pernicious influence upon the mind,
4 2 5 7 1 2 8 8 1 3 5
which poiſon has upon the body; and, though the latter be
6 6 8 9 1 3 5 6 6
moſt juſtly deteſted, yet, alas! the former is almoſt univerſally
Of the Article
How many articles are there? There are two articles; a
or an, called the indefinite article, and the, called the definitive
When does a become an? A becomes an, when put before
ſuch words as begin with a vowel (w and y excepted)
or h mute; as, an example, an object, an hour, an heir.
What does a or an reſpect? A or an, reſpects our primany
perception, and denotes individuals as unknown.
Why is a called the indefinite article? It is called the indefinite
article, becauſe it leaves the meaning of the word to
which it is prefixed quite undeterminate; as, a man, a ſhip,
that is, any man, any ſhip whatever.
What does the reſpect? The, reſpects our ſecondary
perception, and denotes individuals as known.
Why is the called the definite article? It is called the
definite article, becauſe it points out and limits the ſenſe of
the word to which it is prefixed, to ſome particular perſon,
place, or thing, which had been ſeen, heard, or ſpoken of
before; as, there is the man who bought the horſe, that gained
the race yeſterday; this is the place from which they
ſtarted; that is, that particular man, horſe, race, and place.
In what ſenſe is a common name taken, having no article
to limit it? A common name without an article to
limit it, is taken in it's largeſt ſenſe; as, man is mortal, that
is, all mankind.
2. Of the Noun or Subſtantive.
How many ſorts of ſubſtantive nouns are there? Two;
common and proper names.
What do common names ſtand for? Common names
ſtand for kinds, containing many ſorts; or ſorts, containing
many individuals under them; as, animal, vegetable; man,
horse; ſhip, watch; virtue, vice, folly.
How may common names be diſtinguiſhed? Common
names may be diſtinguiſhed into natural, artificial, and abſtract
Give an example of natural names. Man, animal, vegetable,
Why are theſe and the like called natural? Becauſe the
things, of which they are the names, are formed by the Author
Give an example of artificial names. Houſe, ſhip, watch,
teleſcope, are artificial.
Why are theſe and the like called artificial? Becauſe the
things, of which they are the names, are formed by art.
Give an example of abſtract names. Temperance, hardneſs,
goodneſs, are abſtract.
Why are theſe called abſract? Becauſe they are formed
* Theſe ſeveral nouns have their genus, their ſpecies, and their
individuals. For example, in natural nouns, animal is a genus; man,
a ſpecies; Alexander, an individual. In artificial nouns, edifice is a genus;
palace, a ſpecies; Holyrood-houſe, an individual. In abſtract
nouns, motion is a genus; flight, a ſpecies; the eagle's flight is an individual.
from the attributes of other ſubſtances; as, from a table being
hard, we form the abſtract name hardneſs; from a horſe
being ſwift, we form ſwiftneſs, from white, whiteneſs, &c.
What do proper names expreſs? Proper names expreſs
individuals; as, John, Perth, Tweed.
What is number? Number is the diſtinction of one from
How many numbers are there? Two; the ſingular * and
What does the ſingular number expreſs? The ſingular expreſſes
one perſon, or thing; as, a boy, a book: or a number
of them conſidered as united in one; as, a troop, an army.
What does the plural expreſs? The plural expreſſes more
than one; as boys, books, troops, armies.
How is the plural generally formed? The plural is generally
formed from the ſingular, by adding s; as, rule, rules;
town, towns; word, words, &c.
How is the plural formed, when the ſingular ends in ch,
ſs, ſh, or x? When the ſingular ends in ch, ſr, ſh, or x, the
plural is formed by adding the ſyllable es; as, church, churches;
kiſſes; bruſh, bruſhes; box, boxes, &c.
How is the plural formed when the singular ends in f, or
fe? When the ſingular ends in f, or fe, the plural is formed
by turning the f, or fe, into ves; as, calf, calves; knife,
knives; thief, thieves, &c. Except hoof, roof, grief, dwarf,
reproof, wharf; ſcarf, relief, &c. and others ending in
which form the plural by the addition of s.
How is the plural formed, when the ſingular ends in y?
When the ſingular ends in y, with a conſonant before it, the
y is changed into ies to make the plural, as glory, glories;
lady, ladies, &c.
Are there any nouns which form their plural irregularly
Yes; the following; namely,
* Some nouns have no ſingular; as, aſhes, bellows, breeches, &c.
Others have no plural; as, barley, learning, gold, ſilver, &c. likewiſe
Note. Proper names, being the names of individuals, admit not of
articles, nor of the plural number; unleſs by a figure, when a common
name is underſtood, or when there are ſeveral perſons of the
ſame name; as, the Alexander of his age; the river Thames; the two
How many genders are there? Three; the maſculine,
feminine, and neuter.
Of what gender are words which ſignify males? Words
which ſignify males, are of the maſculine gender; as, man, boy,
Of what gender are words which ſignify females? Words
which ſignify females, are of the feminine; as, woman, girl,
Of what gender are words which ſignify things without
life? Words which ſignify things without life, are of the
neater; as, pen, ink, table, chair.
Do inanimate things ever aſſume perſon and ſex? In an
elevated, or poetical ſtyle, things inanimate are often perſonified:
Heaven his wonted face renew'd. —
Was I deceiv'd; or did a ſable cloud
Turn forth her ſilver lining on the night. MILTON.
Note. Words which expreſs general claſſes of perſons or animals,
comprehending both ſexes; fuch as friend, ſervant, neighbour ſheep, &c.
may be denominated the indefinite gender.
Give a few examples of the variations of nouns which expreſs
the difference of ſex.
Abbot, maſc. Abbeſs, fem.; actor, actreſs; adulterer, adultereſs; ambaſſador,
ambaſſadreſs; adminiſtrator, adminiſtratrix. Baron, baroneſs;
brother, ſiſter; boy, girl; bridegroom, bride; bachelor, maid or
virgin; bull, cow; buck, doe; boar, ſow. Count, counteſs; caterer,
catereſs; chanter, chantreſs; cock, hen. Diviner, divinereſs; deacon,
deaconeſs; drone, bee; drake, duck. Executor, executrix; elector,
electreſs; emperor, empreſs. Father, mother; friar, nun. Governor,
governeſs; gander, gooſe. Huſband, wiſe; hero, heroine; hunter,
huntreſs; heir, heireſs; horſe, mare. Jew, Jeweſs. King, queen.
Lad, laſs; lord, lady; lion, lioneſs. Maſter, miſtreſs; man, woman;
mayor, mayoreſs. Nephew, niece. Patron, patroneſs; prieſt, prieſteſs;
prince, princeſs; poet, poeteſs; prophet, propheteſs. Ram, ewe.
names of cities, countries, rivers, mountains; the names of virtues
and vices; name, of moſt herbs; also bread, beer, ale, honey, milk,
butter, &c. And ſome are the ſame in both numbers; as, ſheep, &c.
Shepherd, ſhepherdeſs; ſongſter, ſongſtreſs; ſon, daughter;
hind; ſteer, heifer. Teſtator, teſtatrix; tiger, tigreſs; traitor, traitreſs.
Uncle, aunt. Victor, victreſs; viſcount, viſcounteſs. Widower,
How many caſes have Engliſh ſubſtantives? Engliſh ſubſtantives
have only two different terminations for caſes; the
nominative and the poſſeſſive: but grammarians have ſuppoſed
a third, called the objective, which anſwers to the oblique
caſes in Latin.
What does the nominative expreſs? The nominative, which
is generally put before verbs, expreſſes ſimply the name of a
perſon, place, or thing; as, James, Perth, table.
What does the poſſeſſive denote? The poſſeſſive denotes
poſſeſſion or property, or the relation of one thing to another;
as, Solomon's wiſdom, David's ſon.
How is the poſſeſſive caſe generally formed? The poſſſeſſive
caſe is generally formed by the addition of s with an
apoſtrophe; as, man's glory.
Is the s ever omitted in forming the poſſeſive caſe? Yes;
if the noun end in s, or be of the plural number, the s, for
the ſake of ſound, is ſometimes omitted; as, for Jeſus' ſake;
on eagles' wings.
What is expreſſed by the objective caſe? The objective,
which follows active verbs and prepoſitions, expreſſes the object
of an action, or of a relation; as, Agathias ſet Eliza on
horſeback, and conducted her to a place of ſafety; where
horſeback, her, place, and ſafety are in the objective caſe.
3. Of the Adjective.
How may an adjective be diſtinguiſhed from a ſubſtantive?
An adjective may be diſtinguiſhed from a ſubſtantive, by adding
the word thing to it, with which it will make ſenſe; as
a good thing; a bad thing.
How are adjectives varied? Adjectives are varied by the
degrees of compariſon, of which there are two, the comparative
and ſuperlative, formed from the quality in it's poſitive
What is expreſſed by the poſitive ſtate? The poſitive ſtate
expreſſes the quality of a thing ſimply, without comparing it
with any other; as, this table is hard.
What does the comparative degree expreſs? The comparative
expreſſes a higher or lower degree of that quality; as,
that table is harder than this.
What is expreſſed by the ſuperlative degree? The ſuperlative
expreſſes the higheſt or loweſt degree of the ſame quality;
as, hardeſt, ſofteſt, greateſt, leaſt.
How is the comparative degree formed? The comparative
is formed from the quality, by adding r or er to it; as, wiſe,
wiſer; hard, harder; or by placing the adverb more * before
it; as, wiſe, more wiſe; hard, more hard.
How is the ſuperlative formed? The ſuperlative is formed
from the quality, by adding ſt, or eſt; as, wiſe, wiſeſt; hard,
hardeſt: or by prefixing moſt, very, extremely, to it; as, extremely
Are there any adjectives irregularly compared? Yes; the
Poſ. Comp. Sup.
good, better beſt.
bad evil or ill, worſe, worſt
Poſ. Comp. Sup.
little, leſs, leaſt.
much or many, more moſt.
Note, Double comparatives and ſuperlatives are improper, and
ought not to be uſed; ſuch as, more better, more nobler, moſt braveſt,
leſſer, worſer, &c.
4. Of the Pronoun.
How many kinds of pronouns are there? Five; perſonal,
relative, demonſtrative, interrogative, and poſſeſſive.
How many perſonal pronouns are there? Five; I, thou, he, ſhe, it.
How are they uſed? I, is made uſe of when a perſon
ſpeaks of himſelf; thou, when he ſpeaks to another; he, ſhe,
or it, when an abſent perſon or thing is ſpoken of. Each
of theſe has the plural number; we, ye or you, they.
Note. I, has the plural we; becauſe there may be many ſpeakers
at once of the ſame ſentiment; as well as one, who, including himſelf,
ſpeaks the sentiment of many. Thou, has the plural ye or you;
becauſe a ſpeech may he ſpoken to many, as well as to one, He, has
the plural they; becauſe the ſubject of diſcourse is often many at
once. HARRIS' Hermes.
How many relative pronouns are there? Four; who,
which, what, that.
* Moſt words of two ſyllables, and all of more than two, for the
ſake of ſound, ought to he compared by the adverbs more and moſt,
and not by er and eſt; as, more learned, and moſt learned, not leareder
When are theſe pronouns reſpectively uſed? Who, is
uſed when ſpeaking of perſons; as, the boy who writes:
which, is uſed when we ſpeak of things; as, the knife which
I found: what, is alſo uſed when ſpeaking of things, and
includes likewiſe the antecedent; as, this is what I wanted,
that is, the thing which I wanted: that, is uſed as relating
both to perſons and things; as, the boy that came in, found
the knife that I loſt.
What is the uſe of relative pronouns? Relative pronouns
connect ſentences together; and they always relate to ſome
preceding ſubſtantive, called the antecedent; as, the man
who — the ſhip which.
How many demonſtrative pronouns are there? There are
two demonſtrative pronouns; this that.
To what do theſe pronouns reſpectively refer? This, refers
to a thing which is near us; that, to a thing at a diſtance:
Or, this, relates to the perſon or thing laſt mentioned; that,
to the firſt: The ſame is to be obſerved of their plurals theſe
and thoſe. Thus,
— — — Body and ſoul muſt part; —
This, wings it's way to it's Almighty ſource;—
That, drops into the dark and noiſome grave. BLAIR.
Some place the bliſs in action, fome in eaſe,
Thoſe call it pleaſure, and contentment theſe. POPE
How many interrogative pronouns are there? Three; who,
which, what; uſed in aſking queſtions.
How many poſſeſſive pronouns are there? Eight; thy, my,
his, her, it's, our, your, their, which are followed by a noun
When are pronouns ſaid to be definite? Pronouns are ſaid
to be definite when they define and limit the extent of the
name to which they refer, or are joined; ſuch are the following,
this, that, other, coy, one, ſome, none. The poſſeſſive of
one is one's of other other's.
When are pronouns ſaid to be indefinite? Pronouns are
called indefinite when they expreſs nothing diſtinct or determined;
ſuch are the following, ſome, any, one, other, whichever,
whatever, whichever, whoſoever, whatſoever,
Declension of Pronouns.
Firſt Per. Sec. Per. Third perſon ſingular.
Singular. Maſ. Fem. Neuter
Nom. I thou he ſhe it
Poſſ. mine thine his hers * it's
Obj. me thee him her it
Nom. we ye or you they they they
Poſſ ours yours theirs theirs theirs
Obj. us you them them them
Firſt, ſecond, and third Perſons of the relative,who.
Singular and Plural.
Nom. who Poff. whoſe Obj. whom
Note. Each, every, either, are called diſtributives; becauſe they denote
the perſons, or things, that make up a number, as taken ſeparately
All nouns and pronouns whatever in grammatical conſtruction, are
of the third perſon, and, conſequently, agree with the verbs to which
they are agents or nominative caſes, in the third perſon ſingular or
plural, according to the number of the noun: Except thoſe pronouns,
which have the firſt and second; or when an addreſs is made to any
one, for then the noun is of the ſecond perſon.
5. Of the Verb.
How many kinds of verbs are there? Four; Subſtantive,
active, poſſive, and neuter.
What does a ſubſtantive verb expreſs? A ſubſtantive verb
exreſſes the bring or exiſtence of an object; as, I am.
What does an active or tranſitive verb expreſs? An active
or tranſitive verb expreſſes an action, which implies an agent,
and an object acted upon; as, I love Thomas.
What does a paſſive verb expreſs? A paſſive verb expreſſes
a paſſſion or ſuffering, or the receiving of an action; as,
Thomas is loved by me.
Note. When the verb is active, the agent takes the lead in the ſentence,
and is followed by the object; as, I teach William. In this ſentence
the pronoun I is the agent, teach the verb, and William the
object. When the verb is paſſive, the objects takes the lead, and is followed
by the agent; as, William is taught by me. Here the pronoun
me is the agent, and William the object.
What does a neuter or intranſive verb ſignify? A neuter
* It's is ſometimes, but improperly, uſed for it is, when contracted,
which ſhould be written 'tis.
or intranſitive verb ſignifies an action that has no particular
object whereon to fall; as, I ſit, you ſtand, they run.
How are verbs varied? Verbs are varied by perſon, number,
mode, and time.
How many perſons are there? Three; firſt, ſecond, and third.
How many numbers are there? Two; ſingular and plural.
How many modes are there? Four; the indicative, ſubjunctive
or conjunctive, imperative, and infinitive.
What do you underſtand by the indicative mode? The indicative
mode affirms or denies ſimply: as, I do love; I do
not love; or elſe aſks queſtion; as, do you know him?
What do underſtand by the ſubjunctive or conjunctive
mode? The ſubjunctive mode is expreſſed under a doubt or
condition, with a conjunction prefixed, and generally depends
upon another verb either going before, or coming after; as,
I could do it, if he were willing.
What is underſtood by the imperative mode? — The imperative
mode entreats, exhorts, or commands; as, love your
parents — do that immediately.
What is underſtood by the infinitive mode? — The infinitive
mode exprſſes the ſignification of the verb in general;
as, to love, to teach.
What are the ſigns of there modes? — Am, was, do, did,
have, had, ſhall and will, are ſigns of the indicative mode.
May, can, muſt, might, could, would and ſhould, of the ſubjunctive.
Let, of the imperative, and the prepoſition to, of
How many particples are there? — There are two participles
*, the preſent and paſt; the former is called the active,
the latter, the paſſive.
How many times are there? — Nine: the preſent indefinite,
preſent imperfect, preſent perfect; paſt indefinite, paſt
imperfect, paſt perfect; future indefinite, future imperfect,
and future perfect.
What is meant by indefinite † time? — Time is called indefinite,
when it is not determined, by the expreſſion, whether
the action be perfect or imperfect, that is, completed or not completed,
at the time that it is mentioned by the ſpeaker; thus,
* Participles, having no relation to time, become adjectives.
† When an action is ſpoken of as done at any preſent, paſt, or future
time, without defining what particular period of it, ſuch as, what
year, month, day, or hour, it is called indefinite.
preſent indefinite, I inſure; paſt indefinite, I inſured future
indefinite, I ſhall or will inſure.
What is repreſented by the imperfect time? — The imperfect
time repreſents an action as going on, but not completed;
thus, preſent imperfect, I am inſuring; paſt imperfect, I will
inſuring; future imperfect, I ſhall or will be inſuring.
What is repreſented by the perfect time? — The perfect
time repreſents an action as completely finiſhed; thus, preſent
perfect, I have inſured; paſt perfect, I had injured; future
perfect, I ſhall or will have inſured.
How many principal diſtinctions of time are there? — There
are three * principal diſtinctions of time, the preſent, paſt, and
future; the other ſix are uſed by the aſſiſtance of the auxiliaries,
am, he, can, do, have, may, muſt, could, ſhould,
might, did, ſhall and will, to expreſs an action with ſome particular
limitation and diſtinction.
How are the auxiliaries varied? — The variations of the
auxiliaries, are expreſſed in the preſent and paſt time, thus:
1 2 3 Per. 1 2 3
am art is are
can canſt can can
do doſt doth or does do
have haſt hath or has have
may mayſt may may
ſhall ſhalt ſhall ſhall
will wilt will will
1 2 3 Per. 1 2 3
was waſt was were
could couldſt could could
did didſt did did
had hadſt had had
might mightſt might might
ſhould ſhouldſt ſhould ſhould
would wouldſt would would
Conjugate the ſubſtantive verb TO BE, according to the
three principal diſtinctions of preſent, paſt, and future time,
with the aſſiſtance of ſhall and will.
Singular, Plural. Singular. Plural.
1. I am we are I Was we were
2. thou art or
you † are y e or you are thou waſt ye or you were
3. he is they are he was they were
* Engliſh verbs of themſelves have only two times, the preſent and
paſt: the future is made by the auxiliary verb ſhall or will, and the
verb itſelf; as, I ſhall write.
† You is uſed inſtead of thou, unleſs when we addreſs ourſelves to
God, or ſignify familiarity or contempt.
I ſhall *, or will be we ſhall, or will be
thou ſhalt, or wilt be ye or you ſhall, or will be
he ſhall, or will be they ſhall, or will be
Preſent. being Paſt. been
Inflect the auxiliary verb TO HAVE, in the ſame manner.
Singular. Plural Singular. Plural.
1. I have we have I had we had.
2. thou haſt ye or you have tho adſt ye or you had
3. he hath or has they have he u h they had
I ſhall. or will have we ſhall, or will have
thou ſhalt, or wilt have ye or you ſhall, or will have
he ſhall, or will have they ſhall, or will have.
Preſent. having Paſt. had, or having had
Vary the regular verb TO PLACE, in like manner.
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.
1. I place, we place I placed we placed
2. thou placeſt ye or you place thou placedſt ye or you placed
3. he placeth or places they place he placed they placed
I ſhall or will place. we ſhall, or will place
thou ſhalt, or wilt place ye or you ſhall, or will place
he ſhall, or will place they ſhall, or will place.
Preſent. placing Paſt placed
Conjugate the ſubſtantive verb TO BE, with all it's variations
and auxiliaries, by perſon, number, mode, and time.
Preſect indefinite Time. Paſt indefinite Time.
Singular, Plural. Singular. Plural.
1. I am we are I was we were
2. thou art, or you are ye or you are thou waſt ye or you were
3. he is they are he was they were
Preſent perfect Time. Paſt perfect Time.
I have been we have been I had been we had been
thou haſt been ye or you
have been thou haſt been ye or you had
he hath, or has been they have been he had been they had been
* In the firſt perſon ſhall foretells, will threatens or promiſes; in
the ſecond and third perſons, ſhall threatens, will ſimply foretells.
Future indefinite Time.
I ſhall, or will be we ſhall, or will be
thou ſhalt, or wilt be ye or you ſhall, or will be
he ſhall, or will be they ſhall, or, will be
Future perfect Time.
I ſhall, or will have been we ſhall, or will have been
thou ſhalt, or wilt have been ye or you ſhall or will have been
he ſhall, or will have been they ſhall, or will have been
Preſent indefinite Time.
If I be If we be
If thou be If ye or you be
If he be If they be
I may, or can he we may, or can be
thou mayſt, or canſt be ye or you may, or can be
he may, or can be they may, or can be
Preſent perfect Time.
I may, or can have been we may, or can have been
thou mayſt, or canſt have been ye or you may, or can have been
he may, or can have been they may, or can have been
Past indefinite Time.
If I were If we were
If thou wert If ye or you were
If he were If they were
I might, could, would, or ſhould be
thou mightſt, couldſt, wouldſt, or ſhouldſt be
.he might could, would, or ſhould be
we might, could, would, or ſhould
ye or you might, could, would, or ſhould be
.they might, could, would, or ſhould be
Paſt perfect Time.
I might, could, &c. have been we might, could. &c. have been
thou mightſt, &c. have been ye or you might, etc. have been
he might, could, &c. have been they might, could, &c. have been
let me be let us be
* The conjunctive or ſubjunctive mode, ſtrictly ſpeaking, implies a
condition, ſuppoſition, or doubt, and is always governed by ſome conjunction;
as, if, though, left, &c. expreſſed or underſtood : But when
it implies ſimply the liberty of the agent or the poſſibility of an action,
without a conjunction, expreſſed or underſtood; it is by ſome grammarians
called the Potential Mode, and has always the auxiliaries may
or can, might, could, would, or ſhould before it.
be, be thou, or do thou be be, be ye or you, or do ye or you be
let him be let them be
Preſent Time. to be Paſt Time, to have been
Preſent. being Paſt. been, or having been
Preſent indefnite Time. Paſt indefinite Time.
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.
1. I have we have I had we had
2. thou haſt ye or you
have had thou hadſt ye or you
3. he hath or has they have he had they had
Preſent perfect Time. Paſt perfect Time.
I have had we have had I had had we had had
thou haſt had ye or you
have had thou hadſt had ye or you
he hath or has
had they have had he had had they had had
Future indefinite Time.
I ſhall, or will have we ſhall, or will have
thou ſhalt, or wilt have ye or you ſhall, or will have
he ſhall, or will have they ſhall, or will have
Future perfect Time.
I ſhall, or will have had we ſhall, or will have had
thou ſhalt, or wilt have had ye or you ſhall, or will have had
he ſhall, or will have had they ſhall, or will have had
Preſent indefinite Time.
Tho' I have Tho' we have
Tho' thou have Tho' ye or you have
Tho' he have Tho' they have
I may, or can have we may or can have
thou mayſt, or canſt have ye or you may, or can have
he may, or can have they may, or can have
Preſent perfect Time.
I may, or can have had we may; or can have had
thou mayſt, or canſt have had ye or you may, or can have had
he may or can have had they may, or can have had
Paſt indefinite Time.
I might, could,would, or ſhould have we might, could, would, &c.have
thou mightſt, couldſt, &c. have ye or you might, could. &c, have
he might, could, would, &c, have they might, could, would, &c. have
Paſt perfect Time.
I might, could, would, or ſhould have had we might, &c. have had
thou mightſt, couldſt, &c. have had ye or you might, &c. had
he might, could, would, &c. have had they might, could, &c. had
let me have let us have
have, have thou, or do thou have have, have ye or you, or do ye have
let him have let them have
Preſent Time. to have Paſt Time. to have had
Preſent. having Paſt. had, or having had
Vary the regular verb TO LOVE.
Preſent indefnite Time.
1. I love we love
2. thou loveſt ye or you love
3. he loveth, or loves they love
Preſent imperfect Time.
I am loving, or do love we are loving, or do love
thou art loving, or doſt love ye or you are loving, or do love
he is loving, or does love they are loving, or do love
Preſent perfect Time.
have loved, or have been loving we have loved, or have been loving
thou haſt loved, or haſt been loving ye have loved, or have been loving
he hath loved, or has been loving they have loved, or have been loving
I loved we loved
thou lovedſt ye or you loved
he loved they loved
Paſt imperfect Time.
I was loving, or did love we were loving, or did love
thou waſt loving, or didſt love ye or you were loving, or did love
he was loving, or did love they were loving or did love
Paſt perfect Time
I had loved, or had been loving we had loved, or had been loving
thou haſt loved, or hadſt been loving ye or you had loved, or had been loving
he had loved, or had been loving they had loved, or had been loving
Future indefinite Time.
ſhall or will love we ſhall, or will love
thou ſhalt, or wilt love ye or you ſhall, or will love
he ſhall, or will love they ſhall, or will love
Future imperfect Time.
I ſhall, or will be loving we ſhall, or will be loving
thou ſhalt, or wilt be loving ye or you ſhall, or will be loving
he ſhall, or will be loving they ſhall, or will be loving
Future perfect Time.
I ſhall have loved we ſhall have loved
thou ſhalt have loved ye or you ſhall have loved
he ſhall have loved they ſhall have loved
Subjunctive Mode *
Preſent indefinite Time.
If I love If we love
If thou love If ye or you love
If he love If they love
I may or can love we may, or can love
thou mayſt, or canſt love ye or you may, or can love
he may, or can love they may, or can love
Preſent imperfect Time.
I may, or can be loving we may, or can be loving
thou mayſt or canſt be loving ye or you may, or can be loving
he may, or can be loving they may, or can be loving
Preſent perfect Time.
I may, or can have loved we may, or can have loved
thou mayſt, or canſt have loved ye or you may, or can have loved
he may, or can have loved they may, or can have loved
Paſt indefinite Time.
I might, could, &c. or ſhould love we might, could, would, &c. love
thou mightſt, couldſt, &c. love ye or you might, could, &c. love
he might, could, would, &c love they might, could, would, &c. love
Paſt imperfect Time.
I might, could, &c. have been we might, could, &c. have been
thou mightſt, &c have been ye or you might, &c. have been
he might, could, &c. have been they might, &c. have been
Paſt perfect Time.
I might †, could, &. have we might, could, &c. have
thou mightſt, couldſt, &c. have ye or you might, &c. have
he might, could, &c. have they might, could, &c. have
let me love let us love
love, love thou, or do thou love love, love ye or you or do ye love
let him love let them love
* In this mode, the preciſe time of the verb is very much determined
by the nature and drift of the ſentence, as the verb itſelf in the
preſent, and the auxiliaries of the preſent and paſt imperfect times, often
carry with them ſomething of a future ſenſe; as, 'If he come to-morrow,
I may ſpeak to him.' — 'If he ſhould or would come to-morrow,
'I might, could, would, or ſhould ſpeak to him.'
† I might have loved, i. e. I had liberty ; I could have loved, i e. I
had power ; I would have loved, i. e. I had inclination; I ſhould have
loved, i e. I lay under an obligation to love.
Preſ. to love Paſt. to have loved
Preſ. loving Paſt. loved
How is a paſſive verb formed? A paſſive verb is formed
by joining the paſl participle to the auxiliary verb to be,
through all it's variations; as, I am loved; I was loved;
I have been loved; I had been loved; I ſball or will be loved,
and ſo on.
What is meant by irregular verbs? Irregular verbs are
ſuch as do not form their paſt time, and paſt participle, by
the addition of ed. or d. to the preſent of the indicative.
A TABLE of IRREGULAR VERBS.
Thoſe marked thus ‡ are both regular and irregular.
Preſ. paſt. participle.
Abide, abode, abode
am, was, been
awake, awoke, awaked
bake, baked, baken
bear, bore or bare, born or borne
beat, beat, beaten
begin, began, begun
behold, beheld, beholden
bend, bent, bent
‡ bereave, bereft, bereft
bid, bade, bidden
beſeech, beſought, beſought
bind, bound, bound or bounden
bite, bit, bitten
bleed, bled, bled
blow blew, blown
break, broke, broken
breed, bred, bred
bring, brought, brought
‡ build, built, built
burſt, burſt, burſt or burſten
buy, bought, bought
can, could, defective
caſt, caſt, caſt
catch, caught, caught
chide, chid, chidden
chuſe or chooſe, choſe, choſen
cleave clave, or clove, cloven or cleft
‡ clothe, clad, clad
climb clomb, climbed
Preſ. paſt. participle
cling, clang, clung
come, came, come
coſt, coſt, cuſt
creep, crope or creeped, crept
crow, crew, crowed
cut, cut, cut
dare, durſt, dared
deal, dealt, dealt
‡ dig, dug, digged
do, did, done
draw, drew, drawn
‡ dream, dreamt, dreamt
drink, drank, drunken or drunk,
drive, drove, driven
dwell, dwelt, dwelt
eat, ate, eaten
fall, fell, fallen
feed, fed, fed
feel, felt, felt
fight, fought, fought
fînd, found, found
‡ fold, folded, folden
flee, fled, fled
fling, flung, flung
forſake, forſook, forſaken
‡ freight, fraught, fraught
freeze, froze, frozen
fly, flew, flown
‡ geld, gelt, gelt
get, got or gat, gotten
Pref. paſt, participle.
‡ gild, gilt, gilt
‡ gird, girt, girt
give, gave, given
go, went, gone
grave, graved, graven
grind, ground, ground
grow, grew, grown
‡ hang, hung, hung
have, had, had
hear, heard, heard
heave, hove, hoven
‡ help, helped, holpen
hew, hewed, hewn
hide, hid, hidden
hold, held, holden
hit, hit, hit
hurt, hurt, hurt,
keep, kept, kept
knit, knit, knit
know, knew, known
lade, laded, laden
lay, laid, laid
lead, led, led
leave, left, left
lend, lent, lent
let, let, let
lie, lay, lain or lien
load, loaded, leaden
loſe, loſt, loſt
make, made, made
may, might, defective
mean, meant, meant
meet, met, met
melt, melted, molten
‡ mow, mowed, mown
put, put, put
quit, quit, quit
read, read, read
reave, reaved, reft
rend, rent, rent
rid, rid, rid
ride, rode, ridden
ring, rang, rung
riſe, roſe, riſen
rive, rived, riven
run, ran, run
ſaw, ſawed, ſawn
ſay, ſaid, ſaid
Preſ. paſt, participle.
ſee, ſaw, ſeen
ſeek, ſought, ſought
ſeethe, ſod, ſodden
ſell, ſold, ſold
ſend, ſent, ſent
ſet, ſet, ſet
ſhake, ſhook, ſhaken
ſhall, ſhould, defective
‡ ſhave, ſhaved, ſhaven
ſhore, ſhorn ſhorn
ſhed, ſhed, ſhed
ſhew, ſhewed, ſhewers
‡ ſhine, ſhone, ſhined
ſhoe, ſhod, ſhod
ſhoot, ſhot, ſhot
‡ ſhow, ſhowed, ſhown
ſhred, ſhred, ſhred
ſhrink, ſhrank, ſhrunk
ſhut, ſhut, ſhut
ſhrive, ſhrove, ſhroven
ſing, ſang, ſung
ſink, ſank, ſunk
ſit, ſat, ſitten
ſlay, ſlew, ſlain
ſleep, ſlept, ſlept
ſlide, ſlid, ſlidden
ſling, ſlang or ſlung, ſlung
ſlink, flunk, ſlunk
ſlit, ſlit, ſlit
ſmell, ſmelt, ſmelt
ſmite, ſmote, ſmitten
ſow, ſowed, ſown
ſpeak, ſpoke, ſpoken
ſpeed, ſped, ſped
ſpell, ſpelt, ſpelt
ſpend, ſpent, ſpent
ſpill, ſpilt, ſpilt
ſpin, ſpan, ſpun
ſpit, ſpat, ſpitten
ſplit, ſplit, ſplit
ſpread, ſpread, ſpread
ſpring, ſprang, ſprung
ſtand, ſtood, ſtood
ſteal, ſtole, ſtolen
ſtick, ſtuck, ſtuc
ſtlink, ſtank, ſtunk
‡ ſtrow, ſtrowed, ſtrown
ſtride, ſtrode, ſtridden
ſtrike, ſtruck, ſtricken
preſ. paſt, participle.
ſtring, ſtrung, ſtrung
ſtrive, ſtrove, ſtriven
ſwear, ſwore, ſworn
ſweep, ſwept, ſwept
ſwell, ſwelled, ſwollen
ſwing, ſwang, ſwung
ſwim, ſwam, ſwum
take, took, taken
tear, tore, torn
teach, taught, taught
tell, told, told
think, thought, thought
thrive, throve, thriven
throw, threw, thrown
Preſ. paſt, participle.
thruſt, thruſt, thurſt
tread, trode, trode or trodden
wax, waxed, waxen
wet, wet, wet
weep, wept, wept
will, would, defective
win, won, won
wind, wound, wound
wis, wiſt, defective
wear, wore, worn
weave, wove, woven
work, wrought, wrought
wring, wrung, wrung
write, wrote, written
6. Of the Adverb.
How are adverbs diſtinguiſhed? 1. Into adverbs of time;
as, now, to day, already, heretofore, long ſince, yeſterday,
to-morrow, not yet, hereafter, henceforth, henceforward,
by and by, oft, often, oftentimes, ſeldom, daily, yearly, always,
when, then, ever, never, &c.
2. Of number; as, once, twice, thrice, &c.
3. Of order; as, firſt, ſecondly, thirdly, laſtly, &c.
4. Of quantity; as, more, much, leſs, &c.
5. Of affirming; as, verily, truly, yea, yes, undoubtedly,
6. Of denying; as, nay, no *, not, in no wiſe, not at all,
by no means, nothing leſs, &c.
7. Of doubting; as, perhaps, peradventure, poſſibly, probably,
8. Of comparing; as, how, as, ſo, how much more, rather,
than, whether, &c.
9. Of quality; as, bravely, juſtly, prudently, well, &c.
10. Of place; as, where, there, here, whither, hither,
thither, every where, no where, &c.
Are there not ſome adverbs compounded of adverbs and
prepoſitions, which partake of the nature of pronouns; and
refer to ſome preceding word, or clauſe of a ſentence? Yes;
the following, namely;
* The adverb no ſtands alone in an anſwer, not is uſed with ſome
other expreſſion; as, Will you go to town to-day? The anſwer may
be no, or I will not.
Two negatives make an affirmative;
"Nor did they not perceive the evil plight
"In which they were, or the fierce pains not feel."
of that (which
of what; or, of
by that (which
by what; or, by
upon what; or,
in that (which
in what; or, in
with what; or
Note. Theſe pronominal adverbs are ſeldom uſed by modern
writers; except in the ſolemn or formulary ſtyle.
Do adverbs admit of any variation? Adverbs admit of
no variation, except ſome few which have the degrees of
compariſon; as, often, oftener, ofteneſt:— ſoon, ſooner, ſooneſt.
And thoſe irregulars derived from adjectives; as, ill,
— well, better, beſt.
7. Of the Prepoſition.
How many kinds of prepoſitions are there? Two; ſeparable
Which are the ſeparable prepoſitions? The ſeparable are,
above, about, after, againſt, among, amongſt, without, within,
with, under, upon, unto, until, through, to, till, over, on, of,
out of, into, in, from, for, by, concerning, beſide, beyond,
between, betwixt, behind, beneath, below, at, before, &c.
How may a ſeparable prepoſition be known? A ſeparable
prepoſition may be known, by adding a noun or pronoun,
in the objective caſe, to it; it it make good ſenſe, it is a prepoſition.
Note. Prepoſitions become adverbs when ſubjoined to verbs; as
rout up, turn over.
Which are the inſeparable prepoſitions? The inſeparable
are, a, abs, ad, ana, ante, anti, amphi, co, con, contra,
counter, be, circum, de, dis, e, ex, en, enter, extra, in, inter,
intro, mis, meta, over, out, for, fore, op, per, poſt, pre, pro,
preter, peri, re, retro, ſe, ſub, ſubter, ſuper, ſyn, trans, un,
up, with, &c.
8. Of the Conjunction. *
How many kinds of conjunctions are there? There are
ſeveral kinds of conjunctions; but the chief of them are copulative;
as, and: Disjunctive; as, but Cauſal; as, that,
becauſe: and conditional; as, if.
* The principal conjunctions are, alſo,although, and, as, becauſe, but,
either, except, for, however, likewiſe, moreover, if, nevertheleſs, nor,
or, neither, wherefore, otherwiſe, ſince, ſo, and that, ſo that, unleſs,
save, whereas, yet, whether, &c.
Are not ſome conjunctions uſed in pairs? Yes; the one
being placed before the former ſentence or word, the other
before the latter; as,
Whether — or: Whether did you read or write
Neither — nor: Neither James nor I can do it.
Either — or: Either he or you muſt do it.
Tho' — yet: Tho' he ſlay me, yet will I truſt in him.
As — as: As ſwift as a hare.
As — ſo. As thy days, ſo ſhall thy ſtrength be.
So — that: The night is ſo dark, that I cannot walk.
Both — and: Both Charles and John are good writers.
9. Of the Interjection.
What is an interjection? An interjection is a word uſed
to expreſs ſome ſudden emotion of the mind; as, Ah! alas!
O ſtrange! hey! brave! well done! O brave! away! begone!
fy! tuſh! pſhaw! foh! pugh! ha, ha, he! heyday!
aha! hark! lo! ſee! huſh! hiſt! peace! ſilence! heigh ho!
hum! heigh! huzza! hail! all hail! oh! &c.
What does the interjection O, expreſs, when put before
a ſubſtantive? The interjection O, placed before a ſubſtantive,
expreſſes more ſtrongly an addreſs made to a perſon;
as, O man, great is thy faith.
What is a ſentence? Two or more words expreſſing ſome
perfect ſenſe, or ſentiment of the mind, is a ſentence; as,
virtue is amiable.
How many kinds of ſentences are there? Two; ſimple
What does a ſimple ſentence conſiſt of? A ſimple ſentence
conſiſts, at leaſt, of a noun and a verb; as, John reads.
Of what dogs a compound ſentence conſiſt? A compound
ſentence is made up of two or more ſimple ſentences; as, Life
is ſhort, and death is certain.
Rules for the Conſtruction of Sentences.
Rule I. The indefinite article a is put before common
names of the ſingular number only; unleſs an adjective come
between, and an is uſed inſlead of a, when the following
word begins with a ſilent h, or with a vowel, w and y excepted;
as. a man, a ſcore of oxen. An hour ago a few
men rode paſt.
Falſe conſtruction. As an ſwords in the hand of a madmen; ſo is a
empires in the power of a tyrant; i both are uſed to deſtroy. — An, great
many man act the part of a fools. — An good character ſhould not be reſted
in as a ends, but employed as a means of doing ſtill further good.
Note. The defînite article the is placed before nouns, either of the
ſingular or plural number; as, The table before you is as large as both
the tables in the parlour.
II. The article the is put before comparative and ſuperlative
adverbs, to mark the degree the more ſtrongly; as,
The ſooner — you perform your exerciſe, the better ſhall you
Falſe. A more I examine grammar, a better I like it— Some
tranſgreſs this rule an leaſt of any.
III. Two ſubſtantives ſignifying the ſame thing, agree in
number and caſe; as, The city Edinburgh; King George;
Theodoſius the Emperor.
Falſe. The apoſtles Paul was very zealous in preaching the goſpel.
— Alexander the kings conquered Perſia. — Cicero the orators
IV. When two ſubſtantives come together, belonging to
one another, the one to which the other belongs is put firſt
in the poſſeſſive caſe; a, The King's prerogative; or elſe
laſt, with the prepoſition of before it; as, The prerogative of
Falſe. Learning is the rich man ornament, and the poor man riches.
— Helen beauty was the deſtrudion of Troy's —The poems Milton's
V. The adjective is generally placed before, and agrees
with the ſubſtantive; as, a good man, a hard table. But
ſometimes it follows a ſubſtantive or a verb; as, Hail bard
divine! The period of human life it eſteemed ſhort.
Note. When adjectives ſtand by themſelves, the ſubſtantive is underſtood;
as, The wicked are puniſhed, i. e wicked men. Sometimes
adjectives are used ſubſtantively, and are joined to other adjectives;
as, The chief good On the other hand, ſubſtantives become adjectives;
as, A table-ſpoon, a braſs-pen.
Participles have the nature and conſtruction of adjectives; as, A
learned and wiſe ſon is the delight of a loving father.
VI. The adverbs more and moſt ought never to ſtand before
adectives compared by er and eſt; as, John is wiſer
and more upright than William. He is the moſt prudent
man that I know.
Falſe. This is a more better harveſt than the laſt; proviſions will
certainly be more cheaper. This year has been the moſt hardeſt for
the poor I have ever ſeen.
VII. The pronoun agrees, in gender and number, with
the name for which it ſtands, or to which it refers; as, my
father is gone to Bath, where he hopes to recover his
health. My brother and I were in the park yeſterday, where
we ſaw a fine chace.
Falſe. My father is a very liberal man, ſhe ſpares no expense on
my education.— James is a very good ſcholar, they ſurely ſtudies hard.
VIII. A perſonal pronoun and a ſubſtantive coming together,
implying poſſeſſion, the pronoun is usually put firſt in
the poſſeſſive caſe; as, I returned his book, becauſe it's leaves
Falſe. I gave him pens to the maſler. — Do it not, for thou honour
is at ſtake.
Note. The poſſeſſives, my, thy, our, her, your, their, are generally
accounted pronominal adjectives.
IX. This and that, with their plurals theſe and thoſe, muſt
agree in number with the ſubſtantives to which they reſpectively
belong; as, this back, theſe books; that man, thoſe men.
Falſe. Theſe is a pleaſant garden. — This are my knives. — Thoſe
book is mine. — That rules are excellent.
X. The relative who belongs to perſons, which to things;
and the perſons to whom, or the things to which they refer,
are called the antecedents; as, Bleſſed is the man who
walketh uprightly. This is the table which I bought. She
whom I love.
Falſe. He which commands himſelf, commands the whole world.
— Fear is the ſhield of virtue who ſhould never be laid down.
Note. Which and what, when interrogatives, are uſed either to
perſons or things; as, Which of thefe men or books do you mean
What man or houſe is that?
XI. When this and that, theſe and thoſe are controlled to
one another; this and theſe relate to the perſon or thing
laſt mentioned; that and thoſe to the firſt. In like manner,
firſt and laſt, former and latter, one and other are controlled;
at, Wealth and poverty are both temptations to men; this
tends to excite diſcontentment, that pride.
Falſe. It is better to fall among crows than flatterers; theſe only
devour the dead, the latter the living.— Some conjunctions are uſed
in pairs, the fiſt is placed before the former ſentence or word, the
other before the laſt.
XII. A verb muſt agree with it's agent or nominative *
* To find the nominative to a verb, ask the queſtion, Who is?
Who does? Who suffers? or, What is? What does? What suffers?
The word which anſwers the queſtion is the nominative.
Every nominative caſe, except the caſe abſolute, and when an addreſs
is made, belongs to ſome verb expreſſed or underſtood.
in number and perſon; as, I love, thou readeſt, John writes,
we learn, ye or you read, thy run.
Falſe. The boys is diligent — The ſtreets is dirty. — Charles learn
well. — Is your parents at home? — My brothers is at home — They
ſtudies hard. — The books was torn.
XIII. A collective noun, that is, a noun of multitude, in
the ſingular number, may have a verb and pronoun, either
ſingular or plural; as, The mob is or are unruly. The aſſembly
of the wicked have or has encloced me. My people
are fooliſh; they have not known me. The general aſſembly
is or are met; they or it will debate concerning patronage.
Note. When the collective name gives an idea of one compacted
body, as parliament, it is beſt to put the verb in the ſingular; but
when it exhibits to the mind a disjointed, or ſcattered body, as,
rabble, it may he put in the plural.
Every, each, either, agree with nouns and verbs in the ſingular
number only; as, Each had his ſhare, that is, each man, &c.
XIV. The ſubſtantive verb am, requires a nominative
both before and after it; as, I am he. Thou art ſhe. Except
when it is in the infinitive mode; as, I took it to be
Falſe. Thou art him who did it— Who is there? it is me. — It
was him who received the goods.— It was them who ſought ſo bravely.
— took it to be they.— It was him who ſſpoke ſo long took it to
be he. — Thou art him whom I eſteem.
XV. Neuter and paſſive verbs admit of the nominative
after them; as, Upon the right hand ſtood the queen. Milton
is accounted a poet.
XVI. In the imperative mode, or when a queſtion is
aſked, the nominative ſtands after the verb, or between the
auxiliary and it; as, Love thou, or do thou love. Loves he
the truth? Does he love the truth?
XVII. When the poſſeſſives thy and your ſtand in the
former member of a ſentence, they belong to the pronouns
thou and you, with which tile verb following muſt agree,
though the relative come before it; as, I blame thy manners,
who doſt not reverence thy ſuperiors. God abhors your hypocriſy,
who hear ſermons, but do not regard them.
Falſe. Thy cafe is indeed deplorable, who neither fears God, nor
regard man. — Your prodigality will certainly bring you to poverty,
who live, every day above your income.
XVIII. Two or more nouns or pronouns of the ſingular
number, joined together by a copulative conjunction, require
that the following verb be put in the plural; as, Peter and
John are learned men. He and I go into partnerſhip. Poverty
and ſhame attend thoſe who refuſe inſtruction.
Falſe. Greatneſs and goodneſs is ſeldom companions. — He and I
was at ſchool together — Peter and James was both here. — He and
I deſigns to viſit you — He and thou art trifling.
XIX. When a nominative comes between the relative and
the active verb, the relative, with it's compounds, muſt be
put in the objective caſe, as, The man whom I love. Whomſoever
the king delighteth to honour.
Falſe. The man who I eſteem— Our parents who we reverence.—
It is the good and charitable man who I tumour.— Whoever the king
favours. — God who we worſhip.
XX. If another verb or phraſe come between the relative
who, and the verb to which it is the nominative, care muſt
be taken not to put the relative in the objective caſe; as,
Truſt not him who, you know, is diſhoneſt in his dealings.
Not him, whom. &c.
Falſe. Nothing is more cowardly than to beat and abuſe a man
whom, you know, cannot reſent the injury, or whom, you are ſure,
XXI. When the infinitive, or any phraſe, is the nominative,
the verb is uſed in the ſingular number; as, To laugh
at men of honour is the prerogative of a fool only. To be a
coward is very diſhonourable.
Falſe. To laugh, at things ſacred, are very preſumptuous. — To
walk are healthful. — To be ignorant of the law are diſgraceful in a
judge. — To play were pleaſant.
XXII. A verb active, or tranſitive, governs the objective
* caſe after it; as, I love him, and he eſteems me. Alexander
conquered the Perſons, that is, them.
Falſe. Truſt no man before you have tried he. — I cannot pleaſe
ſhe and thou both. — James beat they.
XIX. One verb governs another in the infinitive; as,
Good boys love to learn. But the ſign to is omitted after the
verbs, bid, dare, feel, hear, let, make, muſt, need, ſee, and ſometimes
have; as, I bade him come. I heard him ſpeak They
will have him run.
* To diſcover the objective caſe after a verb active, aſk the queſtion,
Whom do I love, teach. &c. the anſwer is, John, that is, him
in the objective caſe.
Falſe. He deſerves be encouraged. — I have not any deſign wrong
him. — I dare not to ſtay. I ſaw him to come. — She will have him to
come — You will hear him to ſpeak.
XXIV. The preſent participle becomes a noun, by placing
the article the before it, and the prepoſition of after it, as, By
the obſerving of theſe rules you may avoid miſtakes.
Falſe. The learning languages is difficult. — The Romans enlarged
their country by defeating of their neighbours.
XXV. After the auxiliary verbs, have and he, the participle
paſſive, and not the paſt time, ſhould be uſed; as, I have
written * a letter. It was feen by him.
Falſe. It was ſpoke in Latin. — I have ſaw him — He hath choſe
theſe rules, and wrote them. — He is miſtook.
XXVI. The nominative caſe, abſolute, is formed by omitting
the adverbs, when, while, after, &c. as, He coming
in, I went away; that is, when he came in.
And ———, He deſcending, will himſelf,
In thunder, lightning, and loud trumpets ſound,
Ordain them laws. MILTON.
Falſe. Him watching, all the reſt went to repoſe themſelves.—
Them trifling, the reſt were diligent.
XXVII. The ſubjunctive mode is always uſed after the
conjunctions if, tho', altho', &c. when a doubt or condition
is implied; as, If ſhe were rich, I would marry her. But
when no condition is implied, the indicative mode follows
the conjunction; as, Though he was rich, yet for our ſakes
he became poor.
Falſe. Though he were wiſe, yet he aged as a fool. — Although
he flee, yet nobody purſues him. — If he writes me a letter, I will anſwer
it. — Tho' he reads, I will not hear.
XXVIII. As and than admit of a nominative after them,
a verb being expreſſed or implied, unleſs a prepoſition expreſſed
or underſtood follow, or the noun or pronoun be
governed by a verb active; as, He is as happy as I. She
is fairer than he. My father loves him better than me, that
is, than he lover me. He ſent the news ſooner to him than
me, that is, than to me.
* Verbs ending with a ſingle conſonant, preceded by a ſingle
vowel, and thoſe of more than one ſyllable, having the accent on the
laſt ſyllable, double the final conſonant in the preſent participle, and
in every part of the verb, in which a ſyllable is added; as, put, putting,
putteth; forget, forgetting, forgetteth, &c.
Falſe. She is as wiſe as me. — He is ſtronger than her. — I teach him
more ſucceſſfully than ſhe. — He will write to me rather than be.
Note. The relative who, having reference to no verb underſtood,
but only to it's antecedent, when it follows than, is always in the
objective caſe; as, Beelzebub, than whom Satan except, none higher
XXIX. The adverb ought to be placed as near as poſſble
to the word which it qualifies or affects, that it's force
may the better appear; as, The ſtrength alone of that common.
wealth is ſufficient. Men's paſſions only could make them
ſubmit to ſuch terms.
Falſe. Upon the death of her huſband, ſhe retired from the town
to her eſtate in the country wholly. — By greatneſs, I do not only mean
the bulk of any ſingle object, but the largeneſs of a whole view, conſidered
as one entire piece.
XXX. Prepoſitions always govern the objective caſe after
them; as, To me,— with them. I gave the book to John,
that is, to him. He is a man with whom I am well acquainted.
Falſe. The reciprocations of love and friendſhip between he and I,
have been many and ſincere; yet ſome perſons thought to have ſet
him at variance with I, but happily we were not impoſed upon by
XXXI. Some conjunctions have others correſponding to
them; ſo that, in the ſubſequent member of the ſentence,
the latter anſwers to the former, thus:
1. Or ought to follow whether and either in a ſentence, and nor ought
to follow not and neither; as, Whether that be true or falſe. — Either
you or he muſt go. — I have not ſpoken with him, nor have I ſeen him.
— Neither he nor ſhe can do it.
2. In a ſentence expreſſing a doubt, ſuppoſition, or condition, tbo'
or altho', in the former clauſe, correſponds to yet or nevertheleſs, in
the latter; as, Tho' he ſay it, yet I will not believe it.
3. That, in the latter member of a ſentence, expreſſing a conſequence,
correſponds to ſo or ſuch in the former; as, His rules are ſo
dark, that they cannot be underſtood; they are ſuch, that I cannot appehend
4. So, with a negative and an adjective, or with a verb, correſponds
to as, expreſſing a compariſon with reſpect to quality, ability, or degree;
as, The city Edinburgh is not near ſo large as London, — To
ſee thy glory, ſo as I have ſeen thee in the ſanctuary.
5. Such correſponds to as, expreſſing a compariſon of kind, degree,
&c. as, The name of Colonel Clive ſtruck ſuch terror in the Eaſt-Indies,
as that of the Duke of Marlborough did in Flanders.
6. As correſponds to ſo, expreſſing a compariſon of proportion, likeneſs,
degree or quality; thus, As the firſt is to the ſecond, ſo is the
third to the fourth — And it ſhall be, as with the prieſt, ſo with the
people; as with the ſervant, ſo with his maſter.
7. In expreſſing a compariſon of equality, as correſponds to as;
thus, As white as ſnow.— As high as heaven.
Falſe. 1. Whether did you ride nor walk? — Either he nor you
ſhall do it — Thou ſhalt not covet thy neighbour's houſe, or his manſervant,
or his maid-ſervant, &c. — Neither your love or hatred affects
me. 2. Tho' he ſlay me, ſo will I truſt in him. — As the ſtars that
ſhall thy ſeed be. 3. There are but few to whom nature has been
ſo unkind, as they are not capable of ſhining in ſome ſcience or other.
4. Pompey had eminent abilities; but he was neither ſo eloquent and
polite a ſlateſman, as ſkillful and brave a general, nor, upon the whole,
as great a man than Cæſar. 5. We ſhould weigh the objects of our
hope, whether they be ſuch that we are pretty ſure of attaining. 6 As
it was in the days of Noe, that ſhall it be in the days of the Son of
man. 7. Upon ſeeing me, he turned ſo red as crimſon, and I as pale
Note. There are other correſpondent conjunctions, or adverbs,
which being properly uſed, tend to beautify the ſtyle in writing; as,
Both correſponds to and: Not only — to but, or but alſo: By how? much —
to by ſo much: So much — to how much more, &c.
Upon the whole, as it is almoſt impoſſible to give exact
rules for the placing of all words in a ſentence; that conſtruction,
which is moſt expreſſive of the ſenſe, and agreeable
to the ear, is certainly the beſt.
An Exerciſe on the Parts of Speech.
6 2 5 6 5 4 7 3 4 4
Then Joſeph could not refrain himſelf before all them that ſtood
7 4 8 4 5 5 3 2 7 5 6 7 4 8
by him; and he cried, Cauſe every man to go out from me: and
6 5 3 2 7 4 6 2 5 4 5 7
there ſtood no man with him, while Joſeph made himſelf known unto
4 2 8 4 5 6 8 1 2 8 1
his brethren. And he wept aloud: and the Egyptians and the houſe
7 2 5 8 2 5 7 4 2 4 5 2
of Pharaoh heard. And Joseph ſaid unto his brethren, I am Joſeph:
5 4 2 6 5 8 4 2 5 6 5 4
Doth my father yet live? and his brethren could not anſwer him:
8 4 5 5 7 4 2 8 2 5 7 4
for they were troubled at his preſence. And Joſeph ſaid unto his
5 6 7 4 4 5 4 8 4 5 6 8
brethren, Come near to me, I pray you; and they came near . and
4 5 4 5 2 4 2 4 4 5 7 2 6
he ſaid, I am Joſeph, your brother, whom ye ſold into Egypt. Now.
6 5 6 5 8 3 7 4 8 4 5 4
therefore be not grieved, nor angry with yourſelves, that ye ſold me
6 8 2 5 5 4 7 4 7 5 2 8 4
hither: for God did ſend me before you, to preſerve life. For theſe
3 2 5 1 2 5 7 1 2 8 6 6 5
two years hath the famine been in the land: and yet there are five
2 7 1 4 6 5 8 5 2 8 2 8
years, in the which there ſhall neither be earing nor harveſt. And
2 5 4 7 4 7 5 4 1 2 7 1 2
God ſent me before you, to preſerve you a poſterity in the earth,
8 7 5 4 2 7 1 3 2 6 6 4 5 6
and to ſave your lives by a great deliverance. So now it was not
4 4 5 4 6 8 2 8 4 5 5 4 1 2 7
you that ſent me hither, but God: and he hath made me a father to
2 8 2 7 3 4 2 8 1 2 7 3 1 2
Pharaoh, and lord of all his houſe, and a ruler throughout all the land
7 2 5 4 8 5 6 7 4 2 8 5 7 4
of Egypt. Haſte you, and go up to my father, and ſay unto him,
6 5 4 1 2 2 5 5 4 2 7 3 2
Thus ſaith thy ſon Joſeph, God hath made me lord of all Egypt;
5 6 7 4 5 6 6 4 5 4 2 6 8
come down unto me, tarry not. So he ſent his brethren away, and
4 5 8 4 5 7 4 5 8 4 6 5 6 6
they departed: and he ſaid unto them, See that ye tall not out
7 1 2 8 4 5 6 7 7 2 8 5 7 1
by the way. And they went up out of Egypt, and came into the
2 7 2 7 2 4 2 8 5 4 5 2
land of Canaan, unto Jacob their father, and told him, ſaying, Joſeph
5 6 3 8 4 5 2 7 3 1 2 7 2 8 2
is yet alive, and he is governor over all the land of Egypt. And Jacob's
2 5 8 4 5 4 6 8 4 5 4 3 1
heart fainted, for he believed them not. And they told him all the
2 7 2 4 4 5 5 7 4 8 6 4 5 1
words of Joſeph, which he had laid unto them: and when he ſaw the
2 4 2 5 5 7 5 4 1 2 7 2 4
waggons which Joſeph had ſent to carry him, the ſpirit of Jacob their
2 5 8 2 5 4 5 6 2 4 2 5 6
father revived. And Iſrael ſaid, it is enough; Joſeph my ſon is yet
3 4 5 5 8 5 4 7 4 5
alive I will go and ſee him before I die. Bible.
6 2 8 4 2
When ſelf-eſteem or other's adulation,
5 6 5 4 4 5
Would cunningly perſuade us we are ſomething
7 1 3 2 7 4 2
Above the common level of our kind,
I 2 5 I 3 2
The Grave gainſays the ſmooth-complexion'd flatter.
8 7 3 2 5 4 4 4 5
And with blunt truth acquaints us what we are.
————— Under ground
2 5 1 2 2 8 2
Precedency's a jeſt; vaſſal and lord,
6 3 2 7 2 5
Groſsly familiar, ſide by ſile conſume.
6 1 3 2 S 6 4 1
Here the o'erloaded ſlave ſlings down his burden
7 4 3 2 8 6 1 3 2
From his gall'd ſhoulders; and when the cruel tyrant,
7 3 4 2 8 2 7 2 7 4
With all his guards and tools of pow'r about him,
5 5 3 3 2
Is meditating ſome unheard-of miſchief,
5 4 3 2 8 3 8 2 5
Mocks his ſhort arm, and quick as thought eſcapes
6 2 5 6 8 1 3 5
Where tyrants vex not, and the weary reſt.
4 5 6 3 5
—————— 'Tis here all meet:
1 3 2 8 3
The ſhivering Icelander and ſun-burnt Moor,
2 7 3 2 4 6 5 6
Men of all climes, that never met before,
8 7 3 2 1 2 2 8 2
And of all creeds,— the Chriſtian, Turk, and Jew,
6 5 1 3 1 3 8 1 3
Mere are the wiſe, the generous, and the brave,
3 1 3 1 3 8 3
The juſt, the good, the worthleſs, and profane;
1 3 2 1 3 2
The downright clown, the well-bred gentleman,
1 2 1 2 1 2 8
The fool, the churl, the liar, and the knave,
1 3 2 8 1 2 3
The ſupple ſtateſman, aud the patriot ſtern;
1 2 7 2 8 1 2 7 2
The wrecks of nations, and the ſpoils of time,
7 3 1 2 7 3 3 2
With all the lumber of ſix thouſand years.
9 7 5 7 5 1
Abſurd! to think to over-reach the grave,
8 7 1 2 7 2 7 5 4
And from the wreck of names to reſcue ours! Blake.
An Example of Grammatical Reſolution.
Then ſaid John to the multitude, that came forth to be baptized
of hint: O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from
the wrath to come? bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance.
Then, an adverb; ſaid, a verb active, paſt indefinite time, third perſon
ſingular, agreeing with its nominative John, John, a ſubſtantive,
a proper name; to, a prepoſition; the the definite article; multitude, a
ſubſtantive, objective caſe, governed by the prepoſition to; that, a relative
pronoun, it's antecedent is multitude; came, a verb neuter, indicative
mode, paſt indefinite time, third perſon ſingular, agreeing with
it's nominative multitude; forth, an adverb; to a prepoſition, and before
a verb the ſign of the infinitive mode; to be baptized, a verb paſſive,
infinitive mode, made up of the auxiliary verb to be, and the
participle paſſive of the verb to baptize; of, a prepoſition; him, pronoun,
third perſon ſingular, handing for John, governed in the objective
caſe by the prepoſition of; O; an interjection; generation, a ſubſtantive
nominative caſe, without a verb, being an addreſs; vipers,
ſubſtantive, plural number, objective caſe, governed by the prepoſſition
of; who an interrogative pronoun; hath warned, a verb active, preſent
perfect time, made up of the paſt participle warned, and the
auxiliary hath, third perſon ſingular, agreeing with the nominative
who; you, a pronoun, ſecond perſon plural, objective caſe, following the
active verb warned, and governed by it; to flee, a verb neuter, infinitive
mode, governed by the verb hath warned; from, a prepoſition;
the wrath, a ſubſtantive, objective caſe, governed by the prepoſition
from; to come, a verb neuter, infinitive mode; bring, verb active, imperative
mode, ſecond perſon plural, agreeing with the nominative ye
underſtood, as if it were, bring ye; forth and therefore, adverbs; fruits
a ſubſtantive plural, objective caſe, following, and governed by the
active verb bring; meet, an adjective joined to fruits, but placed after
it; repentance, a ſubſtantive, governed by the prepoſition for.
EXERCISES IN PARSING.
Article and Noun.
Article, Adjective, and Subſtantive.
The ſmooth ſtream
a gentle temper
a quiet life
an amiable diſpoſition
an obſcure ſttion
the feeling heart
an uneaſy mind
a good character
a better underſtanding
the beſt phyſician
a proper mixture
a ſerious thought
a little mind
a mahogany table
a beautiful garden
a more beautiful woman
the moſt beautiful child
a dark dungeon
a darker ſubject
the darkeſt night
a free government
a diligent ſcholar
a fruitful field
a virtuous man
a plain narrative
a dignified character
a pleaſing addreſs
an open countenance
an obdurate heart
a ſenſual mind
a generous action
a cheering proſpect
an affectionate parent
the ſpacious firmament
a boiſterous ſea
a ſevere winter
an obedient ſon
a dutiful parent
a wiſe head
a ſtrong body
a good heart
a happy life
a frugal meal
a convenient manſion
a temperate climate
the beſt friend
the worſt enemy
a convenient paſſage
an uſeful entry
a violent paſſion
an obſtinate contention
a preſumptuous action
a dangerous experiment
a changed countenance
a great alteration
a feeble mind
a pitiful ſhift
a weak argument
a ſilly excuſe
a pious man
a good neighbour
a ſerviceable friend
the beſt method
a better underſtanding
a good agreement
a dangerous diſeaſe
a nice operation
a remarkable ſtory
an empty purſe
a ſcolding wife
a ſmoky houſe
a hungry belly
a diſmal ſituation
the lateſt poſterity
the moſt legible characters
an unſeaſonable time
a trivial ſubject
a practical reprimand
an honeſt Mahometan
the royal levee
the uſual manner
a jovial countenance
the ſimpleſt fare
an affectionate family
the rareſt dainty
the richeſt wine
a brilliant aſſembly
a luxurious board
a tranſitory life
the warmeſt friendſhip
a fatal cataſtrophe
a ſuperior character
the ſevereſt misfortunes
a melancholy fact
a profligate life
a miſerable end
Article, Adjective, Subſtantive, Prepoſition, &c.
The ſplendid ſlavery of faſhion
a vicious courſe of life
the noiſy nonſenſe of folly
the moſt diſmal conſequences to ſociety
the moſt ſcrupulous attention to duty
the moſt conſiderable poſts in the kingdom
a great fund of uſeful knowledge
a powerful influence upon the mind
a complete victory over the Romans
a dreadful alarm through the city
a cruel perſecution in Germany
an inexhauſtible fund of materials
a noble defence of the garriſon
the tender feelings of the heart
the correct majeſty of Virgil
the daring ſublimity of Homer
the expreſſive delicacy of Horace
the rapid excurſions of Pindar
the fatal dart into the body
a dangerous ſwelling below the elbow
an advantageous ſituation before the caſtle
a deep dungeon under ground
a ſevere ſtroke upon the head
a violent quarrel betwixt them
a beautiful eſtate beyond London
the moſt elegant lodging in the city
an elevated ſtation in ſociety
an incurable melancholy upon the mind
great anxiety about trifles
an eager deſire after happineſs
a ſucceſsful war againſt the enemy
the greateſt ſafety behind the walls of the city
the moſt uneaſy ſeat at the ale-houſe
rapid torrents from the mountains
a ſecure place within the caſtle
a delightful villa without the city
a beautiful ſeat beneath the brow of the hill
Pronoun and Verb, &c. &c.
I am Joſeph
thou art the man
he is at home
we are ſtrangers
you are enemies
they are ſpies
the king ſmiled
the queen aſked pardon
the chaplain bluſhed
our friends have been here
they have deceived us
their fears will betray them
they will ſubmit
fortune favours the brave
I forget the preciſe time
he accuſes me of idleneſs
I deſire to learn
he and I go together
he hopes to recover his health
ſhe and I will call upon you
I incline to walk ſlowly
he went away laſt night
we intend to go upon monday
employ thy time well
A fat kitchen makes a lean will.
Peter and John are learned men.
Handle your tools without mittens.
A little neglect may breed great miſchief.
Fools make feaſts and wiſe men eat them.
I have been too often occupied, alas! with trifles.
Peter and William live together in great harmony.
The ſchool of experience teacheth many uſeful leſſons.
Let your deſires be moderate, and your wants will be few.
Experience keeps a dear ſchool, but fools will learn in no other.
Silks and ſattins, scarlets and velvets put out the kitchen fire.
A generous confeſſion atones for the fault which requires it.
Hark! how ſweetly the beautiful black bird ſings upon the tree.
We enjoy much and deſerve little, let us therefore be content.
O! why ſhould we thus contend about the tranſitory things
EXERCISES or BAD ENGLISH.
Falſe Conſtruction, to be corrected by the Scholar.
The ſhips is arrived. Is your relations in town? Is the
horſes watered? The ſtockings is mended. The ſtreets is
dirty. My father and mother is gone abroad. The bellows
is broken. The tongs is loſt. Where's the ſnuffers? We
was in the country. You was in bed. They was at the
play. Was you awake? Was your ſiſters at home? There
was twenty. Who was all there? His friends has forſaken
him. My brother and ſiſter has ſeen it. Has the ſervants
been there? Has the goods been ſold? The children has
ſupped. The men has ſought. The boys has been at ſchool.
Good and bad comes to all. Time and tide waits for no man.
There was him, and her, and me. Him and her was
married. Who opened the door? Me. What put up the
window? Him. Who blew out the candle? Her. Who
gained the prize? Us. Who tore the book? Them. No
man is ſo brave as him, nor any woman ſo handſome as her.
You are wiſer than them. He is more fooliſh than her.
She ſings better than him. Who do you love? Between
you and I. Who did you give it to? Who do you deal
with? It was him who ſpoke ſo well. That is her who
ſung ſo charmingly. I am him who came to town. It was
her who dreſſed ſo gay. This is them.
Copy of a ſign hung out at a Village in ——
Barber Peri-wig maker, Surgen Pariſh Clerke, Schoolmaſter,
Black Smith, and man med wiſe, Shaves for a peny, cuts
hare for topence, and oyled and powder'd into the bargin.
Young Lady's genteely elicated: Lamps Lited by the ear
or quarter. Young Gent: alſo taut ther grammor langwage
in the neeteſt manner, and grate cear takin of ther morels and
ſpellin, alſo Salme ſingin and horſe ſhewine by the real meker;
likwiſe mekes and mends all ſorts of Butes and ſhoes, teches
the Ho-boy and jews herp, cuts corns, bleds and bleſters on
the loweſt terms — Gliſters and purges at a pony a pice; Cowtillen
and other danſes taut at hoam and abrode; alſo deles
holeſale and retele Perfumery in all its branches, ſels all ſorts
of ſtaſhunery wair, together with blackin bals, red herrings,
ginger bred and coles, ſcrubin bruſhes, treycle, mouſe traps
and other ſweetmetes, likewiſe Godfereys cordiel rutes, potatos
Saſſages and other gardin ſtuffs.
N. B. I teches Joggraſy and them outlandiſh kind of things.
A kurius Duel.
A diſput letley took plece in Paris betwean a miletary man
and an appothikary the Solder inſiſted upon ſatisfakſhun from
his adverſery and appointed a meetin nixt mornin in the wood
of Boulogne, the nixt mornin, the appothikary weated upon
his antaguniſt before the our apointed, and ſed to him with
grate culneſs — "You are a miletery man, and I am a medikal
man — you underſtand the youſe of the ſoord and Piſtle.
I am only akuented with drogs. You are the chalenjer, therfor
I have a rite to chuſe my wepin. Here are too pills, won
is poiſon'd, the other is not; do you chuſe won and ſuallow
it, and I will ſuallow the other." The oficer laffed very
hartiley at this propoſiſhun, and they ſat down to brekfeſt together
very good ſrinds.
A reſpektible county gentleman nere Windſor dremed a
dreme, with nether his wife nor any of his femely, then at
hoam culd explane, upon wich he ſent to London for his oldeſt
ſun, and deſired him trie his hand at unredlin his dreme.
"I drem't," ſed the father, "that I ſau thre cats, won enormusly
fat, another remaracabley lane, and a thurd ſton blynd."
"Why Sir," ſed the ſun, "Yur dreme is out — the fat cat is
yur Sturt — the lane cat yur eſtat — and the blynd cat yurſelf."
Storey of a Fox, witch whoever amazin, is ſed to be a fact.
Sum ears ago a yung fox was kept at the Golden Bear inn
at Reading, and imploied in a weel to turn the Jak; after a
kodſiderible wile imploied their, Reynard gave his kiper the
ſleep, and reganed his netive feelds, this very fox was afteruards
purſwed by the hounds, and fyndin himſelf -in grate danjer,
he began to rekolect his ſurmer hapy ſituaſhun, and imeditley
direkted his coarſe toard the toun, ſprung over a hafe
dore with opned into the kitſhin, gimped into his weel, reſumed
his ſurmer okupaſhun and ſaved his lyfe.
A. B. or B. A. bachelor of arts. — Acct. Account — A.
D. in the year of our Lord — A. M. maſter of arts; before
noon; year of the world — Bart. Baronet. — B. D. bachelor
in divinity. — Bp. Biſhop — B. Bailie. — Cent. hundrerd. — Co.
county, or company. — Capt. captain — Cr creditor — Chap.
chapter — C. P. S. keeper of the privy ſeal. — D D. doctor
in divinity. — Dr doctor or debtor. — Do. the ſame. — Dec.
december. — e. g. for example. — Eſq eſquire. — F. R. & A.
S. Fellow of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies. — G. R.
King George — Hon. honourable. — ib. or ibid. in the ſame
place. — id.the ſame — i.e that is. — J P juſtice of the peace.
— Kt. knight. — L. L. D. doctor of laws — Lt. or Lieut.
Lieutenant. — M. D. doctor of medicine. — Mr. Maſter. — Mrs.
Miſtreſs. — Meſſrs. maſters. — M. P. member of parliament. —
Min. miniſter. — M. S. manuſcript. — N. P. notary public. —
N B note well. — Nov. November. — N. S. new ſtyle. — No.
number. — Obt. obedient. — Oct. October. — O. S Old ſtyle.
— Per cent by the hundred — P S. poſtſcript. — Parl. parliament.
— P M. afternoon — Q queen, or queſtion — Regt.
regiment. — Rev. reverend. — Rt. Wipful. right worſhipful. —
Rt. Hon. right honourable. — S S. T. P. profeſſor of divinity.
— St. Saint. — Sept. September. — Servt ſervant. — v. ſee
or verſe. — viz. to wit. — Vol. volume. — V. M. D. miniſter
of the word of God. — &, and — &c. and the reſt.
Word the ſame in ſpelling, but different in Accent and Meaning.
Note. That ſ. ſtands for ſubſtantive, a. for adjective, v. for verb.
Ab'ſtract, ſ. an abridgement
Ab-ſtract', v to ſeparate
Ab'ject, a. mean
Ab-ject, v. to reject
Ab'ſent, a. not preſent
Ab-ſent', v. to keep away
Ac'cent, ſ. mark on a word
Ac-cent', v. to place the accent
At'tri-bute, ſ inherent quality
At-trib'ute, v. to ascribe
Au'guſt, ſ. 8th month of the year
Au-guſſt', a. royal, venerable
Cem'ent, ſ. matter which joins
Ce-ment, v. to unite
Com'ment, ſ. a commentary
Com-ment', v. to expound
Com'pact, ſ. agreement
Com-pact', a. brief, cloſe
Com'pound, ſ. a mixture
Com-pound', v. to mix
Con'cert, ſ. a band of muſic
Con-cert', v. to contrive
Con'cord, ſ. agreement
Con-cord', v. to agree with
Con'duct, ſ. behaviour
Con-duct, v. to manage
Con'fine, ſ. a limit
Con-fine' v. to limit
Con'teſt, ſ. debate
Con-teſt', v. to diſpute
Con'tract, ſ. a bargain
Con-tract', v. to ſhorten
Con'traſt, ſ oppoſition of figures
Con-traſt', v. to place in oppoſition
Con'vict, ſ. a perſon convicted
Con-vict', v. to prove guilty
Deſ'ert, a. ſolitary
De-ſert', v. to forſake, abandon
En'trance, ſ. a paſſage
En-trance', v. to put into an ecſtasy
Eſ'ſay, ſ an attempt
Eſ-ſay', v. to endeavour
Ex'port, ſ. any thing carried out
Ex-port', v. to ſend abroad
Ex'tract, ſ. heads of a book, &c.
Ex-tract', v. to draw out of
Fre'quent, a. often done
Fre-quent', v. to viſit often
Gal'lant, a. brave
Gal-lant', ſ. a gay man
Im port, ſ. things imported
Im-port', v. to bring from abroad
In'cenſe, ſ. a perfume
In-cenſe', v. to provoke
In'ſult, ſ. an affront
In-ſult', v. to affront
Preſ'ent, ſ. a gift
Pre-ſent' v. to give
Pro'duce, ſ. product, amount
Pro-duce', v. to generate
Proj'ect, ſ. a ſcheme
Pro-ject, v. to ſcheme
Geo. CAW, Printer,
Cite this Document
The Tyro's Guide to Wisdom and Wealth. 2023. In The Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing. Glasgow: University of Glasgow. Retrieved October 2023, from http://www.scottishcorpus.ac.uk/cmsw/document/?documentid=156.
"The Tyro's Guide to Wisdom and Wealth." The Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing. Glasgow: University of Glasgow, 2023. Web. October 2023. http://www.scottishcorpus.ac.uk/cmsw/document/?documentid=156.
The Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing, s.v., "The Tyro's Guide to Wisdom and Wealth," accessed October 2023, http://www.scottishcorpus.ac.uk/cmsw/document/?documentid=156.
If your style guide prefers a single bibliography entry for this resource, we recommend:
The Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing. 2023. Glasgow: University of Glasgow. http://www.scottishcorpus.ac.uk/cmsw/.
The Tyro's Guide to Wisdom and Wealth
|Title||The Tyro's Guide to Wisdom and Wealth|
|Year of publication||1808|
Author information: Barrie, Alexander
|Locations where resident||Edinburgh|